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UNICEF Innocenti's complete catalogue of research and reports
Reimagining Migration Responses: Learning from children and young people who move in the Horn of Africa
SPOTLIGHT

Reimagining Migration Responses: Learning from children and young people who move in the Horn of Africa

The number of international migrants under 18 is rising, accelerated by complex and fast-evolving economic, demographic, security and environmental drivers. Based on interviews carried out with 1,290 migrant children and young people in Ethiopia, Somalia and Sudan, this report helps address the evidence gap on children and young people migrating in the Horn of Africa by providing a better understanding of their protective environments; their access to services and resources; and their perceptions of safety, well-being and trust in authorities and other providers. It concludes by offering policy and programme recommendations to rethink child protection approaches for migrants in the region.
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COVID-19: Missing More Than a Classroom. The impact of school closures on children’s nutrition
Blog Blog

COVID-19: Missing More Than a Classroom. The impact of school closures on children’s nutrition

In 2019, 135 million people in 55 countries were in food crises or worse, and 2 billion people did not have regular access to safe, nutritious and sufficient food. COVID-19 has exacerbated these hardships and may result in an additional 121 million people facing acute food insecurity by the end of 2020. Further, since the beginning of the pandemic, an estimated 1.6 billion learners in 199 countries worldwide were affected by school closures, with nearly 370 million children not receiving a school meal in 150 countries. The paper presents the evidence on the potential negative short-term and long-term effects of school meal scheme disruption during Covid-19 globally. It shows how vulnerable the children participating in these schemes are, how coping and mitigation measures are often only short-term solutions, and how prioritizing school re-opening is critical. For instance, it highlights how girls are at greater risk of not being in school or of being taken out of school early, which may lead to poor nutrition and health for themselves and their children. However, well-designed school feeding programmes have been shown to enable catch-up from early growth failure and other negative shocks. As such, once schools re-open, school meal schemes can help address the deprivation that children have experienced during the closures and provide an incentive for parents to send and keep their children, especially girls, in school.
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Approches participatives
Approches participatives

AUTHOR(S)
Irene Guijt

Published: 2016 Methodological Briefs

L’utilisation d’approches participatives dans le cadre de l’évaluation d’impact consiste à impliquer les parties prenantes, particulièrement les participants d’un programme ou les individus concernés par une politique, dans certains aspects du processus d’évaluation. Le terme « approches participatives » recouvre plusieurs types de participation qui diffèrent de par leur nature, leur objet, leur méthode et l’identité des individus dont la participation est souhaitée.

Cite this publication | No. of pages: 20 | Thematic area: Knowledge management | Tags: research methods
Enfoques participativos
Enfoques participativos

AUTHOR(S)
Irene Guijt

Published: 2016 Methodological Briefs
Al aplicar enfoques participativos en la evaluación de impacto, se involucra a los interesados —en especial a los participantes en un programa o a los afectados por una política determinada— en aspectos concretos del proceso de evaluación. El término comprende un conjunto amplio de tipos de participación, que divergen en el significado de «participación», los sujetos que intervienen y los aspectos en que toman parte y cómo lo hacen.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 20 | Thematic area: Knowledge management | Tags: research methods
Essais contrôlés randomisés (ECR)
Essais contrôlés randomisés (ECR)
Published: 2016 Methodological Briefs

L’essai contrôlé randomisé (ECR) est une méthode suivie dans le cadre de l’évaluation d’impact. À partir d’une population admissible, cette méthode permet de sélectionner de façon aléatoire le groupe expérimental qui bénéficiera d’une intervention programmatique ou politique et le groupe contrôle qui servira de point de comparaison. L’ECR permet d’évaluer dans quelle mesure les impacts escomptés sont obtenus.

Cite this publication | No. of pages: 20 | Thematic area: Knowledge management | Tags: research methods
Ensayos controlados aleatorios
Ensayos controlados aleatorios
Published: 2016 Methodological Briefs
El ensayo controlado aleatorio es un método de evaluación de impacto en el que la población beneficiaria de la intervención del programa o la política y el grupo de control se eligen de manera aleatoria entre la población que cumple los criterios. Evalúa en qué medida se están alcanzando los impactos específicos planeados.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 20 | Thematic area: Knowledge management | Tags: research methods
Méthodes et modèles quasi expérimentaux
Méthodes et modèles quasi expérimentaux
Published: 2016 Methodological Briefs
Les méthodes quasi expérimentales identifient un groupe témoin qui doit être aussi proche que possible du groupe expérimental au niveau des caractéristiques initiales (préalables à l’intervention). Le groupe témoin permet d’identifier les résultats qui seraient survenus si le programme/la politique n’avait pas été mis(e) en œuvre (c.-à-d., la situation contrefactuelle). Cette méthode permet de prouver que le programme (ou la politique) est bien à l’origine des différences de résultat entre le groupe expérimental et le groupe témoin.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 20 | Thematic area: Knowledge management | Tags: research methods
Diseño y métodos cuasiexperimentales
Diseño y métodos cuasiexperimentales
Published: 2016 Methodological Briefs
Los diseños cuasiexperimentales identifican un grupo de comparación lo más parecido posible al grupo de tratamiento en cuanto a las características del estudio de base (previas a la intervención). El grupo de comparación capta los resultados que se habrían obtenido si el programa o la política no se hubieran aplicado (es decir, el contrafáctico). Por consiguiente, se puede establecer si el programa o la política han causado alguna diferencia entre los resultados del grupo de tratamiento y los del grupo de comparación.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 20 | Thematic area: Knowledge management | Tags: research methods
Études de cas comparatives
Études de cas comparatives

AUTHOR(S)
Delwyn Goodrick

Published: 2016 Methodological Briefs
Les études de cas comparatives sont menées au fil du temps et comparent différentes situations dans un contexte donné et entre différents contextes. Elles peuvent être sélectionnées lorsqu’il n’est pas possible de mettre en place un modèle expérimental et/ou pour comprendre et expliquer la façon dont les caractéristiques d’un contexte influent sur la réussite d’un programme ou d’une politique.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 20 | Thematic area: Knowledge management | Tags: research methods
Estudios de caso comparativos
Estudios de caso comparativos

AUTHOR(S)
Delwyn Goodrick

Published: 2016 Methodological Briefs
Los estudios de caso comparativos se efectúan a lo largo del tiempo y hacen hincapié en la comparación en un contexto y entre ellos. Resultan convenientes cuando no es posible llevar a cabo un diseño experimental, o cuando hay una necesidad de comprender y explicar la influencia de las características del contexto en el éxito de las iniciativas del programa o política. Esta información es valiosa ya que permite adaptar las intervenciones con miras a obtener los resultados deseados.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 20 | Thematic area: Knowledge management | Tags: research methods
Élaboration et sélection d’indicateurs du bien-être des enfants
Élaboration et sélection d’indicateurs du bien-être des enfants
Published: 2016 Methodological Briefs
Les indicateurs envoient un signal aux décideurs en leur indiquant si, et dans quelle mesure, une variable importante a changé. Les indicateurs peuvent être utilisés à tous les niveaux du cadre de résultats, des intrants jusqu’à l’impact, et doivent être liés à la théorie du changement du programme/de la politique concerné(e). Les indicateurs jouent un rôle important pour toutes les activités de suivi et évaluation (S&E), notamment pour les évaluations d’impact.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 20 | Thematic area: Knowledge management | Tags: research methods
Desarrollo y selección de medidas del bienestar infantil
Desarrollo y selección de medidas del bienestar infantil
Published: 2016 Methodological Briefs
Los indicadores proporcionan una señal a los responsables de adoptar decisiones ya que indican si —y hasta qué punto— una variable de interés ha cambiado. Los indicadores pueden utilizarse en todos los niveles del marco de resultados, desde los insumos al impacto, y deben estar relacionados con la teoría del cambio del programa. Los indicadores desempeñan una función importante en todas las actividades de seguimiento y evaluación, incluida la evaluación de impacto.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 20 | Thematic area: Knowledge management | Tags: research methods
Entretiens
Entretiens
Published: 2016 Methodological Briefs
La présente note passe en revue les principales questions à étudier pour planifier un entretien. Elle aborde la manière dont les données issues d’entretiens viennent compléter les informations déjà recueillies dans le cadre d’une évaluation d’impact ainsi que la question relative à la disponibilité des ressources. Cette note fournit également des conseils spécifiques pour réussir les entretiens avec des enfants, notamment concernant les questions d’ordre éthique que de telles entrevues soulèvent.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 20 | Thematic area: Knowledge management | Tags: research methods
Entrevistas
Entrevistas
Published: 2016 Methodological Briefs
Esta síntesis describe las cuestiones clave que deben tenerse en cuenta en las evaluaciones de impacto, teniendo en cuenta el propósito de la evaluación, si los datos de la entrevista tienen como objetivo complementar otros datos para valorar el impacto, y la disponibilidad de recursos. La síntesis proporciona asesoramiento específico sobre cómo entrevistar correctamente a los niños, incluido cómo abordar las cuestiones éticas que atañen en particular a las entrevistas.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 20 | Thematic area: Knowledge management | Tags: research methods
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Learning at a Distance: Children’s remote learning experiences in Italy during the COVID-19 pandemic
Publication Publication

Learning at a Distance: Children’s remote learning experiences in Italy during the COVID-19 pandemic

Italy was the first country in Europe to implement a nationwide lockdown. Children and their families lived in nearly complete isolation for almost two months. Students missed 65 days of school compared to an average of 27 missed days among high-income countries worldwide. This prolonged break is of concern, as even short breaks in schooling can cause significant loss of learning for children and lead to educational inequalities over time. At least 3 million Italian students may not have been reached by remote learning due to a lack of internet connectivity or devices at home. This report explores children’s and parents’ experiences of remote learning during the lockdown in Italy, drawing on data collected from 11 European countries (and coordinated by the European Commission’s Joint Research Center). It explores how children's access and use of digital technologies changed during the pandemic; highlights how existing inequalities might undermine remote learning opportunities, even among those with internet access; and provides insights on how to support children’s remote learning in the future. *** L'Italia e’ stata il primo paese in Europa ad aver applicato la misura del lockdown su tutto il territorio. I bambini e le loro famiglie hanno vissuto in quasi completo isolamento per circa due mesi. Gli studenti hanno perduto 65 giorni di scuola rispetto ad una media di 27 negli altri paesi ad alto reddito del mondo. Questa interruzione prolungata rappresenta motivo di preoccupazione, in quanto persino interruzioni piu’ brevi nella didattica possono causare significative perdite nel livello di istruzione dei ragazzi e portare col tempo a diseguaglianze educative. Almeno 3 milioni di studenti in Italia non sono stati coinvolti nella didattica a distanza a causa d una mancanza di connessione ad internet o di dispositivi adeguati a casa. Questo rapporto analizza l’esperienza della didattica a distanza di ragazzi e genitori in Italia durante il lockdown, sulla base dei dati raccolti in 11 paesi europei (e coordinati dal Centro comune di ricerca della Commissione Europea). Studia il cambiamento nell’accesso e nell’uso delle tecnologie digitali dei bambini e ragazzi durante la pandemia; mette in evidenza come le diseguaglianze esistenti possano diminuire le opportunità offerte dalla didattica a distanza, anche tra coloro che hanno accesso ad internet; e fornisce approfondimenti su come sostenere la didattica a distanza di bambini e ragazzi in futuro.
Time to Teach: Teacher attendance and time on task in Eastern and Southern Africa
Publication Publication

Time to Teach: Teacher attendance and time on task in Eastern and Southern Africa

There is a learning crisis. Fifty-three per cent of children in low- and middle-income countries are in ‘learning poverty’, i.e. they cannot read and understand a simple text by the end of primary school age. In sub- Saharan Africa, the learning poverty rate is 87 per cent overall, and ranges from 40 per cent to as high as 99 per cent in the 21 countries with available data. Teachers attending lessons and spending quality time on task is a critical prerequisite to learning. However, in sub-Saharan Africa, teacher absenteeism ranges from 15 to 45 per cent. Teacher absenteeism and reduced time on task wastes valuable financial resources, short-changes students and is one of the most cumbersome obstacles on the path toward the education Sustainable Development Goal and to the related vision of the new UNICEF education strategy: Every Child Learns. Whilst the stark numbers are available to study, and despite teacher absenteeism being a foremost challenge for education systems in Africa, the evidence base on how policies and practices can influence teacher attendance remains scant. Time to Teach (TTT) is a research initiative that looks at primary school teacher attendance in eight countries and territories in the Eastern and Southern Africa (ESA) region: the Comoros; Kenya; Rwanda, Puntland, State of Somalia; South Sudan; the United Republic of Tanzania, mainland; the United Republic of Tanzania, Zanzibar; and Uganda. Its primary objective is to identify factors affecting the various forms of teacher attendance, which include being at school, being punctual, being in the classroom, and teaching when in the classroom, and use this evidence to inform the design and implementation of teacher policies.

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