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UNICEF Innocenti's complete catalogue of research and reports
Increasing Women’s Representation in School Leadership: A promising path towards improving learning
SPOTLIGHT

Increasing Women’s Representation in School Leadership: A promising path towards improving learning

Emerging evidence shows a positive association between women school leaders and student performance. Some studies suggest women school leaders are more likely than their male counterparts to adopt effective management practices that may contribute to improved outcomes. However, women remain largely underrepresented in school leadership positions, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. This brief presents emerging insights on the association between women school leaders and education outcomes and draws attention to women’s underrepresentation in school leadership roles. It highlights the need for further research on gender and school leadership to identify policies and practices that can be implemented to increase women’s representation and scale high-quality management practices adopted by women leaders to more schools to improve education outcomes for all children.
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Annual Report 2021
Publication

Annual Report 2021

The UNICEF Innocenti Annual Report 2021 highlights the key results achieved in research and evidence to inform policymaking and programming.
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Child Poverty and Material Deprivation in the European Union during the Great Recession
Child Poverty and Material Deprivation in the European Union during the Great Recession

AUTHOR(S)
Yekaterina Chzhen

Published: 2014 Innocenti Working Papers
The 2008 financial crisis triggered the first contraction of the world economy in the post-war era. This paper investigates the effect of the economic crisis on child poverty and material deprivation across the EU-28 plus Iceland, Norway and Switzerland. First, it examines if children were affected by the crisis to a greater extent than the population as a whole. Second, it analyses inequities among households with children and the degree to which those in workless households, migrant households, lone parent families and large families were at a greater risk of poverty and deprivation. Finally, it studies the extent to which social safety nets may have softened the negative impact of the economic crisis.
The Consequences of the Recent Economic Crisis and Government Reactions for Children
The Consequences of the Recent Economic Crisis and Government Reactions for Children

AUTHOR(S)
Bruno Martorano

Published: 2014 Innocenti Working Papers
The aim of this paper is to analyse the impact of the different policy reactions of European governments to the recent economic crisis on income distribution and poverty, giving special attention to children. Almost all the governments introduced fiscal stimulus packages in the first phase of the crisis. Nonetheless, the persistence of bad economic conditions led to a drop in the countries’ revenues with a deterioration of their fiscal conditions. In addition, the pressure coming from the financial markets and the resurgence of an orthodox policy approach pushed many governments to introduce austerity measures since 2010. In particular, there was a growing consensus about the necessity of fiscal consolidation despite awareness of the possible negative impact on economic performance and social outcomes. Some governments preferred to increase taxes while others preferred to reduce public expenditure, also cutting benefits and services for children and their families.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 24 | Thematic area: Child Poverty, Social Policies | Tags: crisis, europe, income, inequality, poverty
Lost (in) Dimensions: Consolidating progress in multidimensional poverty research
Lost (in) Dimensions: Consolidating progress in multidimensional poverty research

AUTHOR(S)
Chris De Neubourg; Marlous de Milliano; Ilze Plavgo

Published: 2014 Innocenti Working Papers
Identifying, locating and profiling the poor and deprived individuals in a society are the most basic imperatives for good social policy design. Understanding why people are, and remain, poor is the next analytical step. Multidimensional poverty and deprivation estimates are important new tools in this undertaking. This paper reviews the insights of various contributions from research into multidimensional poverty and deprivation and combines them into an internally consistent framework. The framework adds an important element by emphasising that people may experience various types and forms of poverty and deprivation simultaneously. The experience of poverty is often multifaceted and deprivations are interrelated in many cases. This highlights the necessity to clearly separate the different concepts of poverty and to study their overlap.
Is it possible to adjust ‘with a human face’? Differences in fiscal consolidation strategies between Hungary and Iceland
Is it possible to adjust ‘with a human face’? Differences in fiscal consolidation strategies between Hungary and Iceland

AUTHOR(S)
Bruno Martorano

Published: 2014 Innocenti Working Papers
Before the recent economic crisis, Hungary and Iceland were considered to be two excellent models of development. Hungary and Iceland were among the countries affected earliest and most by the recent macroeconomic shock, suffering a similar drop in GDP.While the Hungarian government implemented a flat tax reform in order to stimulate economic activity, the Icelandic government replaced its flat tax system with a progressive one increasing the participation of high income groups in the adjustment process. The aim of this paper is to compare the opposite adjustment paths followed by Hungary and Iceland on selected outcomes.
Children, ICT and Development: Capturing the potential, meeting the challenges
Children, ICT and Development: Capturing the potential, meeting the challenges

AUTHOR(S)
Patrizia Faustini; Dorothea Kleine; Sammia Poveda; David Hollow

Published: 2014 Innocenti Insights
ICTs are not a technical sphere detached from the complex realities of children’s lives. They are increasingly woven into the very fabric of life, in income-rich and increasingly in income-poor countries. It is clear that if there is no targeted engagement with these socio-technical innovations, they are likely to reinforce existing inequalities. It follows that a focus on children and on greater equity leads to an active and reflective engagement with the potential and challenges of ICT for development, targeting in particular marginalized children. This report serves as a key contribution on which to build informed dialogue and decision making, developed jointly between research, policy and practice.
Multiple Overlapping Deprivation Analysis for the European Union (EU-MODA): Technical Note
Multiple Overlapping Deprivation Analysis for the European Union (EU-MODA): Technical Note

AUTHOR(S)
Yekaterina Chzhen; Chris De Neubourg

Published: 2014 Innocenti Working Papers
The Multiple Overlapping Deprivation Analysis for the European Union (EU-MODA) compares the material well-being of children across the EU member states, using data from the child material deprivation module of the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) 2009. Embedded in the multidimensional poverty measurement literature, EU-MODA applies internationally accepted standards for the construction of indicators and dimensions of child well-being. The analysis ranges from indicator and dimension headcounts, overlaps between several dimensions, decomposition of the adjusted multidimensional deprivation headcounts, to overlaps between monetary poverty and multidimensional deprivation. This technical note describes the EU-MODA methodology in detail.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 30 | Thematic area: Child Poverty, Social Policies
Child Well-being in  Rich Countries: Comparing Japan
Child Well-being in Rich Countries: Comparing Japan
Published: 2013 Innocenti Report Card
Using national data sources from Japan and matching them carefully with the data used in the original Report Card 11, this report manages to include Japan in the league table and subsequent ranking in each of five dimensions in order to assess Japan’s performance in child well-being among developed countries. Maintaining as much as possible the original framework of the RC11, the analysis is based on indicators that are strictly comparable between Japan and the other countries.
UNICEF Research for Children: From evidence to action
UNICEF Research for Children: From evidence to action
Published: 2013 Innocenti Publications
This volume represents the first systematic attempt to showcase the breadth and depth of UNICEF's research work. At the end of 2012, the Office of Research invited UNICEF's country and regional offices, national committees and headquarters to submit recent examples of research for children. Some 91 submissions of research were received and ten were selected to illustrate the best of UNICEF research. The result is a compilation of research activities that covers themes as diverse as the scaling up of early child development and the impact of repatriation on children's lives, and covers geographical areas from latin America to to Asia and from Africa to Europe.
Social Transfers and Child Protection
Social Transfers and Child Protection

AUTHOR(S)
Armando Barrientos; Jasmina Byrne; Juan Miguel Villa; Paola Peña

Published: 2013 Innocenti Working Papers
The paper assesses the available evidence on the potential effects of social transfers on child protection outcomes in low- and middle-income countries: the negative outcomes or damaging exposure of children to violence, exploitation, abuse and neglect, and improved outcomes or a reduction in exposure to these phenomena. The study identifies and evaluates three possible channels through which social transfers can influence child protection outcomes: direct effects observed where the objectives of social transfers are explicit chid protection outcomes; indirect effects where the impact of social transfers on poverty and exclusion leads to improved child protection outcomes; and potential synergies in implementation of social transfers and child protection. It also discusses how the design and implementation of social transfers can contribute to improved child protection outcomes.

A revised version of this report was published in the Children and Youth Services Review
L’analyse du chevauchement des privations multiples (MODA): Directives étape par étape
L’analyse du chevauchement des privations multiples (MODA): Directives étape par étape

AUTHOR(S)
Chris De Neubourg; Jingqing Chai; Marlous de Milliano; Ilze Plavgo; Ziru Wei

Published: 2013 Innocenti Working Papers
L’approche MODA s’appuie sur des études antérieures portant sur la pauvreté multidimensionnelle et englobe un vaste ensemble d’outils, allant de l’incidence des privations unidimensionnelles via l’analyse des chevauchements multiples aux taux de privation multidimensionnelle et à leur décomposition. La méthodologie MODA place l’enfant au cœur de l’analyse et se concentre sur les aspects liés au bien-être qui sont pertinents pour les enfants à certains stades de leur vie. En outre, l’analyse indique les privations simultanées dont les enfants sont victimes.
Étude transnationale MODA : Analyse du chevauchement des privations multiples (MODA) - Note technique
Étude transnationale MODA : Analyse du chevauchement des privations multiples (MODA) - Note technique

AUTHOR(S)
Chris De Neubourg; Jingqing Chai; Marlous de Milliano; Ilze Plavgo; Ziru Wei

Published: 2013 Innocenti Working Papers
L’analyse du chevauchement des privations multiples (MODA) est une méthodologie mise au point par l’UNICEF qui propose une approche globale des aspects multidimensionnels de la pauvreté et des privations des enfants. L’approche MODA s’appuie sur des études antérieures sur la pauvreté multidimensionnelle et englobe un vaste ensemble d’outils, allant de l’incidence des privations unidimensionnelles via l’analyse des chevauchements multiples aux taux de privation multidimensionnelle et à leur décomposition. La méthodologie MODA place l’enfant au cœur de l’analyse et se concentre sur les aspects liés au bien-être qui sont pertinents pour les enfants à certains stades de leur vie.
The Urban Divide: Poor and middle class children’s experiences of school in Dhaka, Bangladesh
The Urban Divide: Poor and middle class children’s experiences of school in Dhaka, Bangladesh

AUTHOR(S)
Stuart Cameron

Published: 2012 Innocenti Working Papers
Children living in urban slums in Dhaka, Bangladesh, often have poor access to school and attend different types of school than students from middle class households. This paper asks whether their experiences in school also disadvantage them further in terms of their learning outcomes and the likelihood of dropping out. It is based on interviews with 36 students aged 11-16 from both slum and middle-class backgrounds, in 2012. The paper discusses how these experiences in school are likely to heighten the risk of dropping out for slum students, analyses the results in terms of de-facto privatization and school accountability, and recommends better regulation of private tuition, and teaching styles that are less obsessed with examination results.
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Responsible Innovation in Technology for Children: Digital technology, play and child well-being
Publication

Responsible Innovation in Technology for Children: Digital technology, play and child well-being

Digital experiences can have significant negative impact on children, exposing them to risks or failing to nurture them adequately. Nevertheless, digital experiences also potentially yield enormous benefits for children, enabling them to learn, to create, to develop friendships, and to build worlds. While global efforts to deepen our understanding of the prevalence and impact of digital risks of harm are burgeoning – a development that is both welcome and necessary – less attention has been paid to understanding and optimizing the benefits that digital technology can provide in supporting children’s rights and their well-being. Benefits here refer not only to the absence of harm, but also to creating additional positive value. How should we recognize the opportunities and benefits of digital technology for children’s well-being? What is the relationship between the design of digital experiences – in particular, play-centred design – and the well-being of children? What guidance and measures can we use to strengthen the design of digital environments to promote positive outcomes for children? And how can we make sure that children’s insights and needs form the foundation of our work in this space? These questions matter for all those who design and promote digital experiences, to keep children safe and happy, and enable positive development and learning. These questions are particularly relevant as the world shifts its attention to emerging digital technologies and experiences, from artificial intelligence (AI) to the metaverse, and seeks to understand their impact on people and society. To begin to tackle these questions, UNICEF and the LEGO Group initiated the Responsible Innovation in Technology for Children (RITEC) project in partnership with the Young and Resilient Research Centre at Western Sydney University; the CREATE Lab at New York University; the Graduate Center, City University of New York; the University of Sheffield; the Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for the Digital Child; and the Joan Ganz Cooney Center. The research is funded by the LEGO Foundation. The partnership is an international, multi-stakeholder and cross-sectoral collaboration between organizations that believe the design and development of digital technology should support the rights and well-being of children as a primary objective – and that children should have a prominent voice in making this a reality. This project’s primary objective is to develop, with children from around the world, a framework that maps how the design of children’s digital experiences affects their well-being, and to provide guidance as to how informed design choices can promote positive well-being outcomes.
Resources to Support Marginalized Caregivers of Children with Disabilities: Guidelines for Implementation
Publication

Resources to Support Marginalized Caregivers of Children with Disabilities: Guidelines for Implementation

Support from caregivers is critical for children’s learning both at home and at school. However, the COVID-19 pandemic and disruption of education systems globally created additional expectations for parents to support their children’s learning at home. This particularly affected the most marginalized children as the crises exacerbated already existing inequalities in education. This document introduces the approach and purpose of a set of resources to support the marginalized caregivers of children with disabilities with inclusive education. It presents lessons learned from proof-of-concept pilots in Armenia and Uzbekistan, followed by step-by-step guidelines on how to adopt and adapt the resources for education ministries and others who want to implement them in their education system.
Reopening with Resilience: Lessons from Remote Learning during COVID-19: Europe and Central Asia
Publication

Reopening with Resilience: Lessons from Remote Learning during COVID-19: Europe and Central Asia

When schools started closing their doors due to COVID-19, countries in Europe and Central Asia quickly provided alternative learning solutions for children to continue learning. More than 90 per cent of countries offered digital solutions to ensure that education activities could continue. However, lack of access to digital devices and a reliable internet connection excluded a significant amount of already marginalized children and threatened to widen the existing learning disparities. This report builds on existing evidence highlighting key lessons learned during the pandemic to promote learning for all during school closure and provides actionable policy recommendations on how to bridge the digital divide and build resilient education systems in Europe and Central Asia.

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