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UNICEF Innocenti's complete catalogue of research and reports
Best of UNICEF Research 2021
SPOTLIGHT

Best of UNICEF Research 2021

Best of UNICEF Research showcases the most rigorous, innovative and impactful research produced by UNICEF offices worldwide. While evidence highlights emerging issues, it also informs decisions and provides policy and programme recommendations for governments and partners to improve children’s lives. This ninth edition brings together 11 powerful studies from around the world and across the five Strategic Goal Areas. How do South Asian youth feel about entering the world of work? What is the effect of climate-related hazards on access to healthcare? How has COVID-19 affected children and their families in the Republic of Moldova? With social and economic inequalities increasing and progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals lagging, rigorous research – answers to these questions – has never mattered more.
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COVID-19: Missing More Than a Classroom. The impact of school closures on children’s nutrition
Blog Blog

COVID-19: Missing More Than a Classroom. The impact of school closures on children’s nutrition

In 2019, 135 million people in 55 countries were in food crises or worse, and 2 billion people did not have regular access to safe, nutritious and sufficient food. COVID-19 has exacerbated these hardships and may result in an additional 121 million people facing acute food insecurity by the end of 2020. Further, since the beginning of the pandemic, an estimated 1.6 billion learners in 199 countries worldwide were affected by school closures, with nearly 370 million children not receiving a school meal in 150 countries. The paper presents the evidence on the potential negative short-term and long-term effects of school meal scheme disruption during Covid-19 globally. It shows how vulnerable the children participating in these schemes are, how coping and mitigation measures are often only short-term solutions, and how prioritizing school re-opening is critical. For instance, it highlights how girls are at greater risk of not being in school or of being taken out of school early, which may lead to poor nutrition and health for themselves and their children. However, well-designed school feeding programmes have been shown to enable catch-up from early growth failure and other negative shocks. As such, once schools re-open, school meal schemes can help address the deprivation that children have experienced during the closures and provide an incentive for parents to send and keep their children, especially girls, in school.
97 - 108 of 110
Better Schools, Less Child Work. Child Work and Education in Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala and Peru
Better Schools, Less Child Work. Child Work and Education in Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala and Peru
Published: 1996 Innocenti Essay
On the basis of detailed statistical surveys conducted in five Latin American countries, this essay demonstrates that actual practice in the region contrasts strongly with legal norms for the minimum age at which children can be employed and the age of completion of compulsory education. As well as increasing our understanding of the complex relationships between children, work and education, the original studies also drew up measures and definitions that have subsequently been widely adopted in the region. The essay provides a review of the main findings and proposes policy guidelines on child work.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 30 | Thematic area: Child Work and Labour, Rights of the Child | Tags: child workers, compulsory education, minimum age, right to education | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
The Best Interests of the Child: Towards a synthesis of children's rights and cultural values
The Best Interests of the Child: Towards a synthesis of children's rights and cultural values
Published: 1996 Innocenti Studies
This paper investigates the dilemmas that arise in applying the ‘best interests’ principle, particularly as the term is used in Article 3(1) of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, to concrete situations involving the treatment of children. The topics covered include: historical and current usages of the principle in domestic and international law; the technical meaning of the terms employed in the Convention; the problem of indeterminacy that the application of the best interests principle in a given situation will not necessarily lead to any particular outcome; how the principle relates to the overall debate over cultural relativism; the approach adopted by the Committee on the Rights of the Child.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 50 | Thematic area: Rights of the Child | Tags: best interests of the child, children's rights, implementation of the crc | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
A Child Belongs to Everyone: Law, family and the construction of the best interests of the child in Zimbabwe
A Child Belongs to Everyone: Law, family and the construction of the best interests of the child in Zimbabwe

AUTHOR(S)
Alice Armstrong

Cite this publication | No. of pages: 40 | Thematic area: Rights of the Child | Tags: best interests of the child, children's rights | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
The Best Interests of the Child: Reconciling culture and human rights

AUTHOR(S)
Philip Alston

Published: 1994 Innocenti Publications
The 1989 United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child is the world's most widely ratified international human rights treaty. It thus provides an ideal context in which to examine the relationship between different cultural values and the interntional community's oft-stated aspiration to achieve universal human rights standards. This volume focuses upon a widely accepted family law principle according to which "the best interests of the child" shall be "a primary consideration...in all actions concerning children." Through a combination of broad theoretical analyses and country-specific case studies the distinguished contributors demonstrate that cultural values are inevitably a major factor in the interpretation and application of many human rights norms.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 298 | Thematic area: Convention on the Rights of the Child, Rights of the Child | Tags: best interests of the child, children's rights, implementation of the crc | Publisher: Oxford University Press, UK; UNICEF ICDC, Florence
Resources and Child Rights: An economic perspective
Resources and Child Rights: An economic perspective

AUTHOR(S)
David Parker

This paper first examines the use of human, economic and organizational resources in producing social outputs, in terms of the two main forms that resources take: 'stocks' and 'flows'. Based on this framework, several key measures are identified for increasing the availability of resources for the implementation of child rights, including changes in technologies and processes, and the expanded use of 'non-traditional' resources for children.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 32 | Thematic area: Rights of the Child | Tags: children's rights, national budget, obligations of states parties | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
The Right to Child Health: The development of primary health services in Chile and Thailand
The Right to Child Health: The development of primary health services in Chile and Thailand

AUTHOR(S)
Claudio Sepùlveda

Upon what criteria should the international human rights community base its assessment of how successful nations have been in meeting the obligations they signed up to at the CRC? Traditional methods of assessment have centred upon an analysis of comparative ‘social indicator’ statistics. This paper showcases an attempt at a more ad hoc approach in its analysis of the development of health care systems in Chile and Thailand. This ‘historical’ method - with its emphasis upon the unique experience of the individual country - reveals that despite adverse economic circumstances both countries have shown an impressive level of commitment to child rights.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 68 | Thematic area: Rights of the Child | Tags: child health, children's rights, implementation of the crc, right to health and health services | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
Education and the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child: The challenge of implementation
Education and the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child: The challenge of implementation

AUTHOR(S)
Frank Dall

Home-Based Community Day Care and Children's Rights: The Colombian case
Home-Based Community Day Care and Children's Rights: The Colombian case
Over recent years demographic trends in Columbia (such as the increased participation of women in the workforce) have led to an increased demand for a viable day care system for 3-6 year olds. This has largely been met by an innovative programme set up by the Colombian Family Welfare Institute. The idea at the basis of their initiative is simple yet effective: mothers are given the training and support to enable them to offer day care within their homes to the children of other families from their own communities. This paper describes in detail the design and implementation of this programme. It is hoped international organisations and other countries will draw inspiration from this Colombian success story.
Nutrition and the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child
Nutrition and the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child

AUTHOR(S)
Urban Jonsson

Nutrition is mentioned specifically only three times in the Convention on the Rights of the Child. However, through its emphasis upon food, health, and care, the Convention makes it clear that good nutrition should be regarded as a fundamental human right. This study reviews the progress that governments have made in implementing this aspect of the Convention, providing ‘status reports’ on the inclusion of nutrition goals in individual ‘National Programmes of Action’. The paper includes a background overview of the development of human nutrition as a science, together with a survey of current trends in thinking on the subject.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 44 | Thematic area: Rights of the Child | Tags: child nutrition, children's rights, implementation of the crc, nutrition, right to food | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
A Voice for Children: Speaking out as their Ombudsman
Published: 1991 Innocenti Publications
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 252 | Thematic area: Rights of the Child | Tags: children's rights, ombudsman for children | Publisher: Jessica Kingsley Publishers, UK; UNICEF ICDC, Florence
Child Advocacy in the United States: The work of the Children's Defense Fund
Child Advocacy in the United States: The work of the Children's Defense Fund

AUTHOR(S)
James D. Weill

Published: 1990 Innocenti Essay
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 24 | Thematic area: Rights of the Child | Tags: advocacy, children's rights | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
Working for the Rights of Children
Working for the Rights of Children
Published: 1990 Innocenti Essay
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 24 | Thematic area: Rights of the Child | Tags: children's rights, convention on the rights of the child, implementation of the crc | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
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INNOCENTI DISCUSSION PAPERS INNOCENTI REPORT CARD INNOCENTI RESEARCH BRIEFS INNOCENTI WORKING PAPERS MISCELLANEA INNOCENTI RESEARCH REPORT BEST OF UNICEF RESEARCH
JOURNAL ARTICLES BLOGS
Learning at a Distance: Children’s remote learning experiences in Italy during the COVID-19 pandemic
Publication Publication

Learning at a Distance: Children’s remote learning experiences in Italy during the COVID-19 pandemic

Italy was the first country in Europe to implement a nationwide lockdown. Children and their families lived in nearly complete isolation for almost two months. Students missed 65 days of school compared to an average of 27 missed days among high-income countries worldwide. This prolonged break is of concern, as even short breaks in schooling can cause significant loss of learning for children and lead to educational inequalities over time. At least 3 million Italian students may not have been reached by remote learning due to a lack of internet connectivity or devices at home. This report explores children’s and parents’ experiences of remote learning during the lockdown in Italy, drawing on data collected from 11 European countries (and coordinated by the European Commission’s Joint Research Center). It explores how children's access and use of digital technologies changed during the pandemic; highlights how existing inequalities might undermine remote learning opportunities, even among those with internet access; and provides insights on how to support children’s remote learning in the future. *** L'Italia e’ stata il primo paese in Europa ad aver applicato la misura del lockdown su tutto il territorio. I bambini e le loro famiglie hanno vissuto in quasi completo isolamento per circa due mesi. Gli studenti hanno perduto 65 giorni di scuola rispetto ad una media di 27 negli altri paesi ad alto reddito del mondo. Questa interruzione prolungata rappresenta motivo di preoccupazione, in quanto persino interruzioni piu’ brevi nella didattica possono causare significative perdite nel livello di istruzione dei ragazzi e portare col tempo a diseguaglianze educative. Almeno 3 milioni di studenti in Italia non sono stati coinvolti nella didattica a distanza a causa d una mancanza di connessione ad internet o di dispositivi adeguati a casa. Questo rapporto analizza l’esperienza della didattica a distanza di ragazzi e genitori in Italia durante il lockdown, sulla base dei dati raccolti in 11 paesi europei (e coordinati dal Centro comune di ricerca della Commissione Europea). Studia il cambiamento nell’accesso e nell’uso delle tecnologie digitali dei bambini e ragazzi durante la pandemia; mette in evidenza come le diseguaglianze esistenti possano diminuire le opportunità offerte dalla didattica a distanza, anche tra coloro che hanno accesso ad internet; e fornisce approfondimenti su come sostenere la didattica a distanza di bambini e ragazzi in futuro.
Vite a Colori: Esperienze, percezioni e opinioni di bambinə e ragazzə sulla pandemia di Covid-19 in Italia
Publication Publication

Vite a Colori: Esperienze, percezioni e opinioni di bambinə e ragazzə sulla pandemia di Covid-19 in Italia

Il rapporto Vite a Colori racconta le esperienze, percezioni ed opinioni di un gruppo di adolescenti sul primo anno di pandemia di Covid-19 in Italia cercando di comprendere le loro esperienze e punti di vista, attraverso le loro parole. La raccolta dati si è svolta tra febbraio e giugno 2021 con 114 partecipanti tra i 10 e i 19 anni, frequentanti le scuole superiori del primo e del secondo ciclo di 16 regioni italiane. Bambinɘ e ragazzɘ che si identificano come LGBTQI+, minori stranieri non accompagnati (MSNA) e adolescenti con background socioeconomico svantaggiato sono stati deliberatamente inclusi nel campione interessato dalla ricerca

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