The second Innocenti Digest explores violence by and to children, using the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child as its framework. The focus is on interpersonal violence, both intrafamilial and extrafamilial. Sexual abuse and exploitation are included because, although they do not necessarily involve violence or coercion, the vast majority of evidence indicates their generally harmful physical and psychological effects. Children’s involvement in armed conflict is also discussed, as are the prevalence of violence involving children and the reasons why children become violent. In the ‘Discussion Site’, a strategy is outlined for combating violence involving children, based on the work of the UK Commission on Children and Violence. The ‘Links’ section gives contact and programme details of regional and international NGOs working in this area.