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UNICEF Innocenti's complete catalogue of research and reports
Increasing Women’s Representation in School Leadership: A promising path towards improving learning
SPOTLIGHT

Increasing Women’s Representation in School Leadership: A promising path towards improving learning

Emerging evidence shows a positive association between women school leaders and student performance. Some studies suggest women school leaders are more likely than their male counterparts to adopt effective management practices that may contribute to improved outcomes. However, women remain largely underrepresented in school leadership positions, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. This brief presents emerging insights on the association between women school leaders and education outcomes and draws attention to women’s underrepresentation in school leadership roles. It highlights the need for further research on gender and school leadership to identify policies and practices that can be implemented to increase women’s representation and scale high-quality management practices adopted by women leaders to more schools to improve education outcomes for all children.
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Annual Report 2021
Publication

Annual Report 2021

The UNICEF Innocenti Annual Report 2021 highlights the key results achieved in research and evidence to inform policymaking and programming.
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Études de cas comparatives
Études de cas comparatives

AUTHOR(S)
Delwyn Goodrick

Published: 2016 Methodological Briefs
Les études de cas comparatives sont menées au fil du temps et comparent différentes situations dans un contexte donné et entre différents contextes. Elles peuvent être sélectionnées lorsqu’il n’est pas possible de mettre en place un modèle expérimental et/ou pour comprendre et expliquer la façon dont les caractéristiques d’un contexte influent sur la réussite d’un programme ou d’une politique.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 20 | Thematic area: Knowledge management | Tags: research methods
Estudios de caso comparativos
Estudios de caso comparativos

AUTHOR(S)
Delwyn Goodrick

Published: 2016 Methodological Briefs
Los estudios de caso comparativos se efectúan a lo largo del tiempo y hacen hincapié en la comparación en un contexto y entre ellos. Resultan convenientes cuando no es posible llevar a cabo un diseño experimental, o cuando hay una necesidad de comprender y explicar la influencia de las características del contexto en el éxito de las iniciativas del programa o política. Esta información es valiosa ya que permite adaptar las intervenciones con miras a obtener los resultados deseados.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 20 | Thematic area: Knowledge management | Tags: research methods
Élaboration et sélection d’indicateurs du bien-être des enfants
Élaboration et sélection d’indicateurs du bien-être des enfants

AUTHOR(S)
Howard White; Shagun Sabarwal

Published: 2016 Methodological Briefs
Les indicateurs envoient un signal aux décideurs en leur indiquant si, et dans quelle mesure, une variable importante a changé. Les indicateurs peuvent être utilisés à tous les niveaux du cadre de résultats, des intrants jusqu’à l’impact, et doivent être liés à la théorie du changement du programme/de la politique concerné(e). Les indicateurs jouent un rôle important pour toutes les activités de suivi et évaluation (S&E), notamment pour les évaluations d’impact.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 20 | Thematic area: Knowledge management | Tags: research methods
Desarrollo y selección de medidas del bienestar infantil
Desarrollo y selección de medidas del bienestar infantil

AUTHOR(S)
Howard White; Shagun Sabarwal

Published: 2016 Methodological Briefs
Los indicadores proporcionan una señal a los responsables de adoptar decisiones ya que indican si —y hasta qué punto— una variable de interés ha cambiado. Los indicadores pueden utilizarse en todos los niveles del marco de resultados, desde los insumos al impacto, y deben estar relacionados con la teoría del cambio del programa. Los indicadores desempeñan una función importante en todas las actividades de seguimiento y evaluación, incluida la evaluación de impacto.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 20 | Thematic area: Knowledge management | Tags: research methods
Entretiens
Entretiens

AUTHOR(S)
Bronwen McDonald; Patricia Rogers

Published: 2016 Methodological Briefs
La présente note passe en revue les principales questions à étudier pour planifier un entretien. Elle aborde la manière dont les données issues d’entretiens viennent compléter les informations déjà recueillies dans le cadre d’une évaluation d’impact ainsi que la question relative à la disponibilité des ressources. Cette note fournit également des conseils spécifiques pour réussir les entretiens avec des enfants, notamment concernant les questions d’ordre éthique que de telles entrevues soulèvent.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 20 | Thematic area: Knowledge management | Tags: research methods
Entrevistas
Entrevistas

AUTHOR(S)
Bronwen McDonald; Patricia Rogers

Published: 2016 Methodological Briefs
Esta síntesis describe las cuestiones clave que deben tenerse en cuenta en las evaluaciones de impacto, teniendo en cuenta el propósito de la evaluación, si los datos de la entrevista tienen como objetivo complementar otros datos para valorar el impacto, y la disponibilidad de recursos. La síntesis proporciona asesoramiento específico sobre cómo entrevistar correctamente a los niños, incluido cómo abordar las cuestiones éticas que atañen en particular a las entrevistas.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 20 | Thematic area: Knowledge management | Tags: research methods
Modélisation
Modélisation

AUTHOR(S)
Howard White; Shagun Sabarwal

Published: 2016 Methodological Briefs

Un modèle est une représentation verbale, graphique ou mathématique de relations sociales ou économiques. Les modèles fournissent un cadre simplifié en privilégiant les liens essentiels et en ignorant certains facteurs considérés comme moins importants. Les modèles mathématiques décrivent les relations sociales et économiques sous forme de notation algébrique. Les plus simples sont les modèles à équation unique.

Cite this publication | No. of pages: 20 | Thematic area: Knowledge management | Tags: research methods
Elaboración de modelos
Elaboración de modelos

AUTHOR(S)
Howard White; Shagun Sabarwal

Published: 2016 Methodological Briefs

Un modelo es una representación verbal, gráfica o matemática de las relaciones sociales o económicas. Los modelos proporcionan un marco simplificado ya que se centran en las relaciones de interés fundamentales y omiten los factores que se consideran más marginales. Los modelos matemáticos describen las relaciones sociales y económicas en una notación algebraica. Los modelos más simples son modelos con una sola ecuación. Por ejemplo, la función de producción de salud en la economía expresa un resultado directo en materia de salud, por ejemplo, la tasa de mortalidad infantil en función de los ingresos, la educación femenina, la inmunización, los aportes nutricionales, etcétera.

Cite this publication | No. of pages: 20 | Thematic area: Knowledge management | Tags: research methods
Overview: Strategies for Causal Attribution: Methodological Briefs - Impact Evaluation No. 6
Overview: Strategies for Causal Attribution: Methodological Briefs - Impact Evaluation No. 6

AUTHOR(S)
Patricia Rogers

Published: 2014 Methodological Briefs
One of the essential elements of an impact evaluation is that it not only measures or describes changes that have occurred but also seeks to understand the role of particular interventions (i.e., programmes or policies) in producing these changes. This process is known as causal attribution. In impact evaluation, there are three broad strategies for causal attribution: 1) estimating the counterfactual; 2) checking the consistency of evidence for the causal relationships made explicit in the theory of change; and 3) ruling out alternative explanations, through a logical, evidence-based process. The ‘best fit’ strategy for causal attribution depends on the evaluation context as well as what is being evaluated.
Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs): Methodological Briefs - Impact Evaluation No. 7
Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs): Methodological Briefs - Impact Evaluation No. 7

AUTHOR(S)
Howard White; Shagun Sabarwal; Thomas de Hoop

Published: 2014 Methodological Briefs
A randomized controlled trial (RCT) is an experimental form of impact evaluation in which the population receiving the programme or policy intervention is chosen at random from the eligible population, and a control group is also chosen at random from the same eligible population. It tests the extent to which specific, planned impacts are being achieved. The distinguishing feature of an RCT is the random assignment of units (e.g. people, schools, villages, etc.) to the intervention or control groups. One of its strengths is that it provides a very powerful response to questions of causality, helping evaluators and programme implementers to know that what is being achieved is as a result of the intervention and not anything else.
Quasi-Experimental Design and Methods: Methodological Briefs - Impact Evaluation No. 8
Quasi-Experimental Design and Methods: Methodological Briefs - Impact Evaluation No. 8

AUTHOR(S)
Howard White; Shagun Sabarwal

Published: 2014 Methodological Briefs
Quasi-experimental research designs, like experimental designs, test causal hypotheses. Quasi-experimental designs identify a comparison group that is as similar as possible to the intervention group in terms of baseline (pre-intervention) characteristics. The comparison group captures what would have been the outcomes if the programme/policy had not been implemented (i.e., the counterfactual). The key difference between an experimental and quasi-experimental design is that the latter lacks random assignment.
Comparative Case Studies: Methodological Briefs - Impact Evaluation No. 9
Comparative Case Studies: Methodological Briefs - Impact Evaluation No. 9

AUTHOR(S)
Delwyn Goodrick

Published: 2014 Methodological Briefs
Comparative case studies involve the analysis and synthesis of the similarities, differences and patterns across two or more cases that share a common focus or goal in a way that produces knowledge that is easier to generalize about causal questions – how and why particular programmes or policies work or fail to work. They may be selected as an appropriate impact evaluation design when it is not feasible to undertake an experimental design, and/or when there is a need to explain how the context influences the success of programme or policy initiatives. Comparative case studies usually utilize both qualitative and quantitative methods and are particularly useful for understanding how the context influences the success of an intervention and how better to tailor the intervention to the specific context to achieve the intended outcomes.
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JOURNAL ARTICLES BLOGS
Responsible Innovation in Technology for Children: Digital technology, play and child well-being
Publication

Responsible Innovation in Technology for Children: Digital technology, play and child well-being

Digital experiences can have significant negative impact on children, exposing them to risks or failing to nurture them adequately. Nevertheless, digital experiences also potentially yield enormous benefits for children, enabling them to learn, to create, to develop friendships, and to build worlds. While global efforts to deepen our understanding of the prevalence and impact of digital risks of harm are burgeoning – a development that is both welcome and necessary – less attention has been paid to understanding and optimizing the benefits that digital technology can provide in supporting children’s rights and their well-being. Benefits here refer not only to the absence of harm, but also to creating additional positive value. How should we recognize the opportunities and benefits of digital technology for children’s well-being? What is the relationship between the design of digital experiences – in particular, play-centred design – and the well-being of children? What guidance and measures can we use to strengthen the design of digital environments to promote positive outcomes for children? And how can we make sure that children’s insights and needs form the foundation of our work in this space? These questions matter for all those who design and promote digital experiences, to keep children safe and happy, and enable positive development and learning. These questions are particularly relevant as the world shifts its attention to emerging digital technologies and experiences, from artificial intelligence (AI) to the metaverse, and seeks to understand their impact on people and society. To begin to tackle these questions, UNICEF and the LEGO Group initiated the Responsible Innovation in Technology for Children (RITEC) project in partnership with the Young and Resilient Research Centre at Western Sydney University; the CREATE Lab at New York University; the Graduate Center, City University of New York; the University of Sheffield; the Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for the Digital Child; and the Joan Ganz Cooney Center. The research is funded by the LEGO Foundation. The partnership is an international, multi-stakeholder and cross-sectoral collaboration between organizations that believe the design and development of digital technology should support the rights and well-being of children as a primary objective – and that children should have a prominent voice in making this a reality. This project’s primary objective is to develop, with children from around the world, a framework that maps how the design of children’s digital experiences affects their well-being, and to provide guidance as to how informed design choices can promote positive well-being outcomes.
Resources to Support Marginalized Caregivers of Children with Disabilities: Guidelines for Implementation
Publication

Resources to Support Marginalized Caregivers of Children with Disabilities: Guidelines for Implementation

Support from caregivers is critical for children’s learning both at home and at school. However, the COVID-19 pandemic and disruption of education systems globally created additional expectations for parents to support their children’s learning at home. This particularly affected the most marginalized children as the crises exacerbated already existing inequalities in education. This document introduces the approach and purpose of a set of resources to support the marginalized caregivers of children with disabilities with inclusive education. It presents lessons learned from proof-of-concept pilots in Armenia and Uzbekistan, followed by step-by-step guidelines on how to adopt and adapt the resources for education ministries and others who want to implement them in their education system.
Reopening with Resilience: Lessons from Remote Learning during COVID-19: Europe and Central Asia
Publication

Reopening with Resilience: Lessons from Remote Learning during COVID-19: Europe and Central Asia

When schools started closing their doors due to COVID-19, countries in Europe and Central Asia quickly provided alternative learning solutions for children to continue learning. More than 90 per cent of countries offered digital solutions to ensure that education activities could continue. However, lack of access to digital devices and a reliable internet connection excluded a significant amount of already marginalized children and threatened to widen the existing learning disparities. This report builds on existing evidence highlighting key lessons learned during the pandemic to promote learning for all during school closure and provides actionable policy recommendations on how to bridge the digital divide and build resilient education systems in Europe and Central Asia.

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