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Time to Teach

Teacher attendance and Time on Task in West and Central Africa – Summary
Time to Teach: Teacher attendance and Time on Task in West and Central Africa – Summary

 

Publication series:
Innocenti Research Report

No. of pages: 8

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(PDF, 1.48 MB)

Abstract

In sub-Saharan Africa, the loss of teaching hours due to teacher absenteeism corresponds to a waste of approximately 46 cents for every US dollar invested in education, an annual wastage of 1–3% of GDP. This brief summarizes the results of research in 11 countries in West and Central Africa under the Time to Teach study, a project in UNICEF that aims to provide critical insights into the factors that underpin different forms of primary school teacher absenteeism. It explains the frequency of teacher absenteeism in four forms—absence from school, lateness or early departure, absence from the classroom, and reduced time on task – and the reasons teachers give for their absence. But teachers are also motivated by factors such as training, availability of teaching and learning resources, and other non-system factors. More details are available in the country reports.   

  

 

Available in:
English

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More in thematic series: Time to Teach

Time to Teach: L’assiduité des enseignants et le temps consacré à l’enseignement en Afrique de l’Ouest et du Centre
Publication Publication

Time to Teach: L’assiduité des enseignants et le temps consacré à l’enseignement en Afrique de l’Ouest et du Centre

En Afrique subsaharienne, la perte d'heures d'enseignement due à l'absentéisme des enseignants correspond à un gaspillage d'environ 46 centimes pour chaque euro investi dans l'éducation, soit un gaspillage annuel de 1 à 3 % du PIB. Cette note résume les résultats de recherches menées dans 11 pays d'Afrique de l'Ouest et du Centre dans le cadre de l'étude Time to Teach, un projet de l'UNICEF qui étudie les raisons des différentes formes d'absentéisme des enseignants du primaire. Il analyse la fréquence de l'absentéisme des enseignants sous quatre formes – absence de l'école, retard ou départ prématuré, absence de la classe et temps d´enseignement en classe réduit – et les raisons invoquées par les enseignants pour leur absence. Mais les enseignants sont également motivés par des facteurs tels que la formation, la disponibilité des ressources d'apprentissage et d'autres facteurs positifs. Plus de détails sont disponibles dans les rapports pays.
Time to Teach: L’assiduité des enseignants et le temps consacré à l’enseignement dans les écoles primaires en Niger
Publication Publication

Time to Teach: L’assiduité des enseignants et le temps consacré à l’enseignement dans les écoles primaires en Niger

L’absentéisme des enseignants représente l’un des principaux défis pour parvenir à l’apprentissage universel dans de nombreux pays en développement, où les taux d’absence des enseignants varient de 3% à 27%. Une fois dans la salle de classe, les enseignants ne consacrent que 77% de leur temps prévu aux tâches d’enseignement. Dans l’environnement post COVID-19, il y a inquiétude que l’ampleur des répercussions sociales et économiques de la pandémie n’aggrave encore ces chiffres. Bien que le défi de l’absentéisme soit reconnu par les acteurs locaux de l’éducation, les études sur les facteurs, les politiques et les pratiques qui influencent l’assiduité des enseignants au Niger restent rares. L’étude Time to Teach (TTT) cherche à combler ce manque de connaissances.
Time to Teach: Teacher attendance and time on task in primary schools in The Gambia
Publication Publication

Time to Teach: Teacher attendance and time on task in primary schools in The Gambia

The international standards for teaching time in a year are 880 hours. In The Gambia, dedicated teaching time in a year is 734 hours. This reduced time is exacerbated by teacher absenteeism that varies across the different regions in the country from 12 to 30%, and is a barrier to achieving the required learning outcomes. The COVID-19 pandemic is compounding an already compromised learning and teaching environment in The Gambia. This Time to Teach study looks at four dimensions of teacher attendance: being in school; being punctual (i.e., not arriving late/leaving early); being in the classroom (while in school); and spending sufficient time on task (while in the classroom). It also identifies factors associated with teacher absenteeism at five different levels of the education system: national, subnational, community, school, and teacher. This report provides recommendations that may help strengthen the ministry’s efforts to improve teachers’ time on task in The Gambia. .
Time to Teach: Teacher attendance and time on task in primary schools in Guinea-Bissau
Publication Publication

Time to Teach: Teacher attendance and time on task in primary schools in Guinea-Bissau

Teacher absenteeism is one of the most troubling obstacles on the path toward universal access to learning opportunities at school. Over the past decades, studies have found that teacher absenteeism is particularly prevalent in certain parts of Africa. While Guinea-Bissau has not administered or taken part in regional or international efforts to systematically monitor and assess the rates of teacher absenteeism, the issue is noted in the 2017–2025 Education Sector Plan, which includes an aim to strengthen controls on teacher absenteeism. This Time to Teach study seeks to fill this important knowledge gap and support the Ministry of National Education and Higher Education in its efforts to strengthen the teachers’ role in school to increase their time on task. This study outlines the various forms of primary school teacher absenteeism (e.g., absence from school, classroom, teaching, etc.), explores teacher absenteeism from a systemic perspective and identifies factors at different levels of the education system that affect teacher attendance and time on task. It also identifies gaps in teacher policy and policy implementation linked to identified determinants of absenteeism and barriers to higher teacher attendance rates, and identifies promising practices and actionable policy recommendations on increasing teachers’ time on task.