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UNICEF Innocenti's complete catalogue of research and reports
Best of UNICEF Research 2021
SPOTLIGHT

Best of UNICEF Research 2021

Best of UNICEF Research showcases the most rigorous, innovative and impactful research produced by UNICEF offices worldwide. While evidence highlights emerging issues, it also informs decisions and provides policy and programme recommendations for governments and partners to improve children’s lives. This ninth edition brings together 11 powerful studies from around the world and across the five Strategic Goal Areas. How do South Asian youth feel about entering the world of work? What is the effect of climate-related hazards on access to healthcare? How has COVID-19 affected children and their families in the Republic of Moldova? With social and economic inequalities increasing and progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals lagging, rigorous research – answers to these questions – has never mattered more.
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COVID-19: Missing More Than a Classroom. The impact of school closures on children’s nutrition
Blog Blog

COVID-19: Missing More Than a Classroom. The impact of school closures on children’s nutrition

In 2019, 135 million people in 55 countries were in food crises or worse, and 2 billion people did not have regular access to safe, nutritious and sufficient food. COVID-19 has exacerbated these hardships and may result in an additional 121 million people facing acute food insecurity by the end of 2020. Further, since the beginning of the pandemic, an estimated 1.6 billion learners in 199 countries worldwide were affected by school closures, with nearly 370 million children not receiving a school meal in 150 countries. The paper presents the evidence on the potential negative short-term and long-term effects of school meal scheme disruption during Covid-19 globally. It shows how vulnerable the children participating in these schemes are, how coping and mitigation measures are often only short-term solutions, and how prioritizing school re-opening is critical. For instance, it highlights how girls are at greater risk of not being in school or of being taken out of school early, which may lead to poor nutrition and health for themselves and their children. However, well-designed school feeding programmes have been shown to enable catch-up from early growth failure and other negative shocks. As such, once schools re-open, school meal schemes can help address the deprivation that children have experienced during the closures and provide an incentive for parents to send and keep their children, especially girls, in school.
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Thésaurus international des droits de l'enfant
Thésaurus international des droits de l'enfant

AUTHOR(S)
Anne Di Lauro

Published: 2000 Innocenti Publications
Le Thésaurus de la Convention relative aux droits de l'enfant (Thésaurus CDE) est un outil qui permet aux bibliothèques et aux centres de documentation d'indexer et de repérer des documents du point de vue de la Convention. Les descripteurs du Thésaurus CDE décrivent les droits et les concepts spécifiquement traités par la Convention ainsi qu'un certain nombre de concepts plus généraux qui situent la Convention dans son contexte économique et social. Nous avons pris comme critère pour l'inclusion de descripteurs dans le thésaurus leur pertinence au sujets traités dans la Convention. Nous avons évité d'inclure des termes ne traitant que des sujets périphériques à la Convention.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 84 | Thematic area: Rights of the Child | Tags: convention on the rights of the child, thesauri | Publisher: Innocenti Research Centre
Young People in Changing Societies - Summary
Young People in Changing Societies - Summary
Published: 2000 Regional Monitoring Report
Young People in Changing Societies focuses on the experiences of the ‘transition generation’ - the 65 million young people aged 15-24 in Central and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States. They are putting the reforms of the last decade to the test as the first generation to complete their education, look for jobs and make decisions about raising families in a new socio-economic climate. The Report looks at their health, their education, their entry into the labour market, their possible conflicts with the law and their role as young citizens, finding that progress for young people and progress in the transition are mutually supportive. Young people are grasping their new opportunities with initiative, creativity and flexibility. But new freedoms also mean new risks, including challenges almost unknown to earlier generations: unemployment, drugs, greater inequality and exclusion.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 20 | Thematic area: Rights of the Child | Tags: adolescents, economic transition, education, health, juvenile justice | Publisher: Innocenti Research Centre
A Human Rights Conceptual Framework for UNICEF
A Human Rights Conceptual Framework for UNICEF

AUTHOR(S)
Marta Santos-Pais

Published: 1999 Innocenti Essay
This latest 'Innocenti Essay' outlines the legal and moral stance behind UNICEF's emerging human rights ethic. It goes on to consider the implications of this thinking in terms of the organisation's perceived future role. The author attempts to end the debate between the traditional development thinkers and the rights advocates, arguing that 'development' is meaningless unless it is designed to ensure the realisation of human rights.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 20 | Thematic area: Rights of the Child | Tags: children's rights, convention on the rights of the child, human rights | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
Basic Education: A vision for the 21st century. Global Seminar Report, 1998
Basic Education: A vision for the 21st century. Global Seminar Report, 1998

AUTHOR(S)
Maggie Black

Published: 1999 Innocenti Global Seminar
The ninth Innocenti Global Seminar took as its theme: Basic Education: A Vision for the 21st Century. The Seminar addressed the urgent need for improved strategies to achieve Education for All; at the same time the Seminar deliberations and recommendations were expected to contribute directly to UNICEF’s broader 'Vision for the 21st Century' in which basic eduation will receive a strong emphasis. In addition to the final statement on basic education for the 21st century drawn up by the participants, actions, emphases and follow-up at Regional and HQ levels were identified.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 32 | Thematic area: Education, Rights of the Child | Tags: basic education, education, educational policy, right to education | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
Adozione internazionale
Adozione internazionale
Published: 1999 Innocenti Digest
Il Digest sulla adozione transnazionale presenta in maniera imparziale le problematiche relative alla adozione di bambini provenienti da un altro paese e da una diversa cultura. Il rapporto illustra le misure atte a garantire il rispetto dell'interesse superiore del minore nel corso del processo di adozione, facendo anche luce sulle pratiche illegali di adozione volte allo sfruttamento dei bambini dei loro genitori, sia biologici che adottivi.
Adopción Internacional
Adopción Internacional
Published: 1999 Innocenti Digest
Este Digest examina la adopción internacional como una de las soluciones posibles para aquellos niños que no pueden vivir con sus familias. Los documentos internacionales, generalmente aceptados, especifican las condiciones en las cuales se debe llevar a cabo la adopción internacional si se pretende proteger y respetar plenamente los derechos y el interés superior de los niños implicados en dicho proceso. Aunque se están realizando esfuerzos significativos por implementar las normas y los procedimientos establecidos, la práctica actual suele implicar la violación de estas reglas. El Digest indica cuáles son los abusos que se cometen en la adopción internacional, así como las medidas que hay que tomar para luchar contra tales violaciones y para defender las “prácticas mejores” en este campo. Un comentario titulado “Los niños y la adopción: Qué derechos y de quién” desenmascara algunos errores comunes relativos a la adopción internacional, como por ejemplo la noción del “derecho a tener un hijo”, y propone medidas que puedan garantizar que los derechos del niño sean “la consideración primordial”. El Digest proporciona también informaciones sobre las Autoridades Centrales que han adherido al Convenio de La Haya en Materia de Adopción Internacional y detalles sobre algunas de las organizaciones internacionales y regionales activas en este ámbito, y sugiere además lecturas ulteriores para quienes quieran profundizar el tema.
Children: Noble Causes or Worthy Citizens?

AUTHOR(S)
Karl Eric Knutsson

Published: 1997 Innocenti Publications
The eight essays in this volume argue that for both theoretical and practical reasons children need to be understood in their own right. They ask fundamental questions about the cultural and social variations in the perceptions we have of children and childhood and the ways these perceptions emerge to influence and shape our assumptions, preferences and choices concerning children. The book aims to deepen understanding and interest by clarifying the theoretical, ethical and pragmatic reasons for transforming the political neglect of children into recognition and action. It concludes by proposing practical lessons that can be learned from the debate about children.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 180 | Thematic area: Rights of the Child | Tags: childhood, children's rights, cultural factors, social roles | Publisher: Arena, UK; UNICEF ICDC, Florence
Children and Violence
Children and Violence
Published: 1997 Innocenti Digest
The second Innocenti Digest explores violence by and to children, using the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child as its framework. The focus is on interpersonal violence, both intrafamilial and extrafamilial. Sexual abuse and exploitation are included because, although they do not necessarily involve violence or coercion, the vast majority of evidence indicates their generally harmful physical and psychological effects. Children’s involvement in armed conflict is also discussed, as are the prevalence of violence involving children and the reasons why children become violent. In the ‘Discussion Site’, a strategy is outlined for combating violence involving children, based on the work of the UK Commission on Children and Violence. The ‘Links’ section gives contact and programme details of regional and international NGOs working in this area.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 20 | Thematic area: Rights of the Child | Tags: child abuse, children's rights, children's rights violation, right to care and protection, violence | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
Ombudswork for Children
Ombudswork for Children
Published: 1997 Innocenti Digest
The first Innocenti Digest provides information on the recent and expanding phenomenon of ombudsmen/commissioners for children. It discusses the history of ombudswork, different patterns in the origin, development, mandate and status of the different types of ombudsman offices; the functions of ombudswork in theory and practice; and characteristics essential to this kind of work. The Digest ends with details of 16 existing ombudsmen/commissioners for children and a select bibliography on the topic.
Niños y Violencia
Niños y Violencia
Published: 1997 Innocenti Digest
Este Innocenti Digest explora la violencia de los niños y hacia los niños, usando el marco de la Convención de los Derechos del Niño de las Naciones Unidas. Se centra en la violencia interpersonal, tanto intrafamiliar como extrafamiliar. Se incluye el abuso sexual y la explotación ya que a pesar de no implicar obligatoriamente violencia o coerción, la mayor parte de la evidencia demuestra su efectos dañinos tanto físicos como psicológicos. También se discute la implicación de los niños en los conflictos armados, la prevalencia de la violencia hacia los niños y las razones por las que los niños se vuelven violentos. En la “Sección de Opinión”, se explica en términos generales una estrategia para combatir la violencia que compromete a los niños, basándose en el trabajo de la Comisión de los Niños y la Violencia del Reino Unido. La sección “Contactos” ofrece los contactos y los detalles de los programas de las ONGs regionales e internacionales que están trabajando en este campo.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 24 | Thematic area: Rights of the Child | Tags: child abuse, children's rights, children's rights violation, right to care and protection, violence | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
Il difensore civico per l'infanzia
Il difensore civico per l'infanzia
Published: 1997 Innocenti Digest
L'istituzione dei commissari/difensori civici per l'infanzia è un fenomeno recente e ancora in espansione. La consapevolezza della necessità di istituire meccanisimi indipendenti di protezione e di promozione dei diritti dei bambini è progressivamente cresciuta in quanto è cresciuta la consapevolezza che essi rappresentano una categoria sociale particolarmente debole.
El Trabajo del Defensor de los Niños
El Trabajo del Defensor de los Niños
Published: 1997 Innocenti Digest
La creación de los Defensores o Comisionados para la Infancia es un fenómeno reciente y en expansión. Cada vez más, nos estamos dando cuenta de que los niños son un grupo especialmente vulnerable y de que, por lo tanto, son necesarios mecanismos independientes para proteger y promover sus derechos. Este Digest proporciona informaciones sobre el papel que desempeñan y el trabajo que realizan los Comisionados para la Infancia. Se estudian en particular: la historia del trabajo de defensa de los niños; los modelos relativos a la fundación, el desarrollo, el mandato y la naturaleza de los distintos tipos de oficinas que llevan a cabo esta tarea; las funciones del trabajo del Defensor de los Niños desde el punto de vista teórico y desde el punto de vista práctico; y las características esenciales de esta labor. El número concluye con los datos de 16 organizaciones de Comisionados para la Infancia que existen actualmente y una selección de la bibliografía sobre el tema.
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JOURNAL ARTICLES BLOGS
Learning at a Distance: Children’s remote learning experiences in Italy during the COVID-19 pandemic
Publication Publication

Learning at a Distance: Children’s remote learning experiences in Italy during the COVID-19 pandemic

Italy was the first country in Europe to implement a nationwide lockdown. Children and their families lived in nearly complete isolation for almost two months. Students missed 65 days of school compared to an average of 27 missed days among high-income countries worldwide. This prolonged break is of concern, as even short breaks in schooling can cause significant loss of learning for children and lead to educational inequalities over time. At least 3 million Italian students may not have been reached by remote learning due to a lack of internet connectivity or devices at home. This report explores children’s and parents’ experiences of remote learning during the lockdown in Italy, drawing on data collected from 11 European countries (and coordinated by the European Commission’s Joint Research Center). It explores how children's access and use of digital technologies changed during the pandemic; highlights how existing inequalities might undermine remote learning opportunities, even among those with internet access; and provides insights on how to support children’s remote learning in the future. *** L'Italia e’ stata il primo paese in Europa ad aver applicato la misura del lockdown su tutto il territorio. I bambini e le loro famiglie hanno vissuto in quasi completo isolamento per circa due mesi. Gli studenti hanno perduto 65 giorni di scuola rispetto ad una media di 27 negli altri paesi ad alto reddito del mondo. Questa interruzione prolungata rappresenta motivo di preoccupazione, in quanto persino interruzioni piu’ brevi nella didattica possono causare significative perdite nel livello di istruzione dei ragazzi e portare col tempo a diseguaglianze educative. Almeno 3 milioni di studenti in Italia non sono stati coinvolti nella didattica a distanza a causa d una mancanza di connessione ad internet o di dispositivi adeguati a casa. Questo rapporto analizza l’esperienza della didattica a distanza di ragazzi e genitori in Italia durante il lockdown, sulla base dei dati raccolti in 11 paesi europei (e coordinati dal Centro comune di ricerca della Commissione Europea). Studia il cambiamento nell’accesso e nell’uso delle tecnologie digitali dei bambini e ragazzi durante la pandemia; mette in evidenza come le diseguaglianze esistenti possano diminuire le opportunità offerte dalla didattica a distanza, anche tra coloro che hanno accesso ad internet; e fornisce approfondimenti su come sostenere la didattica a distanza di bambini e ragazzi in futuro.
Vite a Colori: Esperienze, percezioni e opinioni di bambinə e ragazzə sulla pandemia di Covid-19 in Italia
Publication Publication

Vite a Colori: Esperienze, percezioni e opinioni di bambinə e ragazzə sulla pandemia di Covid-19 in Italia

Il rapporto Vite a Colori racconta le esperienze, percezioni ed opinioni di un gruppo di adolescenti sul primo anno di pandemia di Covid-19 in Italia cercando di comprendere le loro esperienze e punti di vista, attraverso le loro parole. La raccolta dati si è svolta tra febbraio e giugno 2021 con 114 partecipanti tra i 10 e i 19 anni, frequentanti le scuole superiori del primo e del secondo ciclo di 16 regioni italiane. Bambinɘ e ragazzɘ che si identificano come LGBTQI+, minori stranieri non accompagnati (MSNA) e adolescenti con background socioeconomico svantaggiato sono stati deliberatamente inclusi nel campione interessato dalla ricerca

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