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UNICEF Innocenti's complete catalogue of research and reports
Best of UNICEF Research 2021
SPOTLIGHT

Best of UNICEF Research 2021

Best of UNICEF Research showcases the most rigorous, innovative and impactful research produced by UNICEF offices worldwide. While evidence highlights emerging issues, it also informs decisions and provides policy and programme recommendations for governments and partners to improve children’s lives. This ninth edition brings together 11 powerful studies from around the world and across the five Strategic Goal Areas. How do South Asian youth feel about entering the world of work? What is the effect of climate-related hazards on access to healthcare? How has COVID-19 affected children and their families in the Republic of Moldova? With social and economic inequalities increasing and progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals lagging, rigorous research – answers to these questions – has never mattered more.
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COVID-19: Missing More Than a Classroom. The impact of school closures on children’s nutrition
Blog Blog

COVID-19: Missing More Than a Classroom. The impact of school closures on children’s nutrition

In 2019, 135 million people in 55 countries were in food crises or worse, and 2 billion people did not have regular access to safe, nutritious and sufficient food. COVID-19 has exacerbated these hardships and may result in an additional 121 million people facing acute food insecurity by the end of 2020. Further, since the beginning of the pandemic, an estimated 1.6 billion learners in 199 countries worldwide were affected by school closures, with nearly 370 million children not receiving a school meal in 150 countries. The paper presents the evidence on the potential negative short-term and long-term effects of school meal scheme disruption during Covid-19 globally. It shows how vulnerable the children participating in these schemes are, how coping and mitigation measures are often only short-term solutions, and how prioritizing school re-opening is critical. For instance, it highlights how girls are at greater risk of not being in school or of being taken out of school early, which may lead to poor nutrition and health for themselves and their children. However, well-designed school feeding programmes have been shown to enable catch-up from early growth failure and other negative shocks. As such, once schools re-open, school meal schemes can help address the deprivation that children have experienced during the closures and provide an incentive for parents to send and keep their children, especially girls, in school.
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A Human Rights Conceptual Framework for UNICEF
A Human Rights Conceptual Framework for UNICEF

AUTHOR(S)
Marta Santos-Pais

Published: 1999 Innocenti Essay
This latest 'Innocenti Essay' outlines the legal and moral stance behind UNICEF's emerging human rights ethic. It goes on to consider the implications of this thinking in terms of the organisation's perceived future role. The author attempts to end the debate between the traditional development thinkers and the rights advocates, arguing that 'development' is meaningless unless it is designed to ensure the realisation of human rights.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 20 | Thematic area: Rights of the Child | Tags: children's rights, convention on the rights of the child, human rights | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
Child Rights in Latin America: From irregular situation to full protection
Child Rights in Latin America: From irregular situation to full protection
Published: 1998 Innocenti Essay
The Convention on the Rights of the Child has now been ratified by 192 nations. Notwithstanding, securing the principles and necessary legal safeguards remains a difficult achievement. Laws and jurisprudence must be firmly linked to the national reality to avoid them being well-meant placebos. Are all children comprehensively protected and defended? Do the means for implementing these laws exist? Is monitoring adequate? These are on-going questions of concern for both UNICEF and the broader international children's rights community. Many of the themes raised in this essay also echo those examined in other ICDC series and studies; violence against children, juvenile offenders, street children, are all inter-related problems for which children have the right to expect effective and full legal protection.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 32 | Thematic area: Child Protection | Tags: child protection, children's rights, children's rights violation, implementation of the crc | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
Better Schools, Less Child Work. Child Work and Education in Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala and Peru
Better Schools, Less Child Work. Child Work and Education in Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala and Peru
Published: 1996 Innocenti Essay
On the basis of detailed statistical surveys conducted in five Latin American countries, this essay demonstrates that actual practice in the region contrasts strongly with legal norms for the minimum age at which children can be employed and the age of completion of compulsory education. As well as increasing our understanding of the complex relationships between children, work and education, the original studies also drew up measures and definitions that have subsequently been widely adopted in the region. The essay provides a review of the main findings and proposes policy guidelines on child work.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 30 | Thematic area: Child Work and Labour, Rights of the Child | Tags: child workers, compulsory education, minimum age, right to education | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
Child Labour and Basic Education in Latin America and the Caribbean
Child Labour and Basic Education in Latin America and the Caribbean
Published: 1994 Innocenti Essay
The high primary school enrolment rates in Latin America and the Caribbean mask poor performance in terms of the quality, relevance and cost-effectiveness of formal schooling in the region. What happens to the millions of children who repeat school years, underperform in their first years of schooling and eventually drop out? The vast majority are working children of one sort or another, but their work is likely to lead nowhere in terms of expanded opportunities or eventually to a decent standard of living for them and their future families.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 30 | Thematic area: Child Work and Labour | Tags: basic education, child workers, minimum age, right to education | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
El Trabajo Infantile y la Educación Básica en America Latina y el Caribe
El Trabajo Infantile y la Educación Básica en America Latina y el Caribe
Published: 1994 Innocenti Essay
The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child: Three essays on the challenge of implementation
The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child: Three essays on the challenge of implementation

AUTHOR(S)
James R. Himes

Published: 1993 Innocenti Essay
The Convention on the Rights of the Child has been variously hailed as ‘the cornerstone of a new moral ethos’ and a ‘milestone in the history of mankind’. But laws and treaties are as nothing without adequate practical follow-up. The real results will depend not upon the high-mindedness of the ideals themselves, but upon the action taken to achieve them. The ‘challenge of implementation’, is the subject of the three papers collected here. The CRC must not be dismissed as ‘another Utopia’ and it is argued that, with the right policy decisions, the convention’s initial momentum can be sustained.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 38 | Thematic area: Convention on the Rights of the Child | Tags: convention on the rights of the child, implementation of the crc | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
La participación de los niños: de la participación simbolica a la participación autentica
La participación de los niños: de la participación simbolica a la participación autentica

AUTHOR(S)
Roger A. Hart

Published: 1993 Innocenti Essay
Una nación es democratica en la medida en que sus ciudadanos participan, especialmente a nivel comunitario. La confianza y la competencia para participare deben adquirirse gradualmente con la práctica. Por esta razón debe haber oportunidades crecientes para que los niños participen en cualquier sistema que aspire a ser democrático y particularmente en aquellas naciones que ya creen ser democraticas. Con el creciente reconocimiento de los derechos de los niños estamos comenzando a ver también un mayor reconocimiento de las habilidades de los niños.
Children's Participation: From tokenism to citizenship
Children's Participation: From tokenism to citizenship

AUTHOR(S)
Roger A. Hart

Published: 1992 Innocenti Essay
A nation is democratic to the extent that its citizens are involved, particularly at the community level. The confidence and competence to be involved must be gradually acquired through practice. It is for this reason that there should be gradually increasing opportunities for children to participate in any aspiring democracy, and particularly in those nations already convinced that they are democratic. With the growth of children’s rights we are beginning to see an increasing recognition of children’s abilities to speak for themselves. Regrettably, while children’s and youths’ participation does occur in different degrees around the world, it is often exploitative or frivolous. This Essay is written for people who know that young people have something to say but who would like to reflect further on the process. It is also written for those people who have it in their power to assist children in having a voice, but who, unwittingly or not, trivialize their involvement.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 44 | Thematic area: Children's Participation | Tags: children's participation, children's rights, right to be heard | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
Children in Institutions in Central and Eastern Europe
Children in Institutions in Central and Eastern Europe
Published: 1991 Innocenti Essay
To help deal with the particular needs of children at a time of rapid political and economic change in central and eastern Europe, in 1990 the UNICEF Executive Board approved a special three-year effort of "transitional support". In response to specific requests for cooperation, UNICEF was authorized "to provide technical support to rethink policies for child survival, development and protection in the context of the new situations" and to support "data collection on the situation of children and women, analytical studies, technical workshops, information materials and other related activities".
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 32 | Thematic area: Countries in Transition | Tags: economic transition, institutionalized children | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
Child Advocacy in the United States: The work of the Children's Defense Fund
Child Advocacy in the United States: The work of the Children's Defense Fund

AUTHOR(S)
James D. Weill

Published: 1990 Innocenti Essay
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 24 | Thematic area: Rights of the Child | Tags: advocacy, children's rights | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
Working for the Rights of Children
Working for the Rights of Children
Published: 1990 Innocenti Essay
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 24 | Thematic area: Rights of the Child | Tags: children's rights, convention on the rights of the child, implementation of the crc | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
Agir pour les droits de l'enfant
Agir pour les droits de l'enfant
Published: 1990 Innocenti Essay
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 26 | Thematic area: Rights of the Child | Tags: children's rights, implementation of the crc | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
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Learning at a Distance: Children’s remote learning experiences in Italy during the COVID-19 pandemic
Publication Publication

Learning at a Distance: Children’s remote learning experiences in Italy during the COVID-19 pandemic

Italy was the first country in Europe to implement a nationwide lockdown. Children and their families lived in nearly complete isolation for almost two months. Students missed 65 days of school compared to an average of 27 missed days among high-income countries worldwide. This prolonged break is of concern, as even short breaks in schooling can cause significant loss of learning for children and lead to educational inequalities over time. At least 3 million Italian students may not have been reached by remote learning due to a lack of internet connectivity or devices at home. This report explores children’s and parents’ experiences of remote learning during the lockdown in Italy, drawing on data collected from 11 European countries (and coordinated by the European Commission’s Joint Research Center). It explores how children's access and use of digital technologies changed during the pandemic; highlights how existing inequalities might undermine remote learning opportunities, even among those with internet access; and provides insights on how to support children’s remote learning in the future. *** L'Italia e’ stata il primo paese in Europa ad aver applicato la misura del lockdown su tutto il territorio. I bambini e le loro famiglie hanno vissuto in quasi completo isolamento per circa due mesi. Gli studenti hanno perduto 65 giorni di scuola rispetto ad una media di 27 negli altri paesi ad alto reddito del mondo. Questa interruzione prolungata rappresenta motivo di preoccupazione, in quanto persino interruzioni piu’ brevi nella didattica possono causare significative perdite nel livello di istruzione dei ragazzi e portare col tempo a diseguaglianze educative. Almeno 3 milioni di studenti in Italia non sono stati coinvolti nella didattica a distanza a causa d una mancanza di connessione ad internet o di dispositivi adeguati a casa. Questo rapporto analizza l’esperienza della didattica a distanza di ragazzi e genitori in Italia durante il lockdown, sulla base dei dati raccolti in 11 paesi europei (e coordinati dal Centro comune di ricerca della Commissione Europea). Studia il cambiamento nell’accesso e nell’uso delle tecnologie digitali dei bambini e ragazzi durante la pandemia; mette in evidenza come le diseguaglianze esistenti possano diminuire le opportunità offerte dalla didattica a distanza, anche tra coloro che hanno accesso ad internet; e fornisce approfondimenti su come sostenere la didattica a distanza di bambini e ragazzi in futuro.
Vite a Colori: Esperienze, percezioni e opinioni di bambinə e ragazzə sulla pandemia di Covid-19 in Italia
Publication Publication

Vite a Colori: Esperienze, percezioni e opinioni di bambinə e ragazzə sulla pandemia di Covid-19 in Italia

Il rapporto Vite a Colori racconta le esperienze, percezioni ed opinioni di un gruppo di adolescenti sul primo anno di pandemia di Covid-19 in Italia cercando di comprendere le loro esperienze e punti di vista, attraverso le loro parole. La raccolta dati si è svolta tra febbraio e giugno 2021 con 114 partecipanti tra i 10 e i 19 anni, frequentanti le scuole superiori del primo e del secondo ciclo di 16 regioni italiane. Bambinɘ e ragazzɘ che si identificano come LGBTQI+, minori stranieri non accompagnati (MSNA) e adolescenti con background socioeconomico svantaggiato sono stati deliberatamente inclusi nel campione interessato dalla ricerca

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