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UNICEF Innocenti's complete catalogue of research and reports
Life in Lockdown: Child and adolescent mental health and well-being in the time of COVID-19
SPOTLIGHT

Life in Lockdown: Child and adolescent mental health and well-being in the time of COVID-19

COVID-19 lockdowns have significantly disrupted the daily lives of children and adolescents, with increased time at home, online learning and limited physical social interaction. This report seeks to understand the immediate effects on their mental health. Covering more than 130,000 children and adolescents across 22 countries, the evidence shows increased stress, anxiety and depressive symptoms, as well as increased alcohol and substance use, and  externalizing behavioural problems. Children and adolescents also reported positive coping strategies, resilience, social connectedness through digital media, more family time, and relief from academic stress. Factors such as demographics, relationships and pre-existing conditions are critical. To ensure children and adolescents are supported, the report recommends building the evidence on the longer-term impact of the pandemic on child and adolescent mental health in low- and middle-income countries, including vulnerable populations. To ensure children and adolescents are supported, the report recommends building the evidence on the longer-term impact of the pandemic on child and adolescent mental health in low- and middle-income countries, including vulnerable populations.
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COVID-19: Missing More Than a Classroom. The impact of school closures on children’s nutrition
Blog Blog

COVID-19: Missing More Than a Classroom. The impact of school closures on children’s nutrition

In 2019, 135 million people in 55 countries were in food crises or worse, and 2 billion people did not have regular access to safe, nutritious and sufficient food. COVID-19 has exacerbated these hardships and may result in an additional 121 million people facing acute food insecurity by the end of 2020. Further, since the beginning of the pandemic, an estimated 1.6 billion learners in 199 countries worldwide were affected by school closures, with nearly 370 million children not receiving a school meal in 150 countries. The paper presents the evidence on the potential negative short-term and long-term effects of school meal scheme disruption during Covid-19 globally. It shows how vulnerable the children participating in these schemes are, how coping and mitigation measures are often only short-term solutions, and how prioritizing school re-opening is critical. For instance, it highlights how girls are at greater risk of not being in school or of being taken out of school early, which may lead to poor nutrition and health for themselves and their children. However, well-designed school feeding programmes have been shown to enable catch-up from early growth failure and other negative shocks. As such, once schools re-open, school meal schemes can help address the deprivation that children have experienced during the closures and provide an incentive for parents to send and keep their children, especially girls, in school.
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AIDS, Public Policy and Child Well-being
AIDS, Public Policy and Child Well-being
Published: 2007 Innocenti Publications
This study addresses one of the greatest challenges of our time: the damage caused by HIV and AIDS to the well-being of children and families. With 38.6 million people affected by HIV in 2006, with HIV prevalence at antenatal clinics exceeding 40 per cent in areas of Botswana and KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa), with nationwide adult prevalence in excess of the critical threshold of 20 per cent in several countries, and with the prospect of a rapid spread of the disease in large swathes of India, China and the Russian Federation, the future of child well-being is seriously threatened. Certainly, in the 50 or so countries affected by the disease, the Millennium Development Goals in the field of child survival, education, poverty and basic rights will be missed, often by a large margin.
Child Trafficking in Europe: A broad vision to put children first (summary)
Child Trafficking in Europe: A broad vision to put children first (summary)
Published: 2007 Innocenti Publications
Within and across borders in Europe, children are trafficked into a variety of exploitative situations, violating their human rights and threatening their survival and development. This report assesses the legal, policy and implementation frameworks in place to address child trafficking in the region. Covering more than 50 countries/entities, the report investigates the complexity of the trafficking phenomenon, and maps trafficking patterns and targeted legal and policy responses. Child trafficking is addressed in the framework of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, with a focus on prevention, protection and empowerment.
Child Trafficking in Europe: A broad vision to put children first
Child Trafficking in Europe: A broad vision to put children first
Published: 2007 Innocenti Insights
Within and across borders in Europe, children are trafficked into a variety of exploitative situations, violating their human rights and threatening their survival and development. This report assesses the legal, policy and implementation frameworks in place to address child trafficking in the region. Covering more than 50 countries/entities, the report investigates the complexity of the trafficking phenomenon, and maps trafficking patterns and targeted legal and policy responses. Child trafficking is addressed in the framework of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, with a focus on prevention, protection and empowerment.
Protégeons les enfants touchés par le VIH et le SIDA
Protégeons les enfants touchés par le VIH et le SIDA
Published: 2006 Innocenti Insights
Le rapport étudie les options de protection des enfants dans les communautés touchées par la pandémie du SIDA. Partant du principe que le lien parent-enfant est la pierre angulaire du développement de l’enfant et que la famille est l’élément fondamental de la société, le rapport considère tout d’abord les moyens de garder aussi longtemps que possible les parents en vie et la famille unie. Il examine ensuite les solutions alternatives de protection au-delà de la famille la plus proche. Les arrangements vont de la prise en charge par la famille élargie, à travers différentes formes d’accueil dans la communauté, à l’adoption et au placement en établissement. Le rapport met en lumière les façons dont les acteurs extérieurs à la proche communauté peuvent soutenir et améliorer la capacité des ménages et des communautés à prendre soin des enfants livrés à eux-mêmes.
Caring for Children Affected by HIV and AIDS
Caring for Children Affected by HIV and AIDS
Published: 2006 Innocenti Insights
This IRC Insight highlights the urgent need to support families and communities to care for children orphaned by HIV/AIDS. The report looks at how the epidemic undermines children's health and schooling, and reinforces marginalization and deprivation. It explores the options for the care of children in communities affected by the AIDS epidemic. Beginning with the premise that the parent-child bond is the basic building block of child development and the family the basic unit of society, the report looks at ways to keep the family together for as long as possible. It then goes on to explore alternative care arrangements beyond the immediate family. Settings range from care by the extended family, to different forms of fostering in the community, through adoption and placement in residential institutions, which should be used as a last resort.
Protegiendo a la infancia afectada por el VIH y el SIDA
Protegiendo a la infancia afectada por el VIH y el SIDA
Published: 2006 Innocenti Insights
Investiga las posibilidades del cuidado de niños y niñas en comunidades afectadas por la pandemia del SIDA. Partiendo de la premisa de que el vínculo entre padre/madre e hijo/a es el componente más importante para el pleno desarrollo del niño y que la familia es la unidad básica de la sociedad, el informe estudia en primer lugar las posibilidades existentes para mantener a los padres vivos y a la familia junta el mayor tiempo posible. A continuación examina los cuidados alternativos más allá de la familia más próxima. Estos cuidados van desde los cuidados por la familia extensa o en diferentes formas de familias de acogida, hasta la adopción o ingreso en residencias. El informe hace hincapié en las maneras en que actores no pertenecientes a la comunidad más próxima pueden ayudar a sostener y mejorar la capacidad de los hogares y las comunidades en el cuidado de los niños y niñas que se quedan solos.
Prendersi cura dei bambini colpiti da HIV ed AIDS
Prendersi cura dei bambini colpiti da HIV ed AIDS
Published: 2006 Innocenti Insights
Il presente Insight vuole far progredire il dibattito sull’incidenza dell’HIV e dell’AIDS sui bambini in tre modi particolari: (i) focalizzando l’attenzione sulla situazione dei bambini resi orfani dall’AIDS e sui limiti delle attuali risposte per la realizzazione dei loro diritti; (ii) riesaminando le opzioni per l’accoglienza di tali bambini, evidenziando le esperienze efficaci e le lezioni apprese da approcci locali e familiari; (iii) identificando modi in cui gli attori locali, nazionali ed internazionali possano effettivamente rispondere alle proprie responsabilità di tutelare i diritti umani dei bambini, con particolare attenzione ai bambini resi orfani dall’AIDS.
Trafficking for Sexual Exploitation and other Exploitative Purposes
Trafficking for Sexual Exploitation and other Exploitative Purposes
Published: 2005 Innocenti Publications
This report on the protection of children from commercial sexual exploitation and trafficking introduces the topic and then examines law and policy on child trafficking in South Asia. A case study from Latin America and the Caribbean is also included in the preliminary findings as it provides an illustration of a coordinated effort to prevent and combat the sexual exploitation of children for the purposes of sex tourism in the Dominican Republic. Other issues addressed are local governance, local action and child protection; the efficacy of cross border interventions in the prevention of trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation; and migration, mobility and challenges to child protection.
UN Human Rights Standards and Mechanisms to Combat Violence Against Children: A contribution to the UN Secretary General's Study on Violence Against Children
UN Human Rights Standards and Mechanisms to Combat Violence Against Children: A contribution to the UN Secretary General's Study on Violence Against Children
Published: 2005 Innocenti Publications
The purpose of this publication is to recall the human rights framework set out in international instruments adopted by the United Nations with relevance to the right of children to freedom from violence. It also reviews how treaty bodies established by human rights conventions to monitor progress in their implementation, as well as other UN human rights mechanisms, have addressed the protection of children from violence.
Council of Europe Actions to promote children's rights to protection from all forms of violence
Council of Europe Actions to promote children's rights to protection from all forms of violence
Published: 2005 Innocenti Publications
The Council of Europe was established to defend parliamentary democracy, human rights and the rule of law. Pursuing the fundamental rights of everyone to respect for their human dignity and physical integrity, the Council is making a powerful impact on the protection of children from all forms of violence across the continent. Its varied components have contributed to making violence against children more visible - and thus revealed the size of the task remaining to prevent and eliminate it. This publication summarises and references the most relevant actions.
Registo de nacimento e conflitos arrmados
Registo de nacimento e conflitos arrmados
Published: 2005 Innocenti Insights
O direito das crianças a serem registadas e o seu direito a um nome e uma identidade estão claramente enunciados na Convenção sobre os Direitos da Criança. O registo de nascimento é instrumental para salvaguardar os direitos humanos, uma vez que constitui a “prova” oficial da existência de uma criança. Essa documentação é crucial, sobretudo em tempos de conflito armado ou de instabilidade. A “invisibilidade” das crianças não-registadas aumenta a sua vulnerabilidade e o risco de as violações dos seus direitos passarem despercebidas. Assegurar o registo de nascimento das crianças que se encontram numa situação de conflito ou subsequente a um conflito é, pois, uma prioridade.
La traite des êtres humaines en Afrique, en particulier des femmes et des enfants
La traite des êtres humaines en Afrique, en particulier des femmes et des enfants

AUTHOR(S)
Andrea Rossi

Published: 2004 Innocenti Insights
La traite des êtres humaines affecte presque toutes les nations d'Afrique pour lesquelles nous disposons de données, que ce soit les pays d'origine ou celles qui servent de destination. Le rapport étudie les informations recueillies dans 53 pays africains et procède à une analyse des schémas et des racines profondes de la traite, ainsi que des pratiques et mesures efficaces prises au niveau national et régional. On a pu observer les phénomènes suivants: la traite est facilitée par l'effondrement du milieu protecteur de l'enfant suite à un conflit armé, des difficultés économiques ou des pratiques discriminatoires. Les attitudes and pratiques traditionelles, le mariage précoce et le fait que les naissances ne soient pas enregistrées rendent estrêmement difficile l'identification des victimes.
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Learning at a Distance: Children’s remote learning experiences in Italy during the COVID-19 pandemic
Publication Publication

Learning at a Distance: Children’s remote learning experiences in Italy during the COVID-19 pandemic

Italy was the first country in Europe to implement a nationwide lockdown. Children and their families lived in nearly complete isolation for almost two months. Students missed 65 days of school compared to an average of 27 missed days among high-income countries worldwide. This prolonged break is of concern, as even short breaks in schooling can cause significant loss of learning for children and lead to educational inequalities over time. At least 3 million Italian students may not have been reached by remote learning due to a lack of internet connectivity or devices at home. This report explores children’s and parents’ experiences of remote learning during the lockdown in Italy, drawing on data collected from 11 European countries (and coordinated by the European Commission’s Joint Research Center). It explores how children's access and use of digital technologies changed during the pandemic; highlights how existing inequalities might undermine remote learning opportunities, even among those with internet access; and provides insights on how to support children’s remote learning in the future. *** L'Italia e’ stata il primo paese in Europa ad aver applicato la misura del lockdown su tutto il territorio. I bambini e le loro famiglie hanno vissuto in quasi completo isolamento per circa due mesi. Gli studenti hanno perduto 65 giorni di scuola rispetto ad una media di 27 negli altri paesi ad alto reddito del mondo. Questa interruzione prolungata rappresenta motivo di preoccupazione, in quanto persino interruzioni piu’ brevi nella didattica possono causare significative perdite nel livello di istruzione dei ragazzi e portare col tempo a diseguaglianze educative. Almeno 3 milioni di studenti in Italia non sono stati coinvolti nella didattica a distanza a causa d una mancanza di connessione ad internet o di dispositivi adeguati a casa. Questo rapporto analizza l’esperienza della didattica a distanza di ragazzi e genitori in Italia durante il lockdown, sulla base dei dati raccolti in 11 paesi europei (e coordinati dal Centro comune di ricerca della Commissione Europea). Studia il cambiamento nell’accesso e nell’uso delle tecnologie digitali dei bambini e ragazzi durante la pandemia; mette in evidenza come le diseguaglianze esistenti possano diminuire le opportunità offerte dalla didattica a distanza, anche tra coloro che hanno accesso ad internet; e fornisce approfondimenti su come sostenere la didattica a distanza di bambini e ragazzi in futuro.
Time to Teach: Teacher attendance and time on task in Eastern and Southern Africa
Publication Publication

Time to Teach: Teacher attendance and time on task in Eastern and Southern Africa

There is a learning crisis. Fifty-three per cent of children in low- and middle-income countries are in ‘learning poverty’, i.e. they cannot read and understand a simple text by the end of primary school age. In sub- Saharan Africa, the learning poverty rate is 87 per cent overall, and ranges from 40 per cent to as high as 99 per cent in the 21 countries with available data. Teachers attending lessons and spending quality time on task is a critical prerequisite to learning. However, in sub-Saharan Africa, teacher absenteeism ranges from 15 to 45 per cent. Teacher absenteeism and reduced time on task wastes valuable financial resources, short-changes students and is one of the most cumbersome obstacles on the path toward the education Sustainable Development Goal and to the related vision of the new UNICEF education strategy: Every Child Learns. Whilst the stark numbers are available to study, and despite teacher absenteeism being a foremost challenge for education systems in Africa, the evidence base on how policies and practices can influence teacher attendance remains scant. Time to Teach (TTT) is a research initiative that looks at primary school teacher attendance in eight countries and territories in the Eastern and Southern Africa (ESA) region: the Comoros; Kenya; Rwanda, Puntland, State of Somalia; South Sudan; the United Republic of Tanzania, mainland; the United Republic of Tanzania, Zanzibar; and Uganda. Its primary objective is to identify factors affecting the various forms of teacher attendance, which include being at school, being punctual, being in the classroom, and teaching when in the classroom, and use this evidence to inform the design and implementation of teacher policies.

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