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UNICEF Innocenti's complete catalogue of research and reports
Reimagining Migration Responses: Learning from children and young people who move in the Horn of Africa
SPOTLIGHT

Reimagining Migration Responses: Learning from children and young people who move in the Horn of Africa

The number of international migrants under 18 is rising, accelerated by complex and fast-evolving economic, demographic, security and environmental drivers. Based on interviews carried out with 1,290 migrant children and young people in Ethiopia, Somalia and Sudan, this report helps address the evidence gap on children and young people migrating in the Horn of Africa by providing a better understanding of their protective environments; their access to services and resources; and their perceptions of safety, well-being and trust in authorities and other providers. It concludes by offering policy and programme recommendations to rethink child protection approaches for migrants in the region.
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COVID-19: Missing More Than a Classroom. The impact of school closures on children’s nutrition
Blog Blog

COVID-19: Missing More Than a Classroom. The impact of school closures on children’s nutrition

In 2019, 135 million people in 55 countries were in food crises or worse, and 2 billion people did not have regular access to safe, nutritious and sufficient food. COVID-19 has exacerbated these hardships and may result in an additional 121 million people facing acute food insecurity by the end of 2020. Further, since the beginning of the pandemic, an estimated 1.6 billion learners in 199 countries worldwide were affected by school closures, with nearly 370 million children not receiving a school meal in 150 countries. The paper presents the evidence on the potential negative short-term and long-term effects of school meal scheme disruption during Covid-19 globally. It shows how vulnerable the children participating in these schemes are, how coping and mitigation measures are often only short-term solutions, and how prioritizing school re-opening is critical. For instance, it highlights how girls are at greater risk of not being in school or of being taken out of school early, which may lead to poor nutrition and health for themselves and their children. However, well-designed school feeding programmes have been shown to enable catch-up from early growth failure and other negative shocks. As such, once schools re-open, school meal schemes can help address the deprivation that children have experienced during the closures and provide an incentive for parents to send and keep their children, especially girls, in school.
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A School for Children with Rights: The significance of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child for modern education policy
A School for Children with Rights: The significance of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child for modern education policy

AUTHOR(S)
Thomas Hammarberg

Published: 1998 Innocenti Lectures
The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child affirms that every child has a right to education. The purpose of education is to enable the child to develop to his or her fullest possible potential and to learn respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. The general principles of the Convention which are relevant to education cover non-discrimination, the best interests of the child, the child’s right to life, survival and development, and the child’s right to express opinions. These principles can serve as a useful instrument in discussions on how to reform schools. This paper analyses, in the light of the Convention, eight areas for progressive reform: universal access, equal opportunities, the appropriate content of education, cultural roots and global values, new methods of learning, mutual respect, pupil participation, and the role of teachers, parents and the community. It also examines the problems both of implementing and of paying for such reform. The author concludes that the Convention constitutes a useful agenda for creatng a school which is child friendly and which provides the most effective learning.
Children, Law and Justice: A South Asian Perspective
Published: 1997 Innocenti Publications
Even though all South Asian countries have ratified the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, there is as yet little awareness in the region of the importance of this Convention at various levels including policy planning, activism and legal reform in the on-going effort to achieve children’s rights. Thus argues Savitri Goonesekere, whose primary objective in this book is to outline the options available for using the Convention to create a legal system favourable to the realization of the rights of the child in South Asia. The first chapters discuss the international legal environment and the assumptions underlying South Asian domestic legislation on children’s rights, together with the conceptual framework of the Convention. The core of the book focuses on ‘best interests’ and examines such issues as trafficking in children, the status of the girl child, adoption and foster care, child prostitution, and the child as victim of abuse and violence.
Implementing the Convention on the Rights of the Child: Resource mobilization in low-income countries. Summary
Implementing the Convention on the Rights of the Child: Resource mobilization in low-income countries. Summary
Published: 1996 Innocenti Studies
This Innocenti Study focuses on the implementation of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child as it relates to children’s basic economic and social rights in developing countries in terms of the obligations placed by the Convention on both States and the international community. A key proposition is that working effectively for children’s rights involves many of the same strategies and implementation methods that have proved successful in numerous development efforts worldwide. The rights approach is inherently more concerned with issues of equity, non-discrimination and social justice, but it cannot afford to neglect the challenge of resource mobilization. And in this regard our conception of societal ‘resources’ must be extended beyond the limited finances of governments to encompass human, technological, cultural and organizational capabilities.
A Model for Action - the Children's Rights Development Unit:  Promoting the Convention on the Rights of the Child in the United Kingdom
A Model for Action - the Children's Rights Development Unit: Promoting the Convention on the Rights of the Child in the United Kingdom

AUTHOR(S)
Gerison Lansdown

Published: 1996 Innocenti Studies
From 1992 to 1995, the Children’s Rights Development Unit worked to promote the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child in the UK. It chose five broad strategies: promoting awareness of the Convention and its practical application to children’s lives; monitoring the extent to which legislation, policy and practice in the UK comply with the Convention; developing practical strategies for implementation; promoting children’s participation; and identifying mechanisms for compliance. The process, which involved many individuals (children included) and hundreds of organizations, is documented here to be shared with kindred organizations in other countries.
Implementing the Convention on the Rights of the Child: Resource mobilization in low-income countries

AUTHOR(S)
James R. Himes

Published: 1995 Innocenti Publications
This title focuses on the implementation of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child as it relates to children’s basic economic and social rights in developing countries in terms of the obligations placed by the Convention on both States and the international community. A key proposition is that working effectively for children’s rights involves many of the same strategies and implementation methods that have proved successful in numerous development efforts worldwide. The rights approach is inherently more concerned with issues of equity, non-discrimination and social justice, but it cannot afford to neglect the challenge of resource mobilization. And in this regard our conception of societal ‘resources’ must be extended beyond the limited finances of governments to encompass human, technological, cultural and organizational capabilities. (A summary of this book is also available as an Innocenti Study.)
The Best Interests of the Child: Reconciling culture and human rights

AUTHOR(S)
Philip Alston

Published: 1994 Innocenti Publications
The 1989 United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child is the world's most widely ratified international human rights treaty. It thus provides an ideal context in which to examine the relationship between different cultural values and the interntional community's oft-stated aspiration to achieve universal human rights standards. This volume focuses upon a widely accepted family law principle according to which "the best interests of the child" shall be "a primary consideration...in all actions concerning children." Through a combination of broad theoretical analyses and country-specific case studies the distinguished contributors demonstrate that cultural values are inevitably a major factor in the interpretation and application of many human rights norms.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 298 | Thematic area: Convention on the Rights of the Child, Rights of the Child | Tags: best interests of the child, children's rights, implementation of the crc | Publisher: Oxford University Press, UK; UNICEF ICDC, Florence
Monitoring the Rights of Children. Global Seminar Report, 1994
Monitoring the Rights of Children. Global Seminar Report, 1994

AUTHOR(S)
Maggie Black

Published: 1994 Innocenti Global Seminar
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 60 | Thematic area: Convention on the Rights of the Child | Tags: children's rights, implementation of the crc, monitoring of the crc | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child: Three essays on the challenge of implementation
The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child: Three essays on the challenge of implementation

AUTHOR(S)
James R. Himes

Published: 1993 Innocenti Essay
The Convention on the Rights of the Child has been variously hailed as ‘the cornerstone of a new moral ethos’ and a ‘milestone in the history of mankind’. But laws and treaties are as nothing without adequate practical follow-up. The real results will depend not upon the high-mindedness of the ideals themselves, but upon the action taken to achieve them. The ‘challenge of implementation’, is the subject of the three papers collected here. The CRC must not be dismissed as ‘another Utopia’ and it is argued that, with the right policy decisions, the convention’s initial momentum can be sustained.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 38 | Thematic area: Convention on the Rights of the Child | Tags: convention on the rights of the child, implementation of the crc | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
Education and the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child: The challenge of implementation
Education and the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child: The challenge of implementation

AUTHOR(S)
Frank Dall

Implementing the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child: Resource mobilization and the obligations of the States Parties
Implementing the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child: Resource mobilization and the obligations of the States Parties

AUTHOR(S)
James R. Himes

The Convention: Child rights and UNICEF experience at the country level
The Convention: Child rights and UNICEF experience at the country level
Published: 1991 Innocenti Studies
Models for Monitoring the Protection of Children's Rights: Meeting Report,  Florence, 1990
Models for Monitoring the Protection of Children's Rights: Meeting Report, Florence, 1990
Published: 1991 Innocenti Publications
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 56 | Thematic area: Convention on the Rights of the Child | Tags: children's rights, implementation of the crc, monitoring of the crc | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
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Learning at a Distance: Children’s remote learning experiences in Italy during the COVID-19 pandemic
Publication Publication

Learning at a Distance: Children’s remote learning experiences in Italy during the COVID-19 pandemic

Italy was the first country in Europe to implement a nationwide lockdown. Children and their families lived in nearly complete isolation for almost two months. Students missed 65 days of school compared to an average of 27 missed days among high-income countries worldwide. This prolonged break is of concern, as even short breaks in schooling can cause significant loss of learning for children and lead to educational inequalities over time. At least 3 million Italian students may not have been reached by remote learning due to a lack of internet connectivity or devices at home. This report explores children’s and parents’ experiences of remote learning during the lockdown in Italy, drawing on data collected from 11 European countries (and coordinated by the European Commission’s Joint Research Center). It explores how children's access and use of digital technologies changed during the pandemic; highlights how existing inequalities might undermine remote learning opportunities, even among those with internet access; and provides insights on how to support children’s remote learning in the future. *** L'Italia e’ stata il primo paese in Europa ad aver applicato la misura del lockdown su tutto il territorio. I bambini e le loro famiglie hanno vissuto in quasi completo isolamento per circa due mesi. Gli studenti hanno perduto 65 giorni di scuola rispetto ad una media di 27 negli altri paesi ad alto reddito del mondo. Questa interruzione prolungata rappresenta motivo di preoccupazione, in quanto persino interruzioni piu’ brevi nella didattica possono causare significative perdite nel livello di istruzione dei ragazzi e portare col tempo a diseguaglianze educative. Almeno 3 milioni di studenti in Italia non sono stati coinvolti nella didattica a distanza a causa d una mancanza di connessione ad internet o di dispositivi adeguati a casa. Questo rapporto analizza l’esperienza della didattica a distanza di ragazzi e genitori in Italia durante il lockdown, sulla base dei dati raccolti in 11 paesi europei (e coordinati dal Centro comune di ricerca della Commissione Europea). Studia il cambiamento nell’accesso e nell’uso delle tecnologie digitali dei bambini e ragazzi durante la pandemia; mette in evidenza come le diseguaglianze esistenti possano diminuire le opportunità offerte dalla didattica a distanza, anche tra coloro che hanno accesso ad internet; e fornisce approfondimenti su come sostenere la didattica a distanza di bambini e ragazzi in futuro.
Time to Teach: Teacher attendance and time on task in Eastern and Southern Africa
Publication Publication

Time to Teach: Teacher attendance and time on task in Eastern and Southern Africa

There is a learning crisis. Fifty-three per cent of children in low- and middle-income countries are in ‘learning poverty’, i.e. they cannot read and understand a simple text by the end of primary school age. In sub- Saharan Africa, the learning poverty rate is 87 per cent overall, and ranges from 40 per cent to as high as 99 per cent in the 21 countries with available data. Teachers attending lessons and spending quality time on task is a critical prerequisite to learning. However, in sub-Saharan Africa, teacher absenteeism ranges from 15 to 45 per cent. Teacher absenteeism and reduced time on task wastes valuable financial resources, short-changes students and is one of the most cumbersome obstacles on the path toward the education Sustainable Development Goal and to the related vision of the new UNICEF education strategy: Every Child Learns. Whilst the stark numbers are available to study, and despite teacher absenteeism being a foremost challenge for education systems in Africa, the evidence base on how policies and practices can influence teacher attendance remains scant. Time to Teach (TTT) is a research initiative that looks at primary school teacher attendance in eight countries and territories in the Eastern and Southern Africa (ESA) region: the Comoros; Kenya; Rwanda, Puntland, State of Somalia; South Sudan; the United Republic of Tanzania, mainland; the United Republic of Tanzania, Zanzibar; and Uganda. Its primary objective is to identify factors affecting the various forms of teacher attendance, which include being at school, being punctual, being in the classroom, and teaching when in the classroom, and use this evidence to inform the design and implementation of teacher policies.

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