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UNICEF Innocenti's complete catalogue of research and reports
Increasing Women’s Representation in School Leadership: A promising path towards improving learning
SPOTLIGHT

Increasing Women’s Representation in School Leadership: A promising path towards improving learning

Emerging evidence shows a positive association between women school leaders and student performance. Some studies suggest women school leaders are more likely than their male counterparts to adopt effective management practices that may contribute to improved outcomes. However, women remain largely underrepresented in school leadership positions, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. This brief presents emerging insights on the association between women school leaders and education outcomes and draws attention to women’s underrepresentation in school leadership roles. It highlights the need for further research on gender and school leadership to identify policies and practices that can be implemented to increase women’s representation and scale high-quality management practices adopted by women leaders to more schools to improve education outcomes for all children.
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Annual Report 2021
Publication

Annual Report 2021

The UNICEF Innocenti Annual Report 2021 highlights the key results achieved in research and evidence to inform policymaking and programming.
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Not There Yet: Canada's implementation of the General Measures of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child
Not There Yet: Canada's implementation of the General Measures of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child
Published: 2009 Innocenti Publications
This report reviews the implementation in Canada of the general measures of the Convention on the Rights of the Child. It recalls the recommendations made by the Committee on the Rights of the Child and by Canada’s Senate Standing Committee on Human Rights to bolster Canada’s legal and institutional arrangements to build a truly protective and rights-enabling framework for all children.
General Comments of the Committee on the Rights of the Child (including CD with Concluding Observations)
General Comments of the Committee on the Rights of the Child (including CD with Concluding Observations)
Published: 2007 Innocenti Publications
Since its adoption in November 1989, the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) has been ratified by states across all regions and today it is in force in all but two countries. The CRC is the first binding international human rights instrument incorporating in the same text social, cultural, economic, civil and political rights. To monitor progress achieved in the realization of children’s rights, the CRC has established an international expert body, the Committee on the Rights of the Child, which also provides awareness and understanding of the principles and provisions of this treaty. The present publication contains the eight General Comments issued by the Committee, and the CD Rom accompanying this text includes all the Concluding Observations adopted by the Committee in relation to State Parties presented between 1993 and 2006. The CD-Rom also includes the status of ratification of the Convention and its two Optional Protocols, as well as the text of the reservations and/or declarations made by European States and Asian Republics at the moment of signature and ratification of those legal instruments.
Reforming Child Law in South Africa: Budgeting and implementation planning
Reforming Child Law in South Africa: Budgeting and implementation planning
Published: 2007 Innocenti Publications
This publication documents a rare attempt to assess all the steps involved in legal reform for the realization of child rights and makes a detailed estimate of the costs at each step. The case study addresses two costing projects in connection with these reforms: one for development of a child justice system, another for a comprehensive children’s act. Both of these were extensive pieces of legislation requiring substantial systemic adjustment.
Observaciones Generales del Comité de los Derechos del Niño
Observaciones Generales del Comité de los Derechos del Niño
Published: 2006 Innocenti Publications
Desde su adopción en Noviembre de 1989, la Convención ha sido ratificada por Estados a través de todas las regiones y en la actualidad es aplicable en todos los países, a excepción de dos. La CDN es el primer instrumento internacional que crea obligaciones y responsabilidades para los Estados y que incorpora en un mismo texto derechos sociales, culturales, económicos, civiles y políticos. La CDN ha establecido un órgano internacional formado por expertos, el Comité de los Derechos del Niño, que tiene como finalidad vigilar y analizar el progreso que se ha alcanzado en la realización de los derechos de la infancia, así como también sensiblizar y proveer conocimiento sobre los principios y provisiones de la CDN. La presente publicación contiene las siete Observaciones Generales emitidas por el Comité, y en el CD-Rom que acompaña este texto se incluyen todas las Conclusiones Generales adoptadas por el Comité referentes a los informes presentados por los Estados Europeos y Repúblicas Asiáticas entre los años de 1993 y 2005. El CD-Rom, a su vez, incluye el estado de ratificación de la Convención y de sus Protocolos Facultativos, así como también el texto de las reservas y/o declaraciones introducidas por los Estados Europeos y las Repúblicas Asiáticas al momento de firmar y ratificar tales instrumentos internacionales.
The General Measures of the Convention on the Rights of the Child: The Process in Europe and Central Asia
The General Measures of the Convention on the Rights of the Child: The Process in Europe and Central Asia
Published: 2006 Innocenti Publications
In 2003 the Committee on the Rights of the Child adopted an important statement: its General Comment n°5 on General Measures of Implementation. That same year, the Innocenti Research Centre began a study of the general measures of implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC). The study reviews 62 countries, representing all regions of the world, that have submitted two reports to the Committee on implementation of the CRC. This analytical review is based primarily on the reports of States Parties to the Committee on the Rights of the Child and other documents generated as part of the reporting process established under the CRC and it is supplemented in some cases by information received from UNICEF field offices and partners, and by expert discussions and consultations. The overall objective of the study includes the promotion of the universal recognition of children’s rights, through the documentation of actions undertaken in the context of CRC implementation.
General Comments of the Committee on the Rights of the Child, including CD with Concluding Observations in Europe and Central Asia
General Comments of the Committee on the Rights of the Child, including CD with Concluding Observations in Europe and Central Asia
Published: 2006 Innocenti Publications
Since its adoption in November 1989, the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) has been ratified by states across regions and today it is in force in all but two. The CRC is the first binding international human rights instrument incorporating in the same text social, cultural, economic, civil and political rights. The Committee on the Rights of the Child exists to monitor progress achieved in the realization of children’s rights. The present publication contains the seven General Comments issued by the Committee, and the CD Rom accompanying this text includes all the Concluding Observations adopted by the Committee in relation to State Parties reports presented by European Countries and the Asian Republics between 1993 and 2005. The CD-Rom also includes the status of ratification of the Convention and its two Optional Protocols, as well as the text of the reservations and/or declarations made by European States and Asian Republics at the moment of signature and ratification of those legal instruments.
Laying the Foundations for Children's Rights
Laying the Foundations for Children's Rights

AUTHOR(S)
Philip Alston; John Tobin; Mac Darrow

Published: 2005 Innocenti Insights
This study provides a critical and constructive analysis of how far the international community and individual states have come in their efforts to establish the normative, legal, and institutional frameworks which are essential if the aspirations of the Convention are to be translated into reality. Within this context the study seeks to achieve three objectives: (1) to draw up a balance sheet of some of the Convention’s achievements and shortcomings in terms of laying the foundations for an effective Convention-based regime; (2) to provide a balanced perspective on the Convention’s importance within the overall range of endeavors to improve the well-being of children in the world; and (3) to expose and examine some of the dilemmas and complexities which arise in efforts to promote and give effect to the Convention.
Summary Report of the Study on the Impact of the Implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child
Summary Report of the Study on the Impact of the Implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child
Published: 2004 Innocenti Publications
The CRC Implementation Report addresses areas where the potential of the treaty can be maximized, to advance the cause of children's rights and support UNICEF's agenda, as defined in its Medium Term Strategic Plan. Further the study constitutes a contribution to the follow-up to the Declaration and Plan of Action of the General Assembly Special Session on Children (UNGASS) and its support to the Millenium Declaration and achievements of the "Millenium Development Goals" (MDGs). The Plan of Action adopted by the Special Session, highlights the importance of effective implementation of the CRC and calls for the development of national legislation, policies, actions plans and other measures to promote and protect the rights of the child. Outcomes of the study will assist governments, the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child, UNICEF and other relevant actors at national, regional and international levels, in furthering this important agenda. This study focuses on the general measures of implementation of the CRC in 62 countries, with a particular emphasis on legal and institutional reforms at the national level aimed at ensuring the effective application and enforcement of the provisions of the CRC.
Un decennio straordinario per i diritti dei bambini 1989-1999
Un decennio straordinario per i diritti dei bambini 1989-1999
Published: 2000 Innocenti Publications
In occasione del decennale della Convenzione delle Nazioni Uniti sui Diritti dell’Infanzia, la Regione Toscana, il Comitato Nazionale per l’UNICEF e il Centro di Ricerca Innocenti dell’UNICEF hanno organizzato un incontro internazionale di giovani. Il tema centrale è stato il principio della non-discriminazione sancito dall’articolo 2 della Convenzione sui Diritti dell’Infanzia. I giovani hanno partecipato con esperti e attivisti in tre seminari tecnici che si sono occupati rispettivamente di: tutela giuridica e accesso ai servizi di base per i bambini delle minoranze e dei popoli indigeni; tutela giuridica e accesso ai servizi di base per i bambini degli immigranti, dei profughi e dei richiedenti asilo; bambini in situazioni di conflitto armato e iniziative di costruzione della pace. I giovani hanno concluso l’incontro presentando la loro propria dichiarazione sulla non-discriminazione, ‘Il Proclama dei Giovani’.
Children's Rights Glossary
Children's Rights Glossary

AUTHOR(S)
Sharon Detrick

Published: 2000 Innocenti Publications
The Children's Rights Glossary is published as a companion volume to the International Children's Rights Thesaurus. It aims to provide a detailed key to the specialized terminology used in children's rights and particularly in the Convention on the Rights of the Child. Although both the Glossary and the Thesaurus are intended as information-handling tools for information professionals, it is hoped that the Glossary will also be useful in promoting a better understanding of children's rights terminology amongst a non-specialist audience.
Children's Rights Bibliography
Children's Rights Bibliography

AUTHOR(S)
Sharon Detrick

Published: 2000 Innocenti Publications
This bibliography provides a selection of largely juridical material relating to the Convention. It is an additional reference source to other UNICEF International Child Development Centre (ICDC) publications in this area. The bibliography is divided into two parts. The first part is a general bibliography on the Convention as a human rights instrument. The second part is an article-by-article bibliography of material containing specific references to Articles 1-41 of the Convention as well as more general references to the children’s rights provisions that these articles contain.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 90 | Thematic area: Convention on the Rights of the Child | Tags: children's rights, convention on the rights of the child | Publisher: Innocenti Research Centre
No Ordinary Decade for Children's Rights 1989-1999
No Ordinary Decade for Children's Rights 1989-1999
Published: 2000 Innocenti Publications
A Report of the international gathering held in Florence to celebrate the 10th Anniversary of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, with special reference to children of minorities, indigenous peoples and immigrants. The meeting was attended by youth participants who later joined international experts and practitioners at three technical workshops focusing respectively on: legal protection and access to basic services for children of minorities and indigenous peoples; legal protection and access to basic services for children of immigrants, refugees and asylum-seekers; children in situations of armed conflict and peace-building initiatives. The young delegates concluded the meeting by presenting their own Declaration on non-discrimination.
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Responsible Innovation in Technology for Children: Digital technology, play and child well-being
Publication

Responsible Innovation in Technology for Children: Digital technology, play and child well-being

Digital experiences can have significant negative impact on children, exposing them to risks or failing to nurture them adequately. Nevertheless, digital experiences also potentially yield enormous benefits for children, enabling them to learn, to create, to develop friendships, and to build worlds. While global efforts to deepen our understanding of the prevalence and impact of digital risks of harm are burgeoning – a development that is both welcome and necessary – less attention has been paid to understanding and optimizing the benefits that digital technology can provide in supporting children’s rights and their well-being. Benefits here refer not only to the absence of harm, but also to creating additional positive value. How should we recognize the opportunities and benefits of digital technology for children’s well-being? What is the relationship between the design of digital experiences – in particular, play-centred design – and the well-being of children? What guidance and measures can we use to strengthen the design of digital environments to promote positive outcomes for children? And how can we make sure that children’s insights and needs form the foundation of our work in this space? These questions matter for all those who design and promote digital experiences, to keep children safe and happy, and enable positive development and learning. These questions are particularly relevant as the world shifts its attention to emerging digital technologies and experiences, from artificial intelligence (AI) to the metaverse, and seeks to understand their impact on people and society. To begin to tackle these questions, UNICEF and the LEGO Group initiated the Responsible Innovation in Technology for Children (RITEC) project in partnership with the Young and Resilient Research Centre at Western Sydney University; the CREATE Lab at New York University; the Graduate Center, City University of New York; the University of Sheffield; the Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for the Digital Child; and the Joan Ganz Cooney Center. The research is funded by the LEGO Foundation. The partnership is an international, multi-stakeholder and cross-sectoral collaboration between organizations that believe the design and development of digital technology should support the rights and well-being of children as a primary objective – and that children should have a prominent voice in making this a reality. This project’s primary objective is to develop, with children from around the world, a framework that maps how the design of children’s digital experiences affects their well-being, and to provide guidance as to how informed design choices can promote positive well-being outcomes.
Resources to Support Marginalized Caregivers of Children with Disabilities: Guidelines for Implementation
Publication

Resources to Support Marginalized Caregivers of Children with Disabilities: Guidelines for Implementation

Support from caregivers is critical for children’s learning both at home and at school. However, the COVID-19 pandemic and disruption of education systems globally created additional expectations for parents to support their children’s learning at home. This particularly affected the most marginalized children as the crises exacerbated already existing inequalities in education. This document introduces the approach and purpose of a set of resources to support the marginalized caregivers of children with disabilities with inclusive education. It presents lessons learned from proof-of-concept pilots in Armenia and Uzbekistan, followed by step-by-step guidelines on how to adopt and adapt the resources for education ministries and others who want to implement them in their education system.
Reopening with Resilience: Lessons from Remote Learning during COVID-19: Europe and Central Asia
Publication

Reopening with Resilience: Lessons from Remote Learning during COVID-19: Europe and Central Asia

When schools started closing their doors due to COVID-19, countries in Europe and Central Asia quickly provided alternative learning solutions for children to continue learning. More than 90 per cent of countries offered digital solutions to ensure that education activities could continue. However, lack of access to digital devices and a reliable internet connection excluded a significant amount of already marginalized children and threatened to widen the existing learning disparities. This report builds on existing evidence highlighting key lessons learned during the pandemic to promote learning for all during school closure and provides actionable policy recommendations on how to bridge the digital divide and build resilient education systems in Europe and Central Asia.

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