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Increasing Women’s Representation in School Leadership: A promising path towards improving learning
SPOTLIGHT

Increasing Women’s Representation in School Leadership: A promising path towards improving learning

Emerging evidence shows a positive association between women school leaders and student performance. Some studies suggest women school leaders are more likely than their male counterparts to adopt effective management practices that may contribute to improved outcomes. However, women remain largely underrepresented in school leadership positions, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. This brief presents emerging insights on the association between women school leaders and education outcomes and draws attention to women’s underrepresentation in school leadership roles. It highlights the need for further research on gender and school leadership to identify policies and practices that can be implemented to increase women’s representation and scale high-quality management practices adopted by women leaders to more schools to improve education outcomes for all children.
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Annual Report 2021
Publication

Annual Report 2021

The UNICEF Innocenti Annual Report 2021 highlights the key results achieved in research and evidence to inform policymaking and programming.
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Les institutions independantes des droits de l'homme pour les enfants en Afrique francophone : la situation au Mali, au Burkina Faso et au Sénégal
Les institutions independantes des droits de l'homme pour les enfants en Afrique francophone : la situation au Mali, au Burkina Faso et au Sénégal

AUTHOR(S)
Rébecca Steward; Vanessa Sedletzki

Published: 2011 Innocenti Working Papers
Tous les Etats francophones de l’Afrique de l’Ouest sont parties à la Convention relative aux droits de l’enfant (CDE) ainsi qu’à la Charte africaine des droits et du bien-être de l’enfant (CADBE) et ont donc l’obligation de les mettre en œuvre, en particulier en suivant les indications des organes chargés du contrôle de leur application. Le Comité des droits de l’enfant a identifié les mesures générales essentielles à la mise en œuvre de la CDE. Parmi elles, figure l’établissement d’institutions indépendantes de défense des droits de l’enfant. Ces institutions ont généralement pour mandat de contrôler les activités de divers acteurs – publics et privés – au regard des droits des enfants, de promouvoir les droits des enfants en émettant des recommandations et en éduquant le public, et d’examiner des plaintes individuelles concernant des violations de ces droits. Le présent document fait l’état des avancées pour l’établissement d’institutions indépendantes de défense des droits de l’enfant à la lumière des standards internationaux et africains, en particulier au Burkina Faso, Mali et Sénégal.
La mise en place d'un mécanisme de recours et de suivi des droits de l'enfant au Maroc
La mise en place d'un mécanisme de recours et de suivi des droits de l'enfant au Maroc

AUTHOR(S)
Vanessa Sedletzki; Hynd Ayoubi Idrissi

Published: 2011 Innocenti Working Papers
La présente étude a pour objet de préparer une base de travail pour soutenir le processus de réflexion en vue de Maroc d’un mécanisme indépendant de recours et de suivi des droits de l’enfant, conformément aux recommandations du séminaire international organisé, le 10 décembre 2009 sur ce thème. La revue des expériences étrangères montre qu’il n’existe pas un modèle unique. Le mécanisme de recours peut revêtir différentes formes, dont le choix doit résulter d’une large consultation prenant en considération l’environnement politique, social et les possibilités offertes au niveau national et au niveau local. Deux modèles sont proposés : le modèle intégré et le modèle séparé. Les avantages et les inconvénients sont décrits et mis en comparaison.
Children and Accountability for International Crimes: The contribution of international criminal courts
Children and Accountability for International Crimes: The contribution of international criminal courts

AUTHOR(S)
Cecile Aptel

Published: 2010 Innocenti Working Papers
This paper analyses the extent to which international and ‘mixed’ or ‘hybrid’ criminal courts, in particular the International Criminal Court (ICC), have focused on crimes against children and dealt with children as victims, witnesses and potential offenders. The paper underlines the major role played recently by international courts, notably the Special Court for Sierra Leone, followed by the ICC, in criminalizing as war crimes the conscription or enlistment of children and their use to participate actively in hostilities. The Special Court was the first to hand down convictions for these crimes. The first cases before the ICC also concern the unlawful recruitment of children for their use in hostilities, bringing these crimes to the fore.
Manual sobre o Protocolo Facultativo relativo à Venda de Crianças, Prostituição Infantil e Pornografia Infantil
Manual sobre o Protocolo Facultativo relativo à Venda de Crianças, Prostituição Infantil e Pornografia Infantil
Published: 2010 Innocenti Publications
O Manual visa promover a compreensão e aplicação eficaz do Protocolo Facultativo à Convenção dos Direitos da Criança, relativo à venda de crianças, prostituição e pornografia infantil. A publicação descreve a génese, o alcance e o conteúdo do Protocolo e apresenta exemplos de medidas tomadas pelos Estados Partes para cumprirem as suas obrigações ao abrigo deste instrumento. Este guia essencial destina-se principalmente às autoridades públicas, às organizações das Nações Unidas, aos defensores dos direitos da criança e a todos quantos trabalhem com e para as crianças, cujas ocupações e actividades podem reforçar a protecção das crianças contra a exploração, tanto a nível nacional como local. O Manual sublinha o potencial único do Protocolo para realçar de maneira decisiva a protecção das crianças contra a exploração e a luta contra a impunidade dos criminosos. Convida todos os Estados a ratificarem o Protocolo e a agirem de maneira a aplicar efectivamente as suas disposições. Publicado pelo IRC da UNICEF com o apoio do Instituto Internacional dos Direitos da Criança em Sion, Suíça, o Manual beneficiou da perícia dos membros do Comité dos Direitos da Criança das Nações Unidas e de outros especialistas de direitos da criança.
Protecting Children from Violence in Sport
Protecting Children from Violence in Sport

AUTHOR(S)
Celia Brackenridge; Kari Fasting; Sandra Kirby; Trisha Leahy

Published: 2010 Innocenti Publications
UNICEF has long recognized that there is great value in children’s sport and play, and has been a consistent proponent of these activities in its international development and child protection work. Health, educational achievement and social benefits are just some of the many desirable outcomes associated with organized physical activity. During recent years, however, it has become evident that sport is not always a safe space for children and that the same types of violence and abuse sometimes found in families and communities can also occur in sport and play programmes. The research presented in this publication shows a lack of data collection and knowledge about violence to children in sport, a need to develop the structures and systems for eliminating and preventing this form of violence, and that ethical guidelines and codes of conduct must be established and promoted as part of the prevention system. By addressing these gaps, significant improvements will be realized for the promotion and protection of the rights of children in sport.
Manuel d'application du protocole facultatif concernant la vente d'enfants, la prostitution des enfants et la pornographie mettant en scène des enfants
Manuel d'application du protocole facultatif concernant la vente d'enfants, la prostitution des enfants et la pornographie mettant en scène des enfants
Published: 2010 Innocenti Publications
Le manuel a pour objectif de promouvoir la compréhension et la pleine application de la Convention des droits de l’enfant relative à la vente d’enfants, à la prostitution des enfants et à la pornographie mettant en scène des enfants. Cette publication décrit la genèse, le champ d’application et la teneur du Protocole et fournit des exemples de mesures prises par les États parties à fin de respecter leurs obligations contractées en vertu de cet instrument. Ce guide fondamental s’adresse notamment et en particulier aux pouvoirs publics, aux organisations des Nations Unies, aux avocats spécialisés en droits de l’enfant travaillant avec et pour les enfants et dont les missions et activités sont de nature à contribuer à la protection des enfants contre l’exploitation à l’échelon national ou local. Le manuel met en exergue le potentiel exceptionnel offert par le Protocole pour renforcer efficacement la protection des enfants contre l’exploitation et combattre l’impunité des auteurs. Il invite tous les États à ratifier le Protocole et à agir pour appliquer l’ensemble de ses dispositions. Publié par le CRI de l’UNICEF sous les auspices de l’Institut International des Droits de l'Enfant de Sion en Suisse, le manuel met à profit l’expertise des membres du Comité des droits de l’enfant des Nations Unies et d’autres spécialistes des droits de l’enfant.
Handbuch zum Fakultativprotokoll betreffend den Verkauf von Kindern, die Kinderprostitution und die Kinderpornografie
Handbuch zum Fakultativprotokoll betreffend den Verkauf von Kindern, die Kinderprostitution und die Kinderpornografie
Published: 2010 Innocenti Publications
Das Handbuch dient zum besseren Verständnis und effizienteren Durchsetzung des Fakultativprotokolls zum Übereinkommen der Rechte des Kindes mit Bezug auf den Verkauf von Kindern, der Kinderprostitution und Kinderpornographie. Die Ausgabe beschreibt die Entstehung, den Umfang und Inhalt des Protokolls und liefert Beispiele von Maßnahmen der Staaten zur Erfüllung ihrer Pflichten im Rahmen dieses Instrumentes. Dieses wichtige Handbuch richtet sich in erster Linie an öffentliche Bedienstete, UN-Organisationen, Kinderrechtsanwälte sowie andere, die mit und für Kinder tätig sind und deren Aufgaben und Aktivitäten den Schutz von Kindern vor Ausbeutung auf der nationalen oder lokalen Ebene verbessern. In dem Handbuch wird das einmalige Potenzial des Protokolls, den Schutz von Kindern vor Ausbeutung zu verbessern und die Straflosigkeit von Tätern zu bekämpfen, hervorgehoben. Es ruft alle Staaten zur Ratifizierung des Protokolls und zur effektiven und effizienten Durchsetzung desselben auf. Das von UNICEF IRC mit der Unterstützung des Institut International des Droits de l'Enfant in Sion, Schweiz, herausgegebene Handbuch konnte auch mit dem Wissen der Mitglieder des UN-Ausschusses für die Rechte des Kindes und dem anderer Experten auf diesem Gebiet angereichert werden.
Manuale sul Protocollo opzionale sulla vendita di bambini, la prostituzione dei bambini e la pornografia rappresentante bambini
Manuale sul Protocollo opzionale sulla vendita di bambini, la prostituzione dei bambini e la pornografia rappresentante bambini
Published: 2010 Innocenti Publications
Il Manuale intende promuovere la comprensione e l’efficace applicazione del Protocollo opzionale alla convenzione sui diritti dell’infanzia sulla vendita di bambini, la prostituzione dei bambini e la pornografia rappresentante bambini (OPSC). La pubblicazione illustra la genesi, il campo di applicazione e i contenuti del Protocollo, fornendo esempi delle misure adottate dagli Stati parte per adempiere gli obblighi previsti da questo strumento. Questa guida essenziale si rivolge principalmente ai funzionari pubblici e agli altri operatori che lavorano con e per i bambini, e le cui attività possono contribuire a migliorare la protezione dei bambini dallo sfruttamento, a livello nazionale o locale. Il Manuale, che evidenzia come il Protocollo presenti un potenziale unico per migliorare la protezione dei bambini dallo sfruttamento e opporsi all’impunità dei perpetratori, chiede a tutti gli Stati di ratificare il Protocollo e attivarsi per una efficace applicazione delle sue disposizioni. Pubblicato dal Centro di ricerca Innocenti dell’UNICEF con il sostegno dell’Institut International des Droits de l'Enfant di Sion (Svizzera), il Manuale ha potuto avvalersi dell’esperienza di membri del Comitato sui diritti dell’infanzia dell’ONU e di altri specialisti in materia di diritti dei bambini.
Sexual Abuse and Exploitation of Boys in South Asia. A review of research findings, legislation, policy and programme responses
Sexual Abuse and Exploitation of Boys in South Asia. A review of research findings, legislation, policy and programme responses
Published: 2010 Innocenti Working Papers
This paper provides an overview of research findings, legislation, policy and programme responses to prevent and respond to the sexual abuse and exploitation of boys in South Asia. The background to the paper is based on the findings from previous UNICEF IRC research on child trafficking in the region, which indicated that boys enjoy less legal protection than girls from sexual abuse and exploitation and less access to services for victims. While it is seen that the majority of legislation and policies that address ‘children’ adequately address ‘boys’, this paper notes areas in which the rights and needs of boys require greater focus. Among the concerns is the absence of legal commentary on legislation regarding boys’ issues and an absence of advocacy efforts to take action and amend laws to provide equal protection to boys. In some cases legislation covers only girls and women. And, although research shows that boys face almost the same degree of sexual abuse and exploitation as girls, programming throughout the region is overwhelmingly directed at girls and women.
The Place of Sport in the UN Study on Violence against Children
The Place of Sport in the UN Study on Violence against Children

AUTHOR(S)
Celia Brackenridge; Kari Fasting; Sandra Kirby; Trisha Leahy; Sylvie Parent; Trond Svela Sand

Published: 2010 Innocenti Discussion Papers
This paper presents a secondary analysis of supporting documents from the UN Study on Violence against Children. The purpose of the analysis is to identify sport-related material in the documents, and gaps in research knowledge about the role of sport in both preventing and facilitating violence against children. This is a complementary document to the IRC study ‘Protecting Children from Violence in Sport: A review with a focus on industrialized countries’, developed by the same research team. Content analysis was undertaken on material archived for the UN Study, including submissions by UN agencies and non-governmental organizations on research relating to violence against children, and on the country surveys that had been returned by governments as part of the UN Study consultation. A list of search terms was established and each selected text or survey was searched against them. On the basis of these analyses, several key conclusions emerged. First, there is a marked absence of empirical data about the forms, prevalence and incidence of violence to children in sport and about the best mechanisms for preventing or resolving such problems. Second, there is a lack of coordination between governments and sport NGOs on the subject of violence against children in sport, and there appears to be no evidence of a functional link between the agencies responsible for sport for development and those responsible for prevention of violence to children. The findings point to the need to do more, targeted research on violence against children in sport and to assess the efficacy of sport as a tool of violence prevention. Since countries approach the matter of violence to children in many different ways, the establishment of international standards for safeguarding children and for violence prevention in sport is recommended.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 13 | Thematic area: Child Protection | Tags: child abuse, children's rights, sport, violence
South Asia in Action: Preventing and responding to child trafficking. Analysis of anti-trafficking initiatives in the region
South Asia in Action: Preventing and responding to child trafficking. Analysis of anti-trafficking initiatives in the region
Published: 2009 Innocenti Insights
This publication provides a regional analysis of anti-trafficking measures relevant to children in the countries of South Asia. It assesses national legal and policy frameworks and provides a list of recommended actions for the application of a rights-based approach to child trafficking. Emphasis is placed on the indivisibility of human rights and the influence that trafficking, exploitation and abuse have on children’s enjoyment of rights and fundamental freedoms.The study is based on the understanding that in order to ensure a comprehensive approach to child trafficking, exploitation and abuse, measures must be developed and implemented in full conformity with the 1989 Convention on the Rights of the Child and the broader framework of human rights.
Reformas legislativas e a implementação  da Convenção sobre os dereitos da criança
Reformas legislativas e a implementação da Convenção sobre os dereitos da criança
Published: 2009 Innocenti Publications
Este estudo passa em revista a legislação relativa aos direitos da criança em 52 Estados Partes desde a adopção da Convenção sobre os Direitos da Criança (CDC ou 'a Convenção'), bem como questões, tais como as reservas ou o estatuto da CDC no direito interno. Os Estados cobertos pelo estudo incluem 9 países da Ásia e Pacífico, 8 da Europa Central e Oriental, 11 países islâmicos, 6 da África subsahariana, 14 do continente americano e 4 da Europa Ocidental. Uma vez que a maior fonte de informação utilizada para o estudo consistiu documentação gerada pelo processo de presentação de relatórios ao Comité dos Direitos da Criança, o principal critério para seleccionar os Estados cobertos, residiu no facto de os mesmos já terem apresentado o seu segundo relatório no momento em que o estudo teve início. Nesta base, esperava- se que o 'processo' de implementação da CDC fosse visível no diálogo com o Comité.
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Responsible Innovation in Technology for Children: Digital technology, play and child well-being
Publication

Responsible Innovation in Technology for Children: Digital technology, play and child well-being

Digital experiences can have significant negative impact on children, exposing them to risks or failing to nurture them adequately. Nevertheless, digital experiences also potentially yield enormous benefits for children, enabling them to learn, to create, to develop friendships, and to build worlds. While global efforts to deepen our understanding of the prevalence and impact of digital risks of harm are burgeoning – a development that is both welcome and necessary – less attention has been paid to understanding and optimizing the benefits that digital technology can provide in supporting children’s rights and their well-being. Benefits here refer not only to the absence of harm, but also to creating additional positive value. How should we recognize the opportunities and benefits of digital technology for children’s well-being? What is the relationship between the design of digital experiences – in particular, play-centred design – and the well-being of children? What guidance and measures can we use to strengthen the design of digital environments to promote positive outcomes for children? And how can we make sure that children’s insights and needs form the foundation of our work in this space? These questions matter for all those who design and promote digital experiences, to keep children safe and happy, and enable positive development and learning. These questions are particularly relevant as the world shifts its attention to emerging digital technologies and experiences, from artificial intelligence (AI) to the metaverse, and seeks to understand their impact on people and society. To begin to tackle these questions, UNICEF and the LEGO Group initiated the Responsible Innovation in Technology for Children (RITEC) project in partnership with the Young and Resilient Research Centre at Western Sydney University; the CREATE Lab at New York University; the Graduate Center, City University of New York; the University of Sheffield; the Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for the Digital Child; and the Joan Ganz Cooney Center. The research is funded by the LEGO Foundation. The partnership is an international, multi-stakeholder and cross-sectoral collaboration between organizations that believe the design and development of digital technology should support the rights and well-being of children as a primary objective – and that children should have a prominent voice in making this a reality. This project’s primary objective is to develop, with children from around the world, a framework that maps how the design of children’s digital experiences affects their well-being, and to provide guidance as to how informed design choices can promote positive well-being outcomes.
Resources to Support Marginalized Caregivers of Children with Disabilities: Guidelines for Implementation
Publication

Resources to Support Marginalized Caregivers of Children with Disabilities: Guidelines for Implementation

Support from caregivers is critical for children’s learning both at home and at school. However, the COVID-19 pandemic and disruption of education systems globally created additional expectations for parents to support their children’s learning at home. This particularly affected the most marginalized children as the crises exacerbated already existing inequalities in education. This document introduces the approach and purpose of a set of resources to support the marginalized caregivers of children with disabilities with inclusive education. It presents lessons learned from proof-of-concept pilots in Armenia and Uzbekistan, followed by step-by-step guidelines on how to adopt and adapt the resources for education ministries and others who want to implement them in their education system.
Reopening with Resilience: Lessons from Remote Learning during COVID-19: Europe and Central Asia
Publication

Reopening with Resilience: Lessons from Remote Learning during COVID-19: Europe and Central Asia

When schools started closing their doors due to COVID-19, countries in Europe and Central Asia quickly provided alternative learning solutions for children to continue learning. More than 90 per cent of countries offered digital solutions to ensure that education activities could continue. However, lack of access to digital devices and a reliable internet connection excluded a significant amount of already marginalized children and threatened to widen the existing learning disparities. This report builds on existing evidence highlighting key lessons learned during the pandemic to promote learning for all during school closure and provides actionable policy recommendations on how to bridge the digital divide and build resilient education systems in Europe and Central Asia.

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