Logo UNICEF Innocenti
Office of Research-Innocenti
menu icon

Child Poverty and Changes in Child Poverty in Rich Countries since 1990

Child Poverty and Changes in Child Poverty in Rich Countries since 1990

Author(s)

Miles Corak; Wen-Hao Chen

 

Publication date: 2005-02

Publication series:
Innocenti Working Papers

Download the report

(PDF, 0.00 MB)

Abstract

This paper documents levels and changes in child poverty rates in 12 OECD countries using data from the Luxembourg Income Study project, and focusing upon an analysis of the reasons for changes over the 1990s. The objective is to uncover the relative role of income transfers from the state in determining the magnitude and direction of change in child poverty rates, holding other demographic and labour market factors constant. As such the paper offers a cross-country overview of child poverty, changes in child poverty and the impact of public policy in North America and Europe. The paper offers a set of country specific results, and also attempts to draw general lessons. First, family and demographic forces play only a limited role in determining changes in child poverty rates. These forces change only gradually and are limited in their ability to cushion children from detrimental shocks originating in the labour market or in the government sector, which are the sources of the major forces determining the direction of change in child poverty. Second, in countries facing severe economic crises it does not appear that the amount of social transfers available were increased in a way to cushion children from these changes and put a backstop on their risk of low income. Third, there is no single road to lower child poverty rates. Changes in income transfers need to be thought through in conjunction with the nature of labour markets.
Available in:
English

More in this series: Innocenti Working Papers

Child-related Policies in the First Year of the COVID-19 Pandemic in 40 Countries
Publication

Child-related Policies in the First Year of the COVID-19 Pandemic in 40 Countries

Child-related Policies in the First Year of the COVID-19 Pandemic in 40 Countries uses evidence to present a broad-ranging analysis of the child-related policies and activities undertaken by the 40 European Union (EU) and Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries. This working paper focuses on six policy fields: education, early childhood education and care (ECEC), parental leave, income support, food support and health-related provision. It concludes that: Child and family policy was active during the COVID-19 pandemic Developments tended to focus on protecting adults from risks rather than children. Child-related measures took time to evolve and were, as a result, reactive in manner There was a wide variety of measures adopted across countries. This working paper was partially funded by the University of Oxford and UNICEF Innocenti – Global Office of Research and Foresight.
Mental Health in Displaced Child and Youth Populations: A Developmental and Family Systems Lens
Publication

Mental Health in Displaced Child and Youth Populations: A Developmental and Family Systems Lens

Mental Health in Displaced Child and Youth Populations: A Developmental and Family Systems Lens addresses the mental health of children who are displaced due to crises. Children who are displaced experience an array of adverse situations prior to, during and after their displacement that impact their well-being, health, adjustment and developmental trajectories. However, research remains limited with respect to understanding the impact of displacement on mental health and addressing the roles of children’s ecological contexts (in particular the family). In this working paper, the authors summarize the knowledge base of mental health in displaced populations from peer-reviewed journal articles with a focus on the last 10 years and using meta-analyses of mental health research. Based on this evidence (as well as gaps and limitations), we present a framework and recommendations for guiding future research.
Cross-Sectoral Learning in Implementation Research: Harnessing the potential to accelerate results for children
Publication

Cross-Sectoral Learning in Implementation Research: Harnessing the potential to accelerate results for children

By illuminating why and how interventions work in real world settings, Implementation Research (IR) is a powerful tool for increasing the likelihood that evidence-based interventions, programmes and policies are successfully implemented. The insights that IR generates help bridge the 'know-do gap' – the gap between what we know works and what actually happens on the ground when we try to put a policy or intervention into place. IR is a means for increasing the likelihood of successful outcomes, reducing the risk of wastage and failure and accelerating programme and system improvements to reduce inequities and achieve desired results. This paper, prepared by the Centre for Evidence and Implementation in collaboration with UNICEF, aims to promote a shared understanding of IR and its relevance to UNICEF's work.
The Impact of Interventions Targeting Caregivers, Health Workers and the Community to Alter Vaccine Behaviours and Childhood Vaccination Uptake: A Rapid evidence assessment protocol
Publication

The Impact of Interventions Targeting Caregivers, Health Workers and the Community to Alter Vaccine Behaviours and Childhood Vaccination Uptake: A Rapid evidence assessment protocol

Vaccination is one of the most effective measures for preventing illness, disability and death. In Europe and Central Asia, routine immunization rates vary between countries and over time. Behavioural determinants of vaccine hesitancy in the region include diminished trust among caregivers and health professionals; knowledge and awareness of vaccination; perceptions of risk; and health professionals’ skills, knowledge and attitudes. This rapid evidence assessment aims to summarize the impact of interventions targeting caregivers, healthcare workers and the community to improve intention and motivation to vaccinate and vaccination rates of children under 5 years old. The evidence will inform policy and programmatic recommendations.