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UNICEF Innocenti's complete catalogue of research and reports
Life in Lockdown: Child and adolescent mental health and well-being in the time of COVID-19
SPOTLIGHT

Life in Lockdown: Child and adolescent mental health and well-being in the time of COVID-19

COVID-19 lockdowns have significantly disrupted the daily lives of children and adolescents, with increased time at home, online learning and limited physical social interaction. This report seeks to understand the immediate effects on their mental health. Covering more than 130,000 children and adolescents across 22 countries, the evidence shows increased stress, anxiety and depressive symptoms, as well as increased alcohol and substance use, and  externalizing behavioural problems. Children and adolescents also reported positive coping strategies, resilience, social connectedness through digital media, more family time, and relief from academic stress. Factors such as demographics, relationships and pre-existing conditions are critical. To ensure children and adolescents are supported, the report recommends building the evidence on the longer-term impact of the pandemic on child and adolescent mental health in low- and middle-income countries, including vulnerable populations. To ensure children and adolescents are supported, the report recommends building the evidence on the longer-term impact of the pandemic on child and adolescent mental health in low- and middle-income countries, including vulnerable populations.
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COVID-19: Missing More Than a Classroom. The impact of school closures on children’s nutrition
Blog Blog

COVID-19: Missing More Than a Classroom. The impact of school closures on children’s nutrition

In 2019, 135 million people in 55 countries were in food crises or worse, and 2 billion people did not have regular access to safe, nutritious and sufficient food. COVID-19 has exacerbated these hardships and may result in an additional 121 million people facing acute food insecurity by the end of 2020. Further, since the beginning of the pandemic, an estimated 1.6 billion learners in 199 countries worldwide were affected by school closures, with nearly 370 million children not receiving a school meal in 150 countries. The paper presents the evidence on the potential negative short-term and long-term effects of school meal scheme disruption during Covid-19 globally. It shows how vulnerable the children participating in these schemes are, how coping and mitigation measures are often only short-term solutions, and how prioritizing school re-opening is critical. For instance, it highlights how girls are at greater risk of not being in school or of being taken out of school early, which may lead to poor nutrition and health for themselves and their children. However, well-designed school feeding programmes have been shown to enable catch-up from early growth failure and other negative shocks. As such, once schools re-open, school meal schemes can help address the deprivation that children have experienced during the closures and provide an incentive for parents to send and keep their children, especially girls, in school.
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Pobreza infantil em perspectiva: visão de conjunto do bem-estar da criança nos países ricos
Pobreza infantil em perspectiva: visão de conjunto do bem-estar da criança nos países ricos
Published: 2007 Innocenti Report Card
Este relatório surge na sequência do Report Card Nº. 6, expandindo as análises nele contidas que consideravam a pobreza relativa de rendimento que afecta as crianças e as políticas para mitigar os seus efeitos. O Report Card 7 proporciona uma visão de conjunto do bem-estar da criança nos países ricos utilizando seis dimensões: bem-estar material, saúde e segurança, educação, relacionamento com a família e os pares, bem-estar subjectivo, comportamentos e riscos, à luz da Convenção sobre os Direitos da Criança e da literatura académica relevante.
Проблема детской бедности в перспективе: Обзор благополучия детей в богатых странах
Проблема детской бедности в перспективе: Обзор благополучия детей в богатых странах
Published: 2007 Innocenti Report Card
В данном выпуске содержится всесторонний анализ жизни и благополучия детей и подростков в 21 промышленно развитой стране. Такой анализ преследует цель оказать содействие мониторингу и дает возможность проводить сравнения и всячески способствовать обсуждению вопросов, касающихся улучшения жизни детей и разработки соответствующей политики.
Child Poverty in Perspective: An overview of child well-being in rich countries
Child Poverty in Perspective: An overview of child well-being in rich countries
Published: 2007 Innocenti Report Card
This report builds and expands upon the analyses of Report Card No. 6 which considered relative income poverty affecting children and policies to mitigate it. Report Card 7 provides a pioneering, comprehensive picture of child well being through the consideration of six dimensions: material well-being, health and safety, education, family and peer relationships, subjective well-being, behaviours and lifestyles informed by the Convention on the Rights of the Child and relevant academic literature.
Innocenti Social Monitor 2006: Understanding child poverty in South-Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States. Overview
Innocenti Social Monitor 2006: Understanding child poverty in South-Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States. Overview
Published: 2006 Innocenti Social Monitor
This is an overview to the Innnocenti Social Monitor 2006 which studies child poverty in a fast-changing region. Since 1998 almost all countries of the South-Eastern Europe and Commonwealth of Independent States region have shown signs of economic recovery. The numbers of people living in income poverty has fallen, living standards have generally improved and opportunities for many children in the region have expanded. This signals a turning point in the dramatic decline in social and economic conditions experienced by most children in the region in the early 1990s. Yet there is a serious risk that a part of the new generations of children born since the start of the transition is being left behind. The study shows that not all children are benefiting from the economic growth and that Governments in the region need to give higher policy priority to tackling disadvantage and deprivation endured by children. Pursuing a child rights perspective, the study set outs to measure and understand better the nature and scale of child poverty, as distinct from adult poverty; it highlights the large disparities in child well-being which have emerged in this period of economic expansion, between countries, between regions within countries, and between families; it points to ways in which governments in the region could more effectively address marginalisation and disparities among children. The Innocenti Social Monitor 2006 provides practical examples of ways in which children can be given distinct attention and visibility in the analysis of poverty and in policy priorities, while also stressing that data collection has to be improved and made more accessible in order to allow the impact of policies on children to be effectively assessed and addressed.
Innocenti Social Monitor 2006: Understanding child poverty in South-Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States. Overview
Innocenti Social Monitor 2006: Understanding child poverty in South-Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States. Overview
Published: 2006 Innocenti Publications
This is an overview to the Innnocenti Social Monitor 2006 which studies child poverty in a fast-changing region. Since 1998 almost all countries of the South-Eastern Europe and Commonwealth of Independent States region have shown signs of economic recovery. The numbers of people living in income poverty has fallen, living standards have generally improved and opportunities for many children in the region have expanded. This signals a turning point in the dramatic decline in social and economic conditions experienced by most children in the region in the early 1990s. Yet there is a serious risk that a part of the new generations of children born since the start of the transition is being left behind. The study shows that not all children are benefiting from the economic growth and that Governments in the region need to give higher policy priority to tackling disadvantage and deprivation endured by children. Pursuing a child rights perspective, the study set outs to measure and understand better the nature and scale of child poverty, as distinct from adult poverty; it highlights the large disparities in child well-being which have emerged in this period of economic expansion, between countries, between regions within countries, and between families; it points to ways in which governments in the region could more effectively address marginalisation and disparities among children. The Innocenti Social Monitor 2006 provides practical examples of ways in which children can be given distinct attention and visibility in the analysis of poverty and in policy priorities, while also stressing that data collection has to be improved and made more accessible in order to allow the impact of policies on children to be effectively assessed and addressed.
Pobreza infantil nos paises ricos 2005
Pobreza infantil nos paises ricos 2005
Published: 2006 Innocenti Report Card
Este estudo de 2005 sobre pobreza infantil nos países ricos conclui que a percentagem de crianças pobres no mundo desenvolvido aumentou em 17 dos 24 países da OCDE para os quais existem dados. Independentemente do instrumento aplicado para medir a pobreza, a situação das crianças parece ter-se deteriorado ao longo da última década. A redução da pobreza infantil é uma medida do progresso no sentido da coesão social, da igualdade de oportunidades e do investimento nas crianças de hoje e no mundo de amanhã.
Alternative Tax-benefit Strategies to Support Children in the European Union. Recent Reforms in Austria, Spain and the United Kingdom
Alternative Tax-benefit Strategies to Support Children in the European Union. Recent Reforms in Austria, Spain and the United Kingdom
Published: 2005 Innocenti Working Papers
In this paper the situation of three EU countries that have recently experienced substantial but very different reforms of their systems to support families with children is analysed and compared: Austria, Spain and the United Kingdom. The structure of these systems is very different: Austria gives emphasis to universal benefits, Spain to tax concessions and the United Kingdom to means-tested benefits.
Through Children's Eyes: An initial study of children's personal experiences and coping strategies growing up poor in an affluent Netherlands
Through Children's Eyes: An initial study of children's personal experiences and coping strategies growing up poor in an affluent Netherlands
Published: 2005 Innocenti Working Papers
This study seeks to promote children’s visibility and their voices within the scope of research on child poverty in rich countries through both a theoretical and empirical exploration. It discusses how recent sociological approaches to the study of childhood can further advance attempts to consider poverty from the perspective of the child. Additionally, to further understand children’s own responses to growing up in poverty, current literature on coping mechanisms among children is considered. Subsequently, this study seeks to give children’s perspectives, on the basis of qualitative in-depth interviews conducted in the Netherlands among six- to sixteen-year-old children (and their parents) of 65 families living at the national minimum benefit level.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 49 | Thematic area: Child Poverty | Tags: child poverty, child welfare
Child Poverty in Rich Countries 2005
Child Poverty in Rich Countries 2005
Published: 2005 Innocenti Report Card
The proportion of children living in poverty has risen in a majority of the world's developed economies. No matter which of the commonly-used poverty measures is applied, the situation of children is seen to have deteriorated over the last decade. This publication is the sixth in a series of Innocenti Report Cards designed to monitor and compare the performance of the OECD countries in meeting the needs of their children.
La pauvreté des enfants dans les pays riches 2005
La pauvreté des enfants dans les pays riches 2005
Published: 2005 Innocenti Report Card
La proportion d’enfants dans l’indigence a augmenté au sein de la plupart des économies développées dans le monde. Quels que soient les critères retenus parmi ceux communément utilisés pour mesurer la pauvreté, force est de constater que la situation des enfants s’est dégradée au cours de la dernière décennie. Cette publication est la sixième de la série des Bilans Innocenti qui visent à suivre et à comparer les résultats obtenus par les pays de l’OCDE pour répondre aux besoins de leurs enfants.
Pobreza infantil en países ricos 2005
Pobreza infantil en países ricos 2005
Published: 2005 Innocenti Report Card
La proporción de niños que viven en situación de pobreza ha aumentado en la mayoría de las economías desarrolladas. Independientemente del instrumento aplicado para medir la pobreza, la situación de los niños ha experimentado un deterioro en la última década. Esta publicación es el sexto número de una serie titulada Innocenti Report Cards (Boletines de Clasificaciones Innocenti), cuyo objetivo es evaluar y comparar en qué medida los países de la OCDE cubren las necesidades de sus niños.
Povertà dei bambini nei paesi ricchi 2005
Povertà dei bambini nei paesi ricchi 2005
Published: 2005 Innocenti Report Card
La percentuale di bambini poveri è aumentata nella maggior parte delle economie sviluppate del mondo. Indipendentemente dai parametri applicati comunemente per misurare la povertà, la situazione dei bambini risulta essere peggiorata negli ultimi dieci anni. Invertire questa tendenza è una priorità per i paesi OCSE. La riduzione della povertà infantile è una misura del progresso verso la coesione sociale, l'uguaglianza di opportunità, e un investimento sui bambini di oggi e sul mondo di domani. Questa pubblicazione è la sesta della serie Report Cards Innocenti, concepita per registrare e comparare la prestazione dei paesi OCSE nel soddisfare le esigenze dei loro bambini.
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Learning at a Distance: Children’s remote learning experiences in Italy during the COVID-19 pandemic
Publication Publication

Learning at a Distance: Children’s remote learning experiences in Italy during the COVID-19 pandemic

Italy was the first country in Europe to implement a nationwide lockdown. Children and their families lived in nearly complete isolation for almost two months. Students missed 65 days of school compared to an average of 27 missed days among high-income countries worldwide. This prolonged break is of concern, as even short breaks in schooling can cause significant loss of learning for children and lead to educational inequalities over time. At least 3 million Italian students may not have been reached by remote learning due to a lack of internet connectivity or devices at home. This report explores children’s and parents’ experiences of remote learning during the lockdown in Italy, drawing on data collected from 11 European countries (and coordinated by the European Commission’s Joint Research Center). It explores how children's access and use of digital technologies changed during the pandemic; highlights how existing inequalities might undermine remote learning opportunities, even among those with internet access; and provides insights on how to support children’s remote learning in the future. *** L'Italia e’ stata il primo paese in Europa ad aver applicato la misura del lockdown su tutto il territorio. I bambini e le loro famiglie hanno vissuto in quasi completo isolamento per circa due mesi. Gli studenti hanno perduto 65 giorni di scuola rispetto ad una media di 27 negli altri paesi ad alto reddito del mondo. Questa interruzione prolungata rappresenta motivo di preoccupazione, in quanto persino interruzioni piu’ brevi nella didattica possono causare significative perdite nel livello di istruzione dei ragazzi e portare col tempo a diseguaglianze educative. Almeno 3 milioni di studenti in Italia non sono stati coinvolti nella didattica a distanza a causa d una mancanza di connessione ad internet o di dispositivi adeguati a casa. Questo rapporto analizza l’esperienza della didattica a distanza di ragazzi e genitori in Italia durante il lockdown, sulla base dei dati raccolti in 11 paesi europei (e coordinati dal Centro comune di ricerca della Commissione Europea). Studia il cambiamento nell’accesso e nell’uso delle tecnologie digitali dei bambini e ragazzi durante la pandemia; mette in evidenza come le diseguaglianze esistenti possano diminuire le opportunità offerte dalla didattica a distanza, anche tra coloro che hanno accesso ad internet; e fornisce approfondimenti su come sostenere la didattica a distanza di bambini e ragazzi in futuro.
Time to Teach: Teacher attendance and time on task in Eastern and Southern Africa
Publication Publication

Time to Teach: Teacher attendance and time on task in Eastern and Southern Africa

There is a learning crisis. Fifty-three per cent of children in low- and middle-income countries are in ‘learning poverty’, i.e. they cannot read and understand a simple text by the end of primary school age. In sub- Saharan Africa, the learning poverty rate is 87 per cent overall, and ranges from 40 per cent to as high as 99 per cent in the 21 countries with available data. Teachers attending lessons and spending quality time on task is a critical prerequisite to learning. However, in sub-Saharan Africa, teacher absenteeism ranges from 15 to 45 per cent. Teacher absenteeism and reduced time on task wastes valuable financial resources, short-changes students and is one of the most cumbersome obstacles on the path toward the education Sustainable Development Goal and to the related vision of the new UNICEF education strategy: Every Child Learns. Whilst the stark numbers are available to study, and despite teacher absenteeism being a foremost challenge for education systems in Africa, the evidence base on how policies and practices can influence teacher attendance remains scant. Time to Teach (TTT) is a research initiative that looks at primary school teacher attendance in eight countries and territories in the Eastern and Southern Africa (ESA) region: the Comoros; Kenya; Rwanda, Puntland, State of Somalia; South Sudan; the United Republic of Tanzania, mainland; the United Republic of Tanzania, Zanzibar; and Uganda. Its primary objective is to identify factors affecting the various forms of teacher attendance, which include being at school, being punctual, being in the classroom, and teaching when in the classroom, and use this evidence to inform the design and implementation of teacher policies.

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