Child Poverty and Material Deprivation in the European Union during the Great Recession

Child Poverty and Material Deprivation in the European Union during the Great Recession

AUTHOR(S)
Yekaterina Chzhen

Published: 2014 Innocenti Working Papers
The 2008 financial crisis triggered the first contraction of the world economy in the post-war era. This paper investigates the effect of the economic crisis on child poverty and material deprivation across the EU-28 plus Iceland, Norway and Switzerland. First, it examines if children were affected by the crisis to a greater extent than the population as a whole. Second, it analyses inequities among households with children and the degree to which those in workless households, migrant households, lone parent families and large families were at a greater risk of poverty and deprivation. Finally, it studies the extent to which social safety nets may have softened the negative impact of the economic crisis.
The Consequences of the Recent Economic Crisis and Government Reactions for Children

The Consequences of the Recent Economic Crisis and Government Reactions for Children

AUTHOR(S)
Bruno Martorano

Published: 2014 Innocenti Working Papers
The aim of this paper is to analyse the impact of the different policy reactions of European governments to the recent economic crisis on income distribution and poverty, giving special attention to children. Almost all the governments introduced fiscal stimulus packages in the first phase of the crisis. Nonetheless, the persistence of bad economic conditions led to a drop in the countries’ revenues with a deterioration of their fiscal conditions. In addition, the pressure coming from the financial markets and the resurgence of an orthodox policy approach pushed many governments to introduce austerity measures since 2010. In particular, there was a growing consensus about the necessity of fiscal consolidation despite awareness of the possible negative impact on economic performance and social outcomes. Some governments preferred to increase taxes while others preferred to reduce public expenditure, also cutting benefits and services for children and their families.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 24 | Thematic area: Child Poverty, Social Policies | Tags: crisis, europe, income, inequality, poverty
Lost (in) Dimensions: Consolidating progress in multidimensional poverty research

Lost (in) Dimensions: Consolidating progress in multidimensional poverty research

AUTHOR(S)
Chris De Neubourg; Marlous de Milliano; Ilze Plavgo

Published: 2014 Innocenti Working Papers
Identifying, locating and profiling the poor and deprived individuals in a society are the most basic imperatives for good social policy design. Understanding why people are, and remain, poor is the next analytical step. Multidimensional poverty and deprivation estimates are important new tools in this undertaking. This paper reviews the insights of various contributions from research into multidimensional poverty and deprivation and combines them into an internally consistent framework. The framework adds an important element by emphasising that people may experience various types and forms of poverty and deprivation simultaneously. The experience of poverty is often multifaceted and deprivations are interrelated in many cases. This highlights the necessity to clearly separate the different concepts of poverty and to study their overlap.
Is it possible to adjust ‘with a human face’? Differences in fiscal consolidation strategies between Hungary and Iceland

Is it possible to adjust ‘with a human face’? Differences in fiscal consolidation strategies between Hungary and Iceland

AUTHOR(S)
Bruno Martorano

Published: 2014 Innocenti Working Papers
Before the recent economic crisis, Hungary and Iceland were considered to be two excellent models of development. Hungary and Iceland were among the countries affected earliest and most by the recent macroeconomic shock, suffering a similar drop in GDP.While the Hungarian government implemented a flat tax reform in order to stimulate economic activity, the Icelandic government replaced its flat tax system with a progressive one increasing the participation of high income groups in the adjustment process. The aim of this paper is to compare the opposite adjustment paths followed by Hungary and Iceland on selected outcomes.
Children, ICT and Development: Capturing the potential, meeting the challenges

Children, ICT and Development: Capturing the potential, meeting the challenges

AUTHOR(S)
Patrizia Faustini; Dorothea Kleine; Sammia Poveda; David Hollow

Published: 2014 Innocenti Insights
ICTs are not a technical sphere detached from the complex realities of children’s lives. They are increasingly woven into the very fabric of life, in income-rich and increasingly in income-poor countries. It is clear that if there is no targeted engagement with these socio-technical innovations, they are likely to reinforce existing inequalities. It follows that a focus on children and on greater equity leads to an active and reflective engagement with the potential and challenges of ICT for development, targeting in particular marginalized children. This report serves as a key contribution on which to build informed dialogue and decision making, developed jointly between research, policy and practice.
Multiple Overlapping Deprivation Analysis for the European Union (EU-MODA): Technical Note

Multiple Overlapping Deprivation Analysis for the European Union (EU-MODA): Technical Note

AUTHOR(S)
Yekaterina Chzhen; Chris De Neubourg

Published: 2014 Innocenti Working Papers
The Multiple Overlapping Deprivation Analysis for the European Union (EU-MODA) compares the material well-being of children across the EU member states, using data from the child material deprivation module of the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) 2009. Embedded in the multidimensional poverty measurement literature, EU-MODA applies internationally accepted standards for the construction of indicators and dimensions of child well-being. The analysis ranges from indicator and dimension headcounts, overlaps between several dimensions, decomposition of the adjusted multidimensional deprivation headcounts, to overlaps between monetary poverty and multidimensional deprivation. This technical note describes the EU-MODA methodology in detail.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 30 | Thematic area: Child Poverty, Social Policies
Child Well-being in  Rich Countries: Comparing Japan

Child Well-being in Rich Countries: Comparing Japan

Published: 2013 Innocenti Report Card
Using national data sources from Japan and matching them carefully with the data used in the original Report Card 11, this report manages to include Japan in the league table and subsequent ranking in each of five dimensions in order to assess Japan’s performance in child well-being among developed countries. Maintaining as much as possible the original framework of the RC11, the analysis is based on indicators that are strictly comparable between Japan and the other countries.
UNICEF Research for Children: From evidence to action

UNICEF Research for Children: From evidence to action

Published: 2013 Innocenti Publications
This volume represents the first systematic attempt to showcase the breadth and depth of UNICEF's research work. At the end of 2012, the Office of Research invited UNICEF's country and regional offices, national committees and headquarters to submit recent examples of research for children. Some 91 submissions of research were received and ten were selected to illustrate the best of UNICEF research. The result is a compilation of research activities that covers themes as diverse as the scaling up of early child development and the impact of repatriation on children's lives, and covers geographical areas from latin America to to Asia and from Africa to Europe.
Social Transfers and Child Protection

Social Transfers and Child Protection

AUTHOR(S)
Armando Barrientos; Jasmina Byrne; Juan Miguel Villa; Paola Peña

Published: 2013 Innocenti Working Papers
The paper assesses the available evidence on the potential effects of social transfers on child protection outcomes in low- and middle-income countries: the negative outcomes or damaging exposure of children to violence, exploitation, abuse and neglect, and improved outcomes or a reduction in exposure to these phenomena. The study identifies and evaluates three possible channels through which social transfers can influence child protection outcomes: direct effects observed where the objectives of social transfers are explicit chid protection outcomes; indirect effects where the impact of social transfers on poverty and exclusion leads to improved child protection outcomes; and potential synergies in implementation of social transfers and child protection. It also discusses how the design and implementation of social transfers can contribute to improved child protection outcomes.

A revised version of this report was published in the Children and Youth Services Review
L’analyse du chevauchement des privations multiples (MODA): Directives étape par étape

L’analyse du chevauchement des privations multiples (MODA): Directives étape par étape

AUTHOR(S)
Chris De Neubourg; Jingqing Chai; Marlous de Milliano; Ilze Plavgo; Ziru Wei

Published: 2013 Innocenti Working Papers
L’approche MODA s’appuie sur des études antérieures portant sur la pauvreté multidimensionnelle et englobe un vaste ensemble d’outils, allant de l’incidence des privations unidimensionnelles via l’analyse des chevauchements multiples aux taux de privation multidimensionnelle et à leur décomposition. La méthodologie MODA place l’enfant au cœur de l’analyse et se concentre sur les aspects liés au bien-être qui sont pertinents pour les enfants à certains stades de leur vie. En outre, l’analyse indique les privations simultanées dont les enfants sont victimes.
Étude transnationale MODA : Analyse du chevauchement des privations multiples (MODA) - Note technique

Étude transnationale MODA : Analyse du chevauchement des privations multiples (MODA) - Note technique

AUTHOR(S)
Chris De Neubourg; Jingqing Chai; Marlous de Milliano; Ilze Plavgo; Ziru Wei

Published: 2013 Innocenti Working Papers
L’analyse du chevauchement des privations multiples (MODA) est une méthodologie mise au point par l’UNICEF qui propose une approche globale des aspects multidimensionnels de la pauvreté et des privations des enfants. L’approche MODA s’appuie sur des études antérieures sur la pauvreté multidimensionnelle et englobe un vaste ensemble d’outils, allant de l’incidence des privations unidimensionnelles via l’analyse des chevauchements multiples aux taux de privation multidimensionnelle et à leur décomposition. La méthodologie MODA place l’enfant au cœur de l’analyse et se concentre sur les aspects liés au bien-être qui sont pertinents pour les enfants à certains stades de leur vie.
The Urban Divide: Poor and middle class children’s experiences of school in Dhaka, Bangladesh

The Urban Divide: Poor and middle class children’s experiences of school in Dhaka, Bangladesh

AUTHOR(S)
Stuart Cameron

Published: 2012 Innocenti Working Papers
Children living in urban slums in Dhaka, Bangladesh, often have poor access to school and attend different types of school than students from middle class households. This paper asks whether their experiences in school also disadvantage them further in terms of their learning outcomes and the likelihood of dropping out. It is based on interviews with 36 students aged 11-16 from both slum and middle-class backgrounds, in 2012. The paper discusses how these experiences in school are likely to heighten the risk of dropping out for slum students, analyses the results in terms of de-facto privatization and school accountability, and recommends better regulation of private tuition, and teaching styles that are less obsessed with examination results.
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