Child Well-being in Japan: The high cost of economic success

Child Well-being in Japan: The high cost of economic success

AUTHOR(S)
Martha N. Ozawa; Shigemi Kono

This Innocenti Occasional Paper examines the counter-intuitive relationship between Japan’s continuing economic achievement and the good of its child population. Although child physical health and school attainment statistics have never looked better, changes in the structure of the family are having a worrying impact upon the collective psychological well-being of young Japanese. Adults and the elderly are harvesting the greater share of the benefits of economic success; the country’s children are missing out.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 56 | Thematic area: Industrialized Countries | Tags: child welfare, family structure, health statistics, school attendance | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
Death in Transition: The rise in the death rate in Russia since 1992

Death in Transition: The rise in the death rate in Russia since 1992

AUTHOR(S)
Kitty Stewart; Jacob Nell

From January 1992 to the first half of 1994 the death rate in Russia rose by over 30 per cent, a rise of a magnitude never before seen in an industrialized country without a war or famine. In 1993 alone the life expectancy of a Russian man fell from 62 to 59. This paper examines the nature and causes of this unprecedented and disastrous increase.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 72 | Thematic area: Countries in Transition | Tags: demography, economic transition, mortality rate | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
Income Distribution, Poverty and Welfare in Transitional Economies: A comparison between Eastern Europe and China

Income Distribution, Poverty and Welfare in Transitional Economies: A comparison between Eastern Europe and China

AUTHOR(S)
Giovanni Andrea Cornia

Cite this publication | No. of pages: 48 | Thematic area: Countries in Transition | Tags: economic transition, income distribution, poverty, welfare economics | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
Family Support Policies in Transitional Economies: Challenges and constraints

Family Support Policies in Transitional Economies: Challenges and constraints

AUTHOR(S)
Gaspar Fajth

The propagandists of ancien regime Russia and Eastern Europe portrayed state family support policies as models of care and efficiency. The collapse of communism revealed that this was a much distorted picture of the reality. But the positive work of these schemes should not be forgotten. Help available from the state did indeed do much to offset the financial strain that child-rearing inevitably imposes upon poorer families. This paper looks at how such policies have fared in nine of the countries that have undergone the transition to the free-market economy. It asks whether such positives as did exist prior to 1989 have survived to benefit the children of today. It concludes with a discussion of what can be done to improve matters for families of the region, arguing for an approach that would utilise the already existent infrastructure of care that remains as a relic of the old regimes.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 72 | Thematic area: Countries in Transition | Tags: child poverty, economic transition, family policy, family welfare | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
Tax Reforms and Equity in Asia: The experience of the 1980's

Tax Reforms and Equity in Asia: The experience of the 1980's

AUTHOR(S)
Andrea Manuelli

The 1980s witnessed a number of important shifts in fiscal policy in both the developed and the developing world. These reforms were carried out in response to such growing pressures as the debt crisis, which were hampering the basic operation of taxation and its overall performance in terms of revenue, fairness and efficiency. This paper examines the Asian experience of this process of change - identifying key reforms and assessing their effectiveness. Particular emphasis is placed throughout upon the equity implications of the various tax systems.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 60 | Thematic area: Economic Development | Tags: economic aid, economic reform, tax reforms | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence

Réformes fiscales, génération de ressources et équit en Afrique subsaharienne durant les années 1980

AUTHOR(S)
Kiari Liman-Tinguiri

Cite this publication | No. of pages: 56 | Thematic area: Economic Development | Tags: economic policy, fiscal policy, social inequality | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
Macroeconomic Policy, Poverty Alleviation and Long-term Development: Latin America in the 1990s

Macroeconomic Policy, Poverty Alleviation and Long-term Development: Latin America in the 1990s

AUTHOR(S)
Giovanni Andrea Cornia

This Innocenti Occasional Paper examines the social and economic dynamics of poverty in Latin America from the late 1970s onward. The author’s analysis shows clearly the forces at work behind the observed changes in the nature and extent of poverty in the region. He goes on to outline a number of economic and programmatic policy proposals that could help halt the march of mass pauperisation.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 60 | Thematic area: Economic Development | Tags: economic development, poverty, poverty reduction | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
Tax Reforms and Equity in Latin America: A review of the 1980s and proposals for the 1990s

Tax Reforms and Equity in Latin America: A review of the 1980s and proposals for the 1990s

AUTHOR(S)
Oscar Cetrángolo; Ricardo Carciofi

This paper focuses on the equity aspects of tax systems in Latin America. Aftrer reviewing quantative characteristics regarding the level and composition of tax structures, the paper analyses recent country experiences of tax reforms and attempts to show how the design of instruments has coped with distributional issues in taxation. Policy proposals to promote a more progressive distribution of the tax burden are presented, paying due notice to institutional and administrative constraints that characterise the region's tax systems and avoiding conflicts with other functions of the tax systems - revenue generation and economic efficiency.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 60 | Thematic area: Economic Development | Tags: economic aid, economic reform, tax reforms | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
Education and the Market: Which parts of the neo-liberal solution are correct?

Education and the Market: Which parts of the neo-liberal solution are correct?

AUTHOR(S)
Christopher Colclough

Cite this publication | No. of pages: 46 | Thematic area: Economic Development | Tags: economic development, education, liberalism, market economy | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
Policy and Capital Market Constraints to the African Green Revolution: A study of maize and sorghum yields in Kenya, Malawi and Zimbabwe

Policy and Capital Market Constraints to the African Green Revolution: A study of maize and sorghum yields in Kenya, Malawi and Zimbabwe

AUTHOR(S)
Paul Mosley

Cite this publication | No. of pages: 46 | Thematic area: Economic Development | Tags: agricultural development | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
Two Errors of Targeting

Two Errors of Targeting

AUTHOR(S)
Giovanni Andrea Cornia; Frances Stewart

This paper is the product of the authors’ detailed study of food intervention programmes in nine countries. It identifies the imperfections common to all such schemes, finding that most can be brought under two headings - the ‘two errors’ of the title. These mistakes involve excess coverage - food aid is misdirected and reaches a non-priority population - and are characterised by a failure in the prime objective of the intervention. Having made the diagnosis, the authors go on to discuss possible remedies, highlighting areas in which improvements might be made to the structure of food initiatives. It is hoped that this document will be of value to all those working to ensure that food aid gets to the people who need it most.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 56 | Thematic area: Economic Development | Tags: economic aid, economic planning, food supply | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
Decentralization and Community Participation for Improving Access to Basic Services: An empirical approach

Decentralization and Community Participation for Improving Access to Basic Services: An empirical approach

AUTHOR(S)
Housainou Taal

Cite this publication | No. of pages: 52 | Thematic area: National Development Programmes | Tags: access to basic services, basic services, community participation, decentralization | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
25 - 36 of 73