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UNICEF Innocenti's complete catalogue of research and reports
Reimagining Migration Responses: Learning from children and young people who move in the Horn of Africa
SPOTLIGHT

Reimagining Migration Responses: Learning from children and young people who move in the Horn of Africa

The number of international migrants under 18 is rising, accelerated by complex and fast-evolving economic, demographic, security and environmental drivers. Based on interviews carried out with 1,290 migrant children and young people in Ethiopia, Somalia and Sudan, this report helps address the evidence gap on children and young people migrating in the Horn of Africa by providing a better understanding of their protective environments; their access to services and resources; and their perceptions of safety, well-being and trust in authorities and other providers. It concludes by offering policy and programme recommendations to rethink child protection approaches for migrants in the region.
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COVID-19: Missing More Than a Classroom. The impact of school closures on children’s nutrition
Blog Blog

COVID-19: Missing More Than a Classroom. The impact of school closures on children’s nutrition

In 2019, 135 million people in 55 countries were in food crises or worse, and 2 billion people did not have regular access to safe, nutritious and sufficient food. COVID-19 has exacerbated these hardships and may result in an additional 121 million people facing acute food insecurity by the end of 2020. Further, since the beginning of the pandemic, an estimated 1.6 billion learners in 199 countries worldwide were affected by school closures, with nearly 370 million children not receiving a school meal in 150 countries. The paper presents the evidence on the potential negative short-term and long-term effects of school meal scheme disruption during Covid-19 globally. It shows how vulnerable the children participating in these schemes are, how coping and mitigation measures are often only short-term solutions, and how prioritizing school re-opening is critical. For instance, it highlights how girls are at greater risk of not being in school or of being taken out of school early, which may lead to poor nutrition and health for themselves and their children. However, well-designed school feeding programmes have been shown to enable catch-up from early growth failure and other negative shocks. As such, once schools re-open, school meal schemes can help address the deprivation that children have experienced during the closures and provide an incentive for parents to send and keep their children, especially girls, in school.
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Declaration Innocenti 2005 sur l’alimentation du nourrisson et du jeune enfant
Declaration Innocenti 2005 sur l’alimentation du nourrisson et du jeune enfant
Published: 2007 Innocenti Publications
Depuis 15 ans qu’a été adoptée la première Déclaration Innocenti, en 1990, l’alimentation des nourrissons et des jeunes enfants a fait des progrès remarquables dans le monde entier. Cependant, des pratiques alimentaires inappropriées - allaitement insuffisant ou inexistant et alimentation complémentaire inadéquate - restent dans le monde ce qui menace le plus la santé et la survie de l’enfant. Une amélioration de la pratique de l’allaitement maternel pourrait à elle seule sauver chaque jour les vies de plus de 3500 enfants, soit plus que toute autre action préventive. Conformément aux principes communément admis des droits de la personne humaine, en particulier ceux énoncés dans la Convention relative aux droits de l’enfant, notre but est de créer un environnement permettant aux mères, aux familles et aux autres personnes qui s’occupent des enfants de choisir en pleine connaissance de cause une alimentation optimale, qui est définie comme un allaitement maternel exclusif jusqu’à l’âge de six mois, suivi par l’introduction d’une alimentation complémentaire appropriée en parallèle avec la continuation de l’allaitement au sein jusqu’à l’âge de deux ans ou audelà.
Declaración de Innocenti del 2005 sobre la alimentación de lactantes y niños pequeños
Declaración de Innocenti del 2005 sobre la alimentación de lactantes y niños pequeños
Published: 2007 Innocenti Publications
En los 15 años transcurridos desde la adopción de la versión original de la Declaración de Innocenti, en 1990, se ha logrado un notable progreso en lo que a mejorar las prácticas mundiales de alimentación de lactantes y niños pequeños se refiere. No obstante ello, las prácticas de alimentación inapropiadas, es decir la alimentación subóptima o la ausencia de lactancia materna y la alimentación complementaria inadecuada, continúan representando la principal amenaza para la salud y la supervivencia infantil en todo el mundo. Una mejor práctica de la lactancia materna por si sola ayudaría a salvar las vidas de más de 3.500 niños y niñas por día, más que cualquier otra intervención preventiva. Guiados por principios aceptados de derechos humanos, en especial aquellos plasmados en la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño, nuestra visión es crear un entorno que permita a las madres, sus familias y otras personas a cargo del cuidado de los niños realizar decisiones informadas acerca de una alimentación óptima, definida como la lactancia materna exclusiva durante seis meses con la posterior introducción de la alimentación complementaria apropiada y la lactancia materna continuada hasta los dos años de edad o más.
Innocenti Declaration 2005 on Infant and Young Child Feeding (Arabic version)
Innocenti Declaration 2005 on Infant and Young Child Feeding (Arabic version)
Published: 2007 Innocenti Publications
In 1990 the Innocenti Declaration on the Protection, Promotion and Support of Breastfeeding set an international agenda with ambitious targets for action. In November 2005 Florence was again the gathering place to celebrate the 15th Anniversary of the Innocenti Declaration. The Anniversary was observed to: assess progress made in the protection, promotion and support of breastfeeding since 1990; call upon governments, civil society and donors to increase efforts to implement the targets of the Innocenti Declaration and the additional targets established in 2002 within the Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding; raise awareness of every child’s right to adequate nutrition, and the corresponding obligations on all sectors of society to ensure that this right is realized. The Innocenti Declaration on Infant and Young Child Feeding captures the renewed commitments made at this historic anniversary meeting and records the additional five operational targets that were identified as part of the ongoing global strategy on Infant and Young Child feeding. The Declaration was endorsed by the Standing Committee on Nutrition on 17 March, 2006 and the Call for Action made in the declaration was welcomed by the World Health Assembly on 27 May, 2006.
Innocenti Declaration 2005 on Infant and Young Child Feeding (Russian version)
Innocenti Declaration 2005 on Infant and Young Child Feeding (Russian version)
Published: 2007 Innocenti Publications
За 15 лет, прошедших с момента принятия в 1990 г. Первоначальной Инночентийской декларации, в улучшении питания детей грудного и раннего возраста во всем мире были достигнуты ощутимые успехи. Вместе с тем, неправильная практика вскармливания, не соответствующая оптимальной, или отсутствие грудного вскармливания и неадекватное дополнительное питание остаются самыми значительными угрозами здоровью и выживанию детей во всем мире. Одно лишь улучшение грудного вскармливания может спасти жизни более чем 3500 детей ежедневно, что превышает показатели любых других профилактических мер.
Innocenti Declaration 2005 on Infant and Young Child Feeding (Chinese version)
Innocenti Declaration 2005 on Infant and Young Child Feeding (Chinese version)
Published: 2007 Innocenti Publications
In 1990 the Innocenti Declaration on the Protection, Promotion and Support of Breastfeeding set an international agenda with ambitious targets for action. In November 2005 Florence was again the gathering place to celebrate the 15th Anniversary of the Innocenti Declaration. The Anniversary was observed to: assess progress made in the protection, promotion and support of breastfeeding since 1990; call upon governments, civil society and donors to increase efforts to implement the targets of the Innocenti Declaration and the additional targets established in 2002 within the Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding; raise awareness of every child’s right to adequate nutrition, and the corresponding obligations on all sectors of society to ensure that this right is realized. The Innocenti Declaration on Infant and Young Child Feeding captures the renewed commitments made at this historic anniversary meeting and records the additional five operational targets that were identified as part of the ongoing global strategy on Infant and Young Child feeding. The Declaration was endorsed by the Standing Committee on Nutrition on 17 March, 2006 and the Call for Action made in the declaration was welcomed by the World Health Assembly on 27 May, 2006.
Dichiarazione degli Innocenti 2005 sull’alimentazione dei neonati e dei bambini
Dichiarazione degli Innocenti 2005 sull’alimentazione dei neonati e dei bambini
Published: 2007 Innocenti Publications
Nel 1990 con la Dichiarazione degli Innocenti sulla Protezione, Promozione e Sostegno all'Allattamento Materno si è stabilita una agenda internazionale con obiettivi ambiziosi da raggiungere. Nel Novembre 2005 Firenze ha nuovamente ospitato un congresso internazionale per la celebrazione del 15mo anniversario della Dichiarazione degli Innocenti. L'anniversario è stato celebrato per: valutare i progressi fatti nella promozione, protezione e sostegno all'allattamento materno a partire dal 1990; richiamare l'attenzione dei governi, della società civile e dei donanti ad aumentare gli sforzi per l'attuazione degli obiettivi della Dichiarazione degli Innocenti e degli obiettivi addizionali stabiliti nel 2002 con la Strategia Globale per l'alimentazione dell'infanzia e del bambino; accrescere la coscienza intorno al diritto di ogni bambino ad una alimentazione adeguata, e agli obblighi per ogni settore della società ad assicurare che questo diritto venga rispettato. La Dichiarazione degli Innocenti sull'alimentazione dell'infanzia e del bambino riprende i rinnovati impegni presi durante questa storica celebrazione e registra i 5 obiettivi addizionali che sono stati identificati come parte della Strategia Globale in corso sull'alimentazione dell'infanzia e del bambino.
1990-2005 Celebrazione della Dichiarazione degli Innocenti sulla Protezione, Promozione e Sostegno dell'Allattamento Materno
1990-2005 Celebrazione della Dichiarazione degli Innocenti sulla Protezione, Promozione e Sostegno dell'Allattamento Materno
Published: 2006 Innocenti Publications
La presente pubblicazione intende dare maggiore visibilità all’allattamento materno e a tutti gli aspetti relativi all’alimentazione neonatale e infantile, in quanto si tratta di fattori essenziali per aumentare il tasso di sopravvivenza, crescita e sviluppo dei bambini, nonché attirare nuovamente l’attenzione di governi e donatori sul tema. Per farlo, ripercorre la serie di azioni, eventi, documenti e pratiche che dalla Dichiarazione degli Innocenti conduce alla Strategia globale per l'alimentazione del neonato e del bambino.
1990-2005 Celebrating the Innocenti Declaration on the Protection, Promotion and Support of Breastfeeding: Past achievements, present challenges and the way forward for infant and young child feeding
1990-2005 Celebrating the Innocenti Declaration on the Protection, Promotion and Support of Breastfeeding: Past achievements, present challenges and the way forward for infant and young child feeding
Published: 2005 Innocenti Publications
This publication is intended to raise the profile of breastfeeding and all elements of infant and young child feeding as key interventions for improving child survival, growth and development, and to bring this once again to the attention of governments and donors. In doing so it describes a chain of actions, events, documents and practices stretching forward from the Innocenti Declaration to the Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding. It describes the continuing and new challenges that exist to optimal feeding of infants and young children, and suggests a way forward towards the global aim of ensuring universal enjoyment of children's rights to adequate nutrition.
Les capacités évolutives de l'enfant
Les capacités évolutives de l'enfant

AUTHOR(S)
Gerison Lansdown

Published: 2005 Innocenti Insights
Pour la première fois dans un traité internacional relatif aux droits humains, la Convention relative aux droits de l’enfant introduit le concept des ‘capacités évolutives’ de l’enfant. Ce principe revêt de profondes implications pour les droits humains de l’enfant. Il établit que l’acquisition de compétences majeures de la part des enfants s’accompagne d’une moindre nécessité de les diriger et d’une plus grande nécessité de leur confier la responsabilité des décisions qui concernent leur existence. La Convention reconnaît que les enfants acquièrent des compétences à des âges différents en fonction des environnements, des cultures et des expériences de vie, et que l’acquisition de ces compétences varie selon les circonstances. Elle tient également compte du fait que les capacités des enfants diffèrent selon la nature des droits à exercer.Cette étude a pour objectif d’ouvrir la discussion et de favoriser le débat afin de mieux discerner les moyens de promouvoir les changements culturels nécessaires pour que les enfants soient adéquatement protégés conformément à leurs capacités évolutives, et qu’ils soient respectés en tant que citoyens, en tant que personnes et en tant que titulaires de droits.
The Evolving Capacities of the Child
The Evolving Capacities of the Child

AUTHOR(S)
Gerison Lansdown

Published: 2005 Innocenti Insights
The Convention on the Rights of the Child introduces for the first time in an international human rights treaty, the concept of the ‘evolving capacities’ of the child. This principle has been described as a new principle of interpretation in international law, recognising that, as children acquire enhanced competencies, there is a diminishing need for protection and a greater capacity to take responsibility for decisions affecting their lives. The Convention allows for the recognition that children in different environments and cultures, and faced with diverse life experiences, will acquire competencies at different ages. Action is needed in law, policy and practice so that the contributions children make and the capacities they hold are acknowledged. The purpose of the study is to open the discussion and promote debate to achieve a better understanding of how children can be protected, in accordance with their evolving capacities, and also provided with opportunities to participate in the fulfillment of their rights.
La evolución de las facultades des niño
La evolución de las facultades des niño

AUTHOR(S)
Gerison Lansdown

Published: 2005 Innocenti Insights
La Convención de los Derechos del Niño introduce por primera vez en un tratado de derecho internacional, el concepto de ‘capacidades evolutivas’ del niño(a). Este principio ha sido descrito como un nuevo principio de interpretación en derecho internacional, reconociendo que, a medida que los niños(as) adquieren mayores capacidades, hay menos necesidad de protección y mayor capacidad para adquirir responsabilidad por las decisiones que afectarán su vida. La Convención permite reconocer que los niños(as) que crecen en diferentes espacios y culturas, y que se enfrentan a diversas experiencias de vida, adquirirán estas capacidades a diferentes edades. Es necesario tomar acción a través del derecho, las políticas y la práctica para que sea reconocidas la contribución que la infancia brinda así como sus capacidades. El propósito de este estudio es abrir la discusión y promover el debate para adquirir un mejor entendimiento de la protección que debe darse a la niñez, de acuerdo con sus ‘capacidades evolutivas’, y asimismo proveer oportunidades de participación en el pleno cumplimiento de sus derechos.
Changing a Harmful Social Convention: Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting
Changing a Harmful Social Convention: Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting
Published: 2005 Innocenti Digest
Every year, three million girls and women are subjected to genital mutilation/cutting, a dangerous and potentially life-threatening procedure that causes unspeakable pain and suffering. Not only is it practiced among communities in Africa and the Middle East, but also in immigrant communities throughout the world. Moreover, recent data reveal that it occurs on a much larger scale than previously thought. It continues to be one of the most persistent, pervasive and silently endured human rights violations. This Innocenti Digest examines the prevalence of FGM/C and its social dynamics. It provides an explanation as to why the practice persists and of the elements necessary for its abandonment. It also takes stock of progress to date, identifies what works and what does not, and provides direction regarding the most successful strategies to promote the abandonment of FGM/C. Combining concrete field experience with tested academic theory, the Digest provides a practical tool to bring about positive change for girls and women.
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Learning at a Distance: Children’s remote learning experiences in Italy during the COVID-19 pandemic
Publication Publication

Learning at a Distance: Children’s remote learning experiences in Italy during the COVID-19 pandemic

Italy was the first country in Europe to implement a nationwide lockdown. Children and their families lived in nearly complete isolation for almost two months. Students missed 65 days of school compared to an average of 27 missed days among high-income countries worldwide. This prolonged break is of concern, as even short breaks in schooling can cause significant loss of learning for children and lead to educational inequalities over time. At least 3 million Italian students may not have been reached by remote learning due to a lack of internet connectivity or devices at home. This report explores children’s and parents’ experiences of remote learning during the lockdown in Italy, drawing on data collected from 11 European countries (and coordinated by the European Commission’s Joint Research Center). It explores how children's access and use of digital technologies changed during the pandemic; highlights how existing inequalities might undermine remote learning opportunities, even among those with internet access; and provides insights on how to support children’s remote learning in the future. *** L'Italia e’ stata il primo paese in Europa ad aver applicato la misura del lockdown su tutto il territorio. I bambini e le loro famiglie hanno vissuto in quasi completo isolamento per circa due mesi. Gli studenti hanno perduto 65 giorni di scuola rispetto ad una media di 27 negli altri paesi ad alto reddito del mondo. Questa interruzione prolungata rappresenta motivo di preoccupazione, in quanto persino interruzioni piu’ brevi nella didattica possono causare significative perdite nel livello di istruzione dei ragazzi e portare col tempo a diseguaglianze educative. Almeno 3 milioni di studenti in Italia non sono stati coinvolti nella didattica a distanza a causa d una mancanza di connessione ad internet o di dispositivi adeguati a casa. Questo rapporto analizza l’esperienza della didattica a distanza di ragazzi e genitori in Italia durante il lockdown, sulla base dei dati raccolti in 11 paesi europei (e coordinati dal Centro comune di ricerca della Commissione Europea). Studia il cambiamento nell’accesso e nell’uso delle tecnologie digitali dei bambini e ragazzi durante la pandemia; mette in evidenza come le diseguaglianze esistenti possano diminuire le opportunità offerte dalla didattica a distanza, anche tra coloro che hanno accesso ad internet; e fornisce approfondimenti su come sostenere la didattica a distanza di bambini e ragazzi in futuro.
Time to Teach: Teacher attendance and time on task in Eastern and Southern Africa
Publication Publication

Time to Teach: Teacher attendance and time on task in Eastern and Southern Africa

There is a learning crisis. Fifty-three per cent of children in low- and middle-income countries are in ‘learning poverty’, i.e. they cannot read and understand a simple text by the end of primary school age. In sub- Saharan Africa, the learning poverty rate is 87 per cent overall, and ranges from 40 per cent to as high as 99 per cent in the 21 countries with available data. Teachers attending lessons and spending quality time on task is a critical prerequisite to learning. However, in sub-Saharan Africa, teacher absenteeism ranges from 15 to 45 per cent. Teacher absenteeism and reduced time on task wastes valuable financial resources, short-changes students and is one of the most cumbersome obstacles on the path toward the education Sustainable Development Goal and to the related vision of the new UNICEF education strategy: Every Child Learns. Whilst the stark numbers are available to study, and despite teacher absenteeism being a foremost challenge for education systems in Africa, the evidence base on how policies and practices can influence teacher attendance remains scant. Time to Teach (TTT) is a research initiative that looks at primary school teacher attendance in eight countries and territories in the Eastern and Southern Africa (ESA) region: the Comoros; Kenya; Rwanda, Puntland, State of Somalia; South Sudan; the United Republic of Tanzania, mainland; the United Republic of Tanzania, Zanzibar; and Uganda. Its primary objective is to identify factors affecting the various forms of teacher attendance, which include being at school, being punctual, being in the classroom, and teaching when in the classroom, and use this evidence to inform the design and implementation of teacher policies.

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