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UNICEF Innocenti's complete catalogue of research and reports
Reimagining Migration Responses: Learning from children and young people who move in the Horn of Africa
SPOTLIGHT

Reimagining Migration Responses: Learning from children and young people who move in the Horn of Africa

The number of international migrants under 18 is rising, accelerated by complex and fast-evolving economic, demographic, security and environmental drivers. Based on interviews carried out with 1,290 migrant children and young people in Ethiopia, Somalia and Sudan, this report helps address the evidence gap on children and young people migrating in the Horn of Africa by providing a better understanding of their protective environments; their access to services and resources; and their perceptions of safety, well-being and trust in authorities and other providers. It concludes by offering policy and programme recommendations to rethink child protection approaches for migrants in the region.
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COVID-19: Missing More Than a Classroom. The impact of school closures on children’s nutrition
Blog Blog

COVID-19: Missing More Than a Classroom. The impact of school closures on children’s nutrition

In 2019, 135 million people in 55 countries were in food crises or worse, and 2 billion people did not have regular access to safe, nutritious and sufficient food. COVID-19 has exacerbated these hardships and may result in an additional 121 million people facing acute food insecurity by the end of 2020. Further, since the beginning of the pandemic, an estimated 1.6 billion learners in 199 countries worldwide were affected by school closures, with nearly 370 million children not receiving a school meal in 150 countries. The paper presents the evidence on the potential negative short-term and long-term effects of school meal scheme disruption during Covid-19 globally. It shows how vulnerable the children participating in these schemes are, how coping and mitigation measures are often only short-term solutions, and how prioritizing school re-opening is critical. For instance, it highlights how girls are at greater risk of not being in school or of being taken out of school early, which may lead to poor nutrition and health for themselves and their children. However, well-designed school feeding programmes have been shown to enable catch-up from early growth failure and other negative shocks. As such, once schools re-open, school meal schemes can help address the deprivation that children have experienced during the closures and provide an incentive for parents to send and keep their children, especially girls, in school.
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Promoting the Rights of Children with Disabilities (Russian version)
Promoting the Rights of Children with Disabilities (Russian version)
Published: 2008 Innocenti Digest
This Innocenti Digest examines the situation of approximately 200 million children with disabilities around the world and identifies ways to support the realization of their rights. Children with disabilities constantly face barriers to the enjoyment of their rights and inclusion in society. But the tide is changing, as many countries have begun to reform their laws and structures in the past two decades to promote the participation of children with disabilities as full members of society. The Digest promotes such participation, and discusses all aspects of their development, including access to education, health services and rehabilitation, social and legal assistance, play and cultural activities, vocational and life-skills training. It focuses on the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities which, building on the provisions of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, opens a new era in securing the rights of children with disabilities.
Promoting the Rights of Children with Disabilities
Promoting the Rights of Children with Disabilities
Published: 2007 Innocenti Digest
This Innocenti Digest on 'Promoting the Rights of Children with Disabilities' examines the situation of approximately 200 million children with disabilities around the world and identifies ways to support the realization of their rights. Children with disabilities constantly face barriers to the enjoyment of their rights and inclusion in society. But the tide is changing, as many countries have begun to reform their laws and structures in the past two decades to promote the participation of children with disabilities as full members of society. The Digest promotes such participation, and discusses all aspects of their development, including access to education, health services and rehabilitation, social and legal assistance, play and cultural activities, vocational and life-skills training. It focuses on the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities which, building on the provisions of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, opens a new era in securing the rights of children with disabilities.
Pobreza y exclusión entre niños urbanos
Pobreza y exclusión entre niños urbanos
Published: 2005 Innocenti Digest
Las ciudades del mundo a menudo son consideradas como centros privilegiados y de riqueza pero también acogen a cientos de millones de niños para quienes la pobreza y la exclusión son una realidad cotidiana. Algunos de estos niños viven en la calle; muchos más viven en casas peligrosas e insana que a veces carecen de las necesidades más básicas, como el agua potable y el saneamiento. Estos niños urbanos raras veces tienen acceso a servicios adecuados como alfabetización o espacios seguros para jugar. El imperativo de la supervivencia económica puede suponer no sólo que los padres sean incapaces de dedicar tiempo suficiente para el cuidado de los niños, sino que también los niños se vean obligados a tabajar, a menudo en condiciones peligrosas. Esto no debería ser así: este Digest examina el potencial del buen gobierno urbano fundado en los principios de uno derechos humanos que promuevan un cambio positivo para y con la infancia.
Changing a Harmful Social Convention: Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting
Changing a Harmful Social Convention: Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting
Published: 2005 Innocenti Digest
Every year, three million girls and women are subjected to genital mutilation/cutting, a dangerous and potentially life-threatening procedure that causes unspeakable pain and suffering. Not only is it practiced among communities in Africa and the Middle East, but also in immigrant communities throughout the world. Moreover, recent data reveal that it occurs on a much larger scale than previously thought. It continues to be one of the most persistent, pervasive and silently endured human rights violations. This Innocenti Digest examines the prevalence of FGM/C and its social dynamics. It provides an explanation as to why the practice persists and of the elements necessary for its abandonment. It also takes stock of progress to date, identifies what works and what does not, and provides direction regarding the most successful strategies to promote the abandonment of FGM/C. Combining concrete field experience with tested academic theory, the Digest provides a practical tool to bring about positive change for girls and women.
Changer une convention sociale nefaste: la pratique de l'excision/mutilation genitale feminine
Changer une convention sociale nefaste: la pratique de l'excision/mutilation genitale feminine
Published: 2005 Innocenti Digest
La pratique de l’excision/mutilation génitale féminine (E/MGF) viole chaque année les droits humains d’environ trois millions de filles et de femmes rien qu’en Afrique et au Moyen-Orient. De plus, du fait des migrations croissantes, le problème est apparu de plus en plus au-delà des pays où l’E/MGF fait partie de la tradition. Malgré les efforts déployés au cours des dernières décennies pour lutter de façon concertée contre la pratique, les communautés sont réticentes à l’abandonner – avec quelques exceptions significatives. Ce Digest Innocenti répond à la pressante nécessité d’évaluer les progrès accomplis, de déterminer les mesures les plus efficaces, et de fournir des informations sur les meilleures stratégies pour mettre fin à l’E/MGF. Alliant les connaissances tirées de l’expérience de terrain à des théories scientifiques éprouvées, le Digest constitue un instrument pratique pour changer de façon positive la vie des filles et des femmes.
Cambiare una convenzione sociale dannosa: la pratica della escissione/mutilazione genitale femminile
Cambiare una convenzione sociale dannosa: la pratica della escissione/mutilazione genitale femminile
Published: 2005 Innocenti Digest
Si stima che ogni anno solamente in Africa e in Medio Oriente, la pratica della escissione / mutilazione genitale femminile (E/MGF) violi i diritti umani di tre milioni di ragazze e di donne. Negli ultimi anni, l'aumento delle migrazioni ha reso la E/MGF un problema di crescenti dimensioni anche al di fuori dei confini dei paesi in cui è tradizionalmente praticata. Nonostante la coordinata opera di mobilitazione degli ultimi decenni, le comunità si sono mostrate riluttanti nell’abbandonare questa usanza tradizionale, con alcune significative eccezioni. Questo Innocenti Digest risponde alla pressante esigenza di fare un bilancio dei progressi realizzati fino ad oggi, identificare le soluzioni riuscite e quelle che non funzionano, e fornire indicazioni sulle migliori strategie per l’abbandono della E/MGF. Integrando concrete esperienze sul terreno con sperimentate teorie accademiche, il Digest si propone come strumento pratico a sostegno di un cambiamento positivo per le bambine e le donne.
Changing a Harmful Social Convention: Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (Arabic version)
Changing a Harmful Social Convention: Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (Arabic version)
Published: 2005 Innocenti Digest
Every year, three million girls and women are subjected to genital mutilation/cutting, a dangerous and potentially life-threatening procedure that causes unspeakable pain and suffering. Not only is it practiced among communities in Africa and the Middle East, but also in immigrant communities throughout the world. Moreover, recent data reveal that it occurs on a much larger scale than previously thought. It continues to be one of the most persistent, pervasive and silently endured human rights violations. This Innocenti Digest examines the prevalence of FGM/C and its social dynamics. It provides an explanation as to why the practice persists and of the elements necessary for its abandonment. It also takes stock of progress to date, identifies what works and what does not, and provides direction regarding the most successful strategies to promote the abandonment of FGM/C. Combining concrete field experience with tested academic theory, the Digest provides a practical tool to bring about positive change for girls and women.
Cambiar una Convención Social Perjudicial: La Ablación o Mutilación Genital Femenina
Cambiar una Convención Social Perjudicial: La Ablación o Mutilación Genital Femenina
Published: 2005 Innocenti Digest
Sólo en África y Oriente Medio, la práctica de la ablación / mutilación genital femenina (A/MGF) viola los derechos humanos de unos tres millones de niñas y mujeres cada año. Mientras tanto, el aumento de la emigración ha hecho recer la preocupación acerca de la A/MGF más allá de los países en los que se practicaba tradicionalmente. A pesar el trabajo de promoción coordinado durante las últimas décadas, las comunidades se han mostrado renuentes a abandonar la práctica, con algunas excepciones importantes. Este Innocenti Digest aborda la necesidad apremiante de valuar los progresos realizados hasta la fecha, identificar qué funciona y qué no funciona, y encaminar el trabajo futuro eniendo en cuenta las estrategias más exitosas para abandonar la práctica de la A/MGF. Al combinar experiencias concretas en el terreno con la teoría académica testada, este Digest proporciona una herramienta práctica para provocar un cambio positivo para las niñas y las mujeres.
Ensuring the rights of indigenous children
Ensuring the rights of indigenous children

AUTHOR(S)
Michael Miller

Published: 2004 Innocenti Digest
Around the world, in rural and urban areas alike, indigenous chilldren frequently constitute one of the most disadvantaged groups, and their rights - including those to survival and development, to the highest standards of health, to education that respects their cultural identity, and to protection from abuse, violence and exploitation - are often compromised. At the same time, however, indigenous children possess very special resources: they are the custodians of a multitude of cultures, languages, beliefs and knowledge systems, each of which is a precious element of our collective heritage. As this Digest discusses, the most effective initiatives to promote the rights of indigenous children build upon these very elements. Such initiatives recognize the inherent strength of indigenous communities, families and children, respect their dignity and give them full voice in all matters that affect them.
Garantir les droits des enfants autochtones
Garantir les droits des enfants autochtones

AUTHOR(S)
Michael Miller

Published: 2004 Innocenti Digest
Dans le monde, que ce soit dans les zones urbaines ou rurale, les enfants autochtones constituent fréquentement l'un de groupes le plus défavorisés, et leurs droits - notamment à la survie et au développement, jusqu'au niveau le plus élevé de santé, à l'éducation qui respecte leur identité culturelle, et à la protection contre les mauvais traitements, la violence et l'exploitation - sont souvent bafoués. Parallèlement, toutefois, les enfants autochtones possèdent des resources très particulières : ils sont les gardiens d'une multitude de cultures, de langues, de croyances et de systèmes de connaissances, qui répresentent une partie précieuse de notre patrimoine collectif. Comme l'illustre le Digest, les initiatives les plus efficaces afin de promouvoir les droits des enfants atochtones se fondent justement sur ces éléments. Ces initiatives reconnaissent la force inhérente des communautés, des familles et des enfants autochtones, elles respectent leurs dignité et leur donnent pleinement la parole dans tous les domaines qui les concernent.
Asegurar los derechos de los niños indígenas
Asegurar los derechos de los niños indígenas

AUTHOR(S)
Michael Miller

Published: 2004 Innocenti Digest
En todo el mundo, tanto en las áreas rurales como en las urbanas, los niños indígenas a menudo constituyen uno de los grupos más desventajados y sus derechos (el derecho a la sobrevivencia y al desarrollo, al mejor nivel posible de salud, a una educación que respete su identidad cultural, y a la protección contra los abusos, la violencia y la exploitación) se ven frecuentemente comprometidos. Al mismo tiempo, sin embargo, los niños indígenas poseen recursos muy especiales: son los custodios de una multitud de culturas, idiomas, sistemas de valores y conocimientos, cada uno de los cuales es un precioso elemento de nuestro patrimonio colectivo. Como explica el presente Digest las inicitivas más eficaces para promover los derechos de los niños indígenas se basan precisamente en dichos elementos. Tales iniciativas reconocen la fuerza intrínseca de las comunidades, familias y niños indígenas, respetan su dignidad y les conceden la palabra en todas las cuestiones que los afectan.
Poverty and Exclusion among Urban Children - Arabic version
Poverty and Exclusion among Urban Children - Arabic version
Published: 2003 Innocenti Digest
The cities of the world are often regarded as hubs of wealth and privilege, but they are also home to hundreds of millions of children for whom poverty and exclusion are a daily reality. Some of these children live on the street; many more live in dangerous, insanitary housing which often lacks the most basic amenities, including clean water and satisfactory sanitation. These urban children rarely have access to adequate services, including schooling, or to safe areas for play and recreation. The imperative of economic survival can mean not only that parents are unable to dedicate sufficient time to childcare, but also that children themselves are forced to work, often in hazardous conditions. Yet all this need not be the case: this Digest examines the potential of good urban governance founded upon human rights principles to promote positive change for and with children. The key to eradicating urban poverty and exclusion lies in the development of child-friendly cities where children’s rights are made a priority in budgeting, planning and resource allocation and where children’s voices inform the democratic process.
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Learning at a Distance: Children’s remote learning experiences in Italy during the COVID-19 pandemic
Publication Publication

Learning at a Distance: Children’s remote learning experiences in Italy during the COVID-19 pandemic

Italy was the first country in Europe to implement a nationwide lockdown. Children and their families lived in nearly complete isolation for almost two months. Students missed 65 days of school compared to an average of 27 missed days among high-income countries worldwide. This prolonged break is of concern, as even short breaks in schooling can cause significant loss of learning for children and lead to educational inequalities over time. At least 3 million Italian students may not have been reached by remote learning due to a lack of internet connectivity or devices at home. This report explores children’s and parents’ experiences of remote learning during the lockdown in Italy, drawing on data collected from 11 European countries (and coordinated by the European Commission’s Joint Research Center). It explores how children's access and use of digital technologies changed during the pandemic; highlights how existing inequalities might undermine remote learning opportunities, even among those with internet access; and provides insights on how to support children’s remote learning in the future. *** L'Italia e’ stata il primo paese in Europa ad aver applicato la misura del lockdown su tutto il territorio. I bambini e le loro famiglie hanno vissuto in quasi completo isolamento per circa due mesi. Gli studenti hanno perduto 65 giorni di scuola rispetto ad una media di 27 negli altri paesi ad alto reddito del mondo. Questa interruzione prolungata rappresenta motivo di preoccupazione, in quanto persino interruzioni piu’ brevi nella didattica possono causare significative perdite nel livello di istruzione dei ragazzi e portare col tempo a diseguaglianze educative. Almeno 3 milioni di studenti in Italia non sono stati coinvolti nella didattica a distanza a causa d una mancanza di connessione ad internet o di dispositivi adeguati a casa. Questo rapporto analizza l’esperienza della didattica a distanza di ragazzi e genitori in Italia durante il lockdown, sulla base dei dati raccolti in 11 paesi europei (e coordinati dal Centro comune di ricerca della Commissione Europea). Studia il cambiamento nell’accesso e nell’uso delle tecnologie digitali dei bambini e ragazzi durante la pandemia; mette in evidenza come le diseguaglianze esistenti possano diminuire le opportunità offerte dalla didattica a distanza, anche tra coloro che hanno accesso ad internet; e fornisce approfondimenti su come sostenere la didattica a distanza di bambini e ragazzi in futuro.
Time to Teach: Teacher attendance and time on task in Eastern and Southern Africa
Publication Publication

Time to Teach: Teacher attendance and time on task in Eastern and Southern Africa

There is a learning crisis. Fifty-three per cent of children in low- and middle-income countries are in ‘learning poverty’, i.e. they cannot read and understand a simple text by the end of primary school age. In sub- Saharan Africa, the learning poverty rate is 87 per cent overall, and ranges from 40 per cent to as high as 99 per cent in the 21 countries with available data. Teachers attending lessons and spending quality time on task is a critical prerequisite to learning. However, in sub-Saharan Africa, teacher absenteeism ranges from 15 to 45 per cent. Teacher absenteeism and reduced time on task wastes valuable financial resources, short-changes students and is one of the most cumbersome obstacles on the path toward the education Sustainable Development Goal and to the related vision of the new UNICEF education strategy: Every Child Learns. Whilst the stark numbers are available to study, and despite teacher absenteeism being a foremost challenge for education systems in Africa, the evidence base on how policies and practices can influence teacher attendance remains scant. Time to Teach (TTT) is a research initiative that looks at primary school teacher attendance in eight countries and territories in the Eastern and Southern Africa (ESA) region: the Comoros; Kenya; Rwanda, Puntland, State of Somalia; South Sudan; the United Republic of Tanzania, mainland; the United Republic of Tanzania, Zanzibar; and Uganda. Its primary objective is to identify factors affecting the various forms of teacher attendance, which include being at school, being punctual, being in the classroom, and teaching when in the classroom, and use this evidence to inform the design and implementation of teacher policies.

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