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UNICEF Innocenti's complete catalogue of research and reports
Reimagining Migration Responses: Learning from children and young people who move in the Horn of Africa
SPOTLIGHT

Reimagining Migration Responses: Learning from children and young people who move in the Horn of Africa

The number of international migrants under 18 is rising, accelerated by complex and fast-evolving economic, demographic, security and environmental drivers. Based on interviews carried out with 1,290 migrant children and young people in Ethiopia, Somalia and Sudan, this report helps address the evidence gap on children and young people migrating in the Horn of Africa by providing a better understanding of their protective environments; their access to services and resources; and their perceptions of safety, well-being and trust in authorities and other providers. It concludes by offering policy and programme recommendations to rethink child protection approaches for migrants in the region.
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COVID-19: Missing More Than a Classroom. The impact of school closures on children’s nutrition
Blog Blog

COVID-19: Missing More Than a Classroom. The impact of school closures on children’s nutrition

In 2019, 135 million people in 55 countries were in food crises or worse, and 2 billion people did not have regular access to safe, nutritious and sufficient food. COVID-19 has exacerbated these hardships and may result in an additional 121 million people facing acute food insecurity by the end of 2020. Further, since the beginning of the pandemic, an estimated 1.6 billion learners in 199 countries worldwide were affected by school closures, with nearly 370 million children not receiving a school meal in 150 countries. The paper presents the evidence on the potential negative short-term and long-term effects of school meal scheme disruption during Covid-19 globally. It shows how vulnerable the children participating in these schemes are, how coping and mitigation measures are often only short-term solutions, and how prioritizing school re-opening is critical. For instance, it highlights how girls are at greater risk of not being in school or of being taken out of school early, which may lead to poor nutrition and health for themselves and their children. However, well-designed school feeding programmes have been shown to enable catch-up from early growth failure and other negative shocks. As such, once schools re-open, school meal schemes can help address the deprivation that children have experienced during the closures and provide an incentive for parents to send and keep their children, especially girls, in school.
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A Global Agenda for Children's Rights in the Digital Age: Recommendations for developing UNICEF's research strategy
A Global Agenda for Children's Rights in the Digital Age: Recommendations for developing UNICEF's research strategy
Published: 2013 Innocenti Publications
National and international policy frameworks and guidelines regarding ICT are now being developed, albeit unevenly and more in the global North than South. It is vital that policy is firmly based in evidence, taking into account children’s experiences and difficulties. This report asks whether sufficient research currently exists to support evidence-based policy and practice regarding children’s rights in relation to internet and mobile technologies.

A revised version of this report was published in the Journal of Children and Media
The Australian Household Stimulus Package: Lessons from the recent economic crisis
The Australian Household Stimulus Package: Lessons from the recent economic crisis

AUTHOR(S)
Bruno Martorano

Published: 2013 Innocenti Working Papers
This paper focuses on a portion of the Australian fiscal stimulus and in particular on the 2009 Household Stimulus Package composed of three main cash payments: the Back to School Bonus, the Single Income Family Bonus and the Tax Bonus for Working Australians. The aim of this paper is to investigate the effectiveness of these bonus payments in reducing poverty and stimulating consumption. In addition, our analysis gives special attention to these outcomes among children and poor people, due to their increased vulnerability during times of crisis.
Cross-Country MODA Study: Multiple Overlapping Deprivation Analysis (MODA). Technical Note
Cross-Country MODA Study: Multiple Overlapping Deprivation Analysis (MODA). Technical Note
Published: 2013 Innocenti Working Papers
Multiple Overlapping Deprivation Analysis (MODA) is a methodology developed by UNICEF which provides a comprehensive approach to the multidimensional aspects of child poverty and deprivation. MODA builds on earlier multidimensional poverty studies and encompasses a large set of tools ranging from deprivation headcounts in single dimensions via multiple overlap analysis to multidimensional deprivation ratios and their decomposition. The MODA methodology places the child at the heart of the analysis and concentrates on those aspects of well-being that are relevant for the children at particular stages of their lives. Moreover, the analysis indicates which deprivations children experience simultaneously.
Step-by-Step Guidelines to the Multiple Overlapping Deprivation Analysis (MODA)
Step-by-Step Guidelines to the Multiple Overlapping Deprivation Analysis (MODA)
Published: 2013 Innocenti Working Papers
Multiple Overlapping Deprivation Analysis (MODA) is a UNICEF methodology which provides a comprehensive approach to the multidimensional aspects of child poverty and deprivation. MODA builds on earlier multidimensional poverty studies and encompasses a large set of tools ranging from deprivation headcounts in single dimensions via multiple overlap analysis to multidimensional deprivation ratios and their decomposition
La sicurezza dei bambini online: sfide globali e strategie
La sicurezza dei bambini online: sfide globali e strategie
Published: 2013 Innocenti Insights
Negli ultimi vent'anni, Internet è diventata parte integrante della nostra vita. Abbiamo abbracciato con entusiasmo il suo potenziale in termini di comunicazione, intrattenimento e ricerca di informazioni. Per molti bambini di oggi, Internet, telefoni cellulari e tecnologie affini costituiscono una presenza familiare e costante: si muovono agevolmente tra ambiente online e offline, tanto che ai loro occhi la distinzione risulta sempre più irrilevante. La ricerca analizza il comportamento, I rischi e le vulnerabilità dei bambini in Internet e documenta le misure preventive e protettive contro lo sfruttamento e l'abuso di minori online attualmente in vigore.
Making the Investment Case for Social Protection: Methodological challenges with lessons learnt from a recent study in Cambodia
Making the Investment Case for Social Protection: Methodological challenges with lessons learnt from a recent study in Cambodia
Published: 2013 Innocenti Working Papers
Social protection can be defined as the ‘set of public and private policies and programmes aimed at preventing, reducing and eliminating economic and social vulnerabilities to poverty and deprivation’. It comprises various types of instruments, and includes social insurance systems, labour market policies, and other social transfers. The focus in this paper is on non-contributory social transfers which are considered to be the main social protection instruments targeted specifically at poor and vulnerable households, and which are financed from general government revenues.
Social Transfers and Child Protection
Social Transfers and Child Protection
Published: 2013 Innocenti Working Papers
The paper assesses the available evidence on the potential effects of social transfers on child protection outcomes in low- and middle-income countries: the negative outcomes or damaging exposure of children to violence, exploitation, abuse and neglect, and improved outcomes or a reduction in exposure to these phenomena. The study identifies and evaluates three possible channels through which social transfers can influence child protection outcomes: direct effects observed where the objectives of social transfers are explicit chid protection outcomes; indirect effects where the impact of social transfers on poverty and exclusion leads to improved child protection outcomes; and potential synergies in implementation of social transfers and child protection. It also discusses how the design and implementation of social transfers can contribute to improved child protection outcomes.

A revised version of this report was published in the Children and Youth Services Review
Child-responsive Accountability: Lessons from social accountability
Child-responsive Accountability: Lessons from social accountability
Published: 2013 Innocenti Working Papers
This paper links the concept and practice of accountability with child rights, by asking: (1) What accountability means when children are the rights holders, and whose role is it to exact that accountability? (2) What are the assumptions underpinning social accountability, and how can they be revised from the child-rights perspective? (3) How do social and political dynamics at community and national levels, often not linked to child rights issues, shape accountability outcomes? The paper is addressed to child rights practitioners, while drawing from political economy and political science as well as the women’s rights movement. In doing so, it seeks to link the various lessons learnt in order to lay the ground for thinking about child-responsive accountability.
Child Well-being in Rich Countries: A comparative overview
Child Well-being in Rich Countries: A comparative overview

AUTHOR(S)
Peter Adamson

Published: 2013 Innocenti Report Card
Part 1 of the Report Card presents a league table of child well-being in 29 of the world's advanced economies. Part 2 looks at what children say about their own well-being (including a league table of children’s life satisfaction). Part 3 examines changes in child well-being in advanced economies over the first decade of the 2000s, looking at each country’s progress in educational achievement, teenage birth rates, childhood obesity levels, the prevalence of bullying, and the use of tobacco, alcohol and drugs.
Child Well-being in Advanced Economies in the Late 2000s
Child Well-being in Advanced Economies in the Late 2000s
Published: 2013 Innocenti Working Papers
This paper compares the well-being of children across the most economically advanced countries of the world. It discusses the methodological issues involved in comparing children’s well-being across countries and explains how a Child Well-being Index is constructed to rank countries according to their performance in advancing child well-being. The Index uses 30 indicators combined into 13 components, again summarised in 5 dimensions for 35 rich countries. Data from various sources are combined to capture aspects of child well-being: material well-being, health, education, behaviour and risks, housing and environment. The scores for the countries on all variables and combinations of variables are discussed in detail. The Child Well-being Index reveals that serious differences exist across countries suggesting that in many, improvement could be made in the quality of children’s lives.
Child Well-being in Economically Rich Countries: Changes in the first decade of the 21st century
Child Well-being in Economically Rich Countries: Changes in the first decade of the 21st century
Published: 2013 Innocenti Working Papers
The analysis shows that the rankings are relatively stable: indeed, the Netherlands and the Scandinavian countries are still in the best performing group while the United States is still in the bottom of the ranking. Data analysis also highlights a common pattern for East European countries as material conditions improved and the behaviour of young people became more similar to their peers living in Western economies even though children’s living conditions have not improved overall. On the whole, Norway, Portugal and the United Kingdom recorded the most positive changes, while Poland, Spain and Sweden recorded the most negative changes.
Children’s Subjective Well-being in Rich Countries
Children’s Subjective Well-being in Rich Countries
Published: 2013 Innocenti Working Papers
Changes in subjective well-being during the last decade are analysed. The paper then explores the relationships between subjective well-being and objective domains: material, health, education, behaviour and housing and environment. The relationship between subjective well-being and structural indicators is explored further. The paper concludes that subjective well-being should be included in comparative studies of well-being but not necessarily as just another domain within a general deprivation count. Subjective well-being (or the lack thereof) is related to but not a part of (material) child deprivation.
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Learning at a Distance: Children’s remote learning experiences in Italy during the COVID-19 pandemic
Publication Publication

Learning at a Distance: Children’s remote learning experiences in Italy during the COVID-19 pandemic

Italy was the first country in Europe to implement a nationwide lockdown. Children and their families lived in nearly complete isolation for almost two months. Students missed 65 days of school compared to an average of 27 missed days among high-income countries worldwide. This prolonged break is of concern, as even short breaks in schooling can cause significant loss of learning for children and lead to educational inequalities over time. At least 3 million Italian students may not have been reached by remote learning due to a lack of internet connectivity or devices at home. This report explores children’s and parents’ experiences of remote learning during the lockdown in Italy, drawing on data collected from 11 European countries (and coordinated by the European Commission’s Joint Research Center). It explores how children's access and use of digital technologies changed during the pandemic; highlights how existing inequalities might undermine remote learning opportunities, even among those with internet access; and provides insights on how to support children’s remote learning in the future. *** L'Italia e’ stata il primo paese in Europa ad aver applicato la misura del lockdown su tutto il territorio. I bambini e le loro famiglie hanno vissuto in quasi completo isolamento per circa due mesi. Gli studenti hanno perduto 65 giorni di scuola rispetto ad una media di 27 negli altri paesi ad alto reddito del mondo. Questa interruzione prolungata rappresenta motivo di preoccupazione, in quanto persino interruzioni piu’ brevi nella didattica possono causare significative perdite nel livello di istruzione dei ragazzi e portare col tempo a diseguaglianze educative. Almeno 3 milioni di studenti in Italia non sono stati coinvolti nella didattica a distanza a causa d una mancanza di connessione ad internet o di dispositivi adeguati a casa. Questo rapporto analizza l’esperienza della didattica a distanza di ragazzi e genitori in Italia durante il lockdown, sulla base dei dati raccolti in 11 paesi europei (e coordinati dal Centro comune di ricerca della Commissione Europea). Studia il cambiamento nell’accesso e nell’uso delle tecnologie digitali dei bambini e ragazzi durante la pandemia; mette in evidenza come le diseguaglianze esistenti possano diminuire le opportunità offerte dalla didattica a distanza, anche tra coloro che hanno accesso ad internet; e fornisce approfondimenti su come sostenere la didattica a distanza di bambini e ragazzi in futuro.
Time to Teach: Teacher attendance and time on task in Eastern and Southern Africa
Publication Publication

Time to Teach: Teacher attendance and time on task in Eastern and Southern Africa

There is a learning crisis. Fifty-three per cent of children in low- and middle-income countries are in ‘learning poverty’, i.e. they cannot read and understand a simple text by the end of primary school age. In sub- Saharan Africa, the learning poverty rate is 87 per cent overall, and ranges from 40 per cent to as high as 99 per cent in the 21 countries with available data. Teachers attending lessons and spending quality time on task is a critical prerequisite to learning. However, in sub-Saharan Africa, teacher absenteeism ranges from 15 to 45 per cent. Teacher absenteeism and reduced time on task wastes valuable financial resources, short-changes students and is one of the most cumbersome obstacles on the path toward the education Sustainable Development Goal and to the related vision of the new UNICEF education strategy: Every Child Learns. Whilst the stark numbers are available to study, and despite teacher absenteeism being a foremost challenge for education systems in Africa, the evidence base on how policies and practices can influence teacher attendance remains scant. Time to Teach (TTT) is a research initiative that looks at primary school teacher attendance in eight countries and territories in the Eastern and Southern Africa (ESA) region: the Comoros; Kenya; Rwanda, Puntland, State of Somalia; South Sudan; the United Republic of Tanzania, mainland; the United Republic of Tanzania, Zanzibar; and Uganda. Its primary objective is to identify factors affecting the various forms of teacher attendance, which include being at school, being punctual, being in the classroom, and teaching when in the classroom, and use this evidence to inform the design and implementation of teacher policies.

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