Child Mortality and Injury in Asia: Survey methods

Child Mortality and Injury in Asia: Survey methods

AUTHOR(S)
Michael (et al.) Linnan

Published: 2007 Innocenti Working Papers
Special Series on Child Injury no.2

This paper presents a more detailed description of the survey methodology for technical specialists interested in understanding the major differences between the surveys and the methods previously used to estimate child deaths. A detailed description is provided for survey governance, sampling design, survey instruments, the classification scheme for mortality and morbidity measured in the surveys, the fieldwork procedure, the analytic framework, weighting and adjustments, and survey costs. Following this, a number of methodological lessons are addressed, such as: the need to count all children and not only those under five years of age; the need to count all clearly identifiable causes of death in those same groups; the need to count morbidity as well as mortality; and the need to count the deaths in the community where they occur to avoid the various biases associated with facility-based counting. A number of examples from the surveys are shown to illuminate the issues so that they are clear to non-technical readers.
Child Mortality and Injury in Asia: Survey results and evidence

Child Mortality and Injury in Asia: Survey results and evidence

AUTHOR(S)
Michael (et al.) Linnan

Published: 2007 Innocenti Working Papers
Special Series on Child Injury no.3

This paper presents a detailed description of the survey results which were introduced in the Overview Paper. Detailed results are presented first for proportional mortality in children by age group for a population-weighted composite of the surveys, and then for the individual surveys. Following this, detailed results are presented for fatal injury by national or sub-national area, region (urban/rural), and gender for the 0-17 age group. After this the types of fatal injury that occur in the different stages of childhood are presented. The second part of the paper presents both fatal and nonfatal injury by type of injury for the composite of the surveys as well as the individual surveys themselves. The results show that the leading causes of nonfatal injury differ from those of fatal injury, and the greatest burden is caused by the more serious categories of nonfatal injury. Finally, the ratio of the two leading causes of fatal injury in children, drowning and road accidents, are presented for each of the surveys. Drowning is shown to be the leading cause of fatal childhood injury in each survey. The paper concludes with a discussion of the major issues highlighted by the results of the surveys.
Child Mortality and Injury in Asia: Policy and programme implications

Child Mortality and Injury in Asia: Policy and programme implications

AUTHOR(S)
Michael (et al.) Linnan

Published: 2007 Innocenti Working Papers
Special Series on Child Injury no.4

This paper presents a summary of the findings of the national and sub-national surveys and discusses the implications of the results on child health policy and programmes.The principal finding is that injury has generally been unrecognized as a leading cause of child death. This is largely because the previous estimates of child mortality causality were unable to include injury due to technical issues. The surveys provide convincing evidence that injury is a leading cause of child death after infancy and the types of injury vary with the age group of the child. Similar convincing evidence shows that it is a leading cause of serious morbidity and permanent disability in children The implications discussed are 1) the need to develop an effective measure of child mortality that includes all ages of childhood; 2) prevention of mortality and serious morbidity from injury in children will require a life-cycle approach; 3) continued progress on child survival programming in children under five years of age will require injury reductions; 4) that drowning is the single injury cause responsible for about half of all injury deaths and targeting it for reduction would be an efficient strategy; and 5) there are efficient strategies for targeting other sub-types of child injury as well.
AIDS, Public Policy and Child Well-being

AIDS, Public Policy and Child Well-being

AUTHOR(S)
Giovanni Andrea Cornia

Published: 2007 Innocenti Publications
This study addresses one of the greatest challenges of our time: the damage caused by HIV and AIDS to the well-being of children and families. With 38.6 million people affected by HIV in 2006, with HIV prevalence at antenatal clinics exceeding 40 per cent in areas of Botswana and KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa), with nationwide adult prevalence in excess of the critical threshold of 20 per cent in several countries, and with the prospect of a rapid spread of the disease in large swathes of India, China and the Russian Federation, the future of child well-being is seriously threatened. Certainly, in the 50 or so countries affected by the disease, the Millennium Development Goals in the field of child survival, education, poverty and basic rights will be missed, often by a large margin.
Child Trafficking in Europe: A broad vision to put children first (summary)

Child Trafficking in Europe: A broad vision to put children first (summary)

Published: 2007 Innocenti Publications
Within and across borders in Europe, children are trafficked into a variety of exploitative situations, violating their human rights and threatening their survival and development. This report assesses the legal, policy and implementation frameworks in place to address child trafficking in the region. Covering more than 50 countries/entities, the report investigates the complexity of the trafficking phenomenon, and maps trafficking patterns and targeted legal and policy responses. Child trafficking is addressed in the framework of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, with a focus on prevention, protection and empowerment.
Child Trafficking in Europe: A broad vision to put children first

Child Trafficking in Europe: A broad vision to put children first

Published: 2007 Innocenti Insights
Within and across borders in Europe, children are trafficked into a variety of exploitative situations, violating their human rights and threatening their survival and development. This report assesses the legal, policy and implementation frameworks in place to address child trafficking in the region. Covering more than 50 countries/entities, the report investigates the complexity of the trafficking phenomenon, and maps trafficking patterns and targeted legal and policy responses. Child trafficking is addressed in the framework of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, with a focus on prevention, protection and empowerment.
Protégeons les enfants touchés par le VIH et le SIDA

Protégeons les enfants touchés par le VIH et le SIDA

Published: 2006 Innocenti Insights
Le rapport étudie les options de protection des enfants dans les communautés touchées par la pandémie du SIDA. Partant du principe que le lien parent-enfant est la pierre angulaire du développement de l’enfant et que la famille est l’élément fondamental de la société, le rapport considère tout d’abord les moyens de garder aussi longtemps que possible les parents en vie et la famille unie. Il examine ensuite les solutions alternatives de protection au-delà de la famille la plus proche. Les arrangements vont de la prise en charge par la famille élargie, à travers différentes formes d’accueil dans la communauté, à l’adoption et au placement en établissement. Le rapport met en lumière les façons dont les acteurs extérieurs à la proche communauté peuvent soutenir et améliorer la capacité des ménages et des communautés à prendre soin des enfants livrés à eux-mêmes.
Caring for Children Affected by HIV and AIDS

Caring for Children Affected by HIV and AIDS

Published: 2006 Innocenti Insights
This IRC Insight highlights the urgent need to support families and communities to care for children orphaned by HIV/AIDS. The report looks at how the epidemic undermines children's health and schooling, and reinforces marginalization and deprivation. It explores the options for the care of children in communities affected by the AIDS epidemic. Beginning with the premise that the parent-child bond is the basic building block of child development and the family the basic unit of society, the report looks at ways to keep the family together for as long as possible. It then goes on to explore alternative care arrangements beyond the immediate family. Settings range from care by the extended family, to different forms of fostering in the community, through adoption and placement in residential institutions, which should be used as a last resort.
Protegiendo a la infancia afectada por el VIH y el SIDA

Protegiendo a la infancia afectada por el VIH y el SIDA

Published: 2006 Innocenti Insights
Investiga las posibilidades del cuidado de niños y niñas en comunidades afectadas por la pandemia del SIDA. Partiendo de la premisa de que el vínculo entre padre/madre e hijo/a es el componente más importante para el pleno desarrollo del niño y que la familia es la unidad básica de la sociedad, el informe estudia en primer lugar las posibilidades existentes para mantener a los padres vivos y a la familia junta el mayor tiempo posible. A continuación examina los cuidados alternativos más allá de la familia más próxima. Estos cuidados van desde los cuidados por la familia extensa o en diferentes formas de familias de acogida, hasta la adopción o ingreso en residencias. El informe hace hincapié en las maneras en que actores no pertenecientes a la comunidad más próxima pueden ayudar a sostener y mejorar la capacidad de los hogares y las comunidades en el cuidado de los niños y niñas que se quedan solos.
Prendersi cura dei bambini colpiti da HIV ed AIDS

Prendersi cura dei bambini colpiti da HIV ed AIDS

Published: 2006 Innocenti Insights
Il presente Insight vuole far progredire il dibattito sull’incidenza dell’HIV e dell’AIDS sui bambini in tre modi particolari: (i) focalizzando l’attenzione sulla situazione dei bambini resi orfani dall’AIDS e sui limiti delle attuali risposte per la realizzazione dei loro diritti; (ii) riesaminando le opzioni per l’accoglienza di tali bambini, evidenziando le esperienze efficaci e le lezioni apprese da approcci locali e familiari; (iii) identificando modi in cui gli attori locali, nazionali ed internazionali possano effettivamente rispondere alle proprie responsabilità di tutelare i diritti umani dei bambini, con particolare attenzione ai bambini resi orfani dall’AIDS.
Trafficking for Sexual Exploitation and other Exploitative Purposes

Trafficking for Sexual Exploitation and other Exploitative Purposes

Published: 2005 Innocenti Publications
This report on the protection of children from commercial sexual exploitation and trafficking introduces the topic and then examines law and policy on child trafficking in South Asia. A case study from Latin America and the Caribbean is also included in the preliminary findings as it provides an illustration of a coordinated effort to prevent and combat the sexual exploitation of children for the purposes of sex tourism in the Dominican Republic. Other issues addressed are local governance, local action and child protection; the efficacy of cross border interventions in the prevention of trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation; and migration, mobility and challenges to child protection.
UN Human Rights Standards and Mechanisms to Combat Violence Against Children: A contribution to the UN Secretary General's Study on Violence Against Children

UN Human Rights Standards and Mechanisms to Combat Violence Against Children: A contribution to the UN Secretary General's Study on Violence Against Children

Published: 2005 Innocenti Publications
The purpose of this publication is to recall the human rights framework set out in international instruments adopted by the United Nations with relevance to the right of children to freedom from violence. It also reviews how treaty bodies established by human rights conventions to monitor progress in their implementation, as well as other UN human rights mechanisms, have addressed the protection of children from violence.
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