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UNICEF Innocenti's complete catalogue of research and reports
Reimagining Migration Responses: Learning from children and young people who move in the Horn of Africa
SPOTLIGHT

Reimagining Migration Responses: Learning from children and young people who move in the Horn of Africa

The number of international migrants under 18 is rising, accelerated by complex and fast-evolving economic, demographic, security and environmental drivers. Based on interviews carried out with 1,290 migrant children and young people in Ethiopia, Somalia and Sudan, this report helps address the evidence gap on children and young people migrating in the Horn of Africa by providing a better understanding of their protective environments; their access to services and resources; and their perceptions of safety, well-being and trust in authorities and other providers. It concludes by offering policy and programme recommendations to rethink child protection approaches for migrants in the region.
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COVID-19: Missing More Than a Classroom. The impact of school closures on children’s nutrition
Blog Blog

COVID-19: Missing More Than a Classroom. The impact of school closures on children’s nutrition

In 2019, 135 million people in 55 countries were in food crises or worse, and 2 billion people did not have regular access to safe, nutritious and sufficient food. COVID-19 has exacerbated these hardships and may result in an additional 121 million people facing acute food insecurity by the end of 2020. Further, since the beginning of the pandemic, an estimated 1.6 billion learners in 199 countries worldwide were affected by school closures, with nearly 370 million children not receiving a school meal in 150 countries. The paper presents the evidence on the potential negative short-term and long-term effects of school meal scheme disruption during Covid-19 globally. It shows how vulnerable the children participating in these schemes are, how coping and mitigation measures are often only short-term solutions, and how prioritizing school re-opening is critical. For instance, it highlights how girls are at greater risk of not being in school or of being taken out of school early, which may lead to poor nutrition and health for themselves and their children. However, well-designed school feeding programmes have been shown to enable catch-up from early growth failure and other negative shocks. As such, once schools re-open, school meal schemes can help address the deprivation that children have experienced during the closures and provide an incentive for parents to send and keep their children, especially girls, in school.
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Social Protection in the Informal Economy: Home based women workers and outsourced manufacturing in Asia
Social Protection in the Informal Economy: Home based women workers and outsourced manufacturing in Asia
Published: 2002 Innocenti Working Papers
Home based work has a dual and contradictory character: on the one hand, as a source of income diversification for poor workers and the emergence of micro-enterprises, yet on the other, it is a source of exploitation of vulnerable workers as firms attempt to contain costs. This paper examines the social protection needs of women workers in this sector, and also argues for public action to promote such work as a possible new labour intensive growth strategy in these and other developing countries.
Early Marriage: Child Spouses
Early Marriage: Child Spouses
Published: 2001 Innocenti Digest
This Digest focuses on early marriage - the marriage of children and young people under the age of 18 - from a human rights perspective. Research into early marriage has tended to concentrate on its impact on reproductive health, school drop-out and rising population figures, and there has been little examination of the practice as a human rights violation in itself. The Digest examines the scale of early marriage, its context, causes and its impact on every aspect of the lives of those affected - particularly young girls - and on wider society. It outlines strategies to help those who have been married at an early age, and for the prevention of early marriage through education, advocacy and alliance-building. The Digest concludes with a call for more rights-based research on an issue that has far-reaching consequences.
Le mariage précoce
Le mariage précoce
Published: 2001 Innocenti Digest
Ce Digest se penche sur le mariage précoce - le mariage d’enfants et d’adolescents de moins de 18 ans - dans une perspective de droits humains. Les recherches sur le mariage précoce n’ont le plus souvent considéré que certains aspects spécifiques de l’impact du phénomène, comme ses répercussions sur la santé génésique ou l’abandon scolaire, et non sa portée en tant que violation des droits de l’enfant en soi. Le Digest examine l’étendue du mariage précoce, son contexte, ses causes, et ses conséquences sur tous les aspects de la vie de ceux qui le subissent - des filles en particulier - ainsi que sur la société dans son ensemble. Il définit des lignes de conduite pour aider ceux qui ont été mariés trop tôt, et pour prévenir le mariage précoce à travers l’éducation, l’engagement, et l’établissement d’alliances. Il conclut en appelant à une recherche qui tienne beaucoup plus compte de la perspective des droits sur une question qui a de vastes retombées.
Matrimonios prematuros
Matrimonios prematuros
Published: 2001 Innocenti Digest
Este número del Innocenti Digest se ocupa de los matrimonios prematuros, es decir de los matrimonios de niños y jóvenes menores de 18 años, desde un punto de vista que se basa en el respeto de los derechos humanos. Las investigaciones llevadas a cabo hasta el momento han tendido a concentrarse solamente en ciertos puntos específicos del impacto de los matrimonios prematuros, como los efectos que tienen en la salud reproductiva y en el abandono de la escuela. Se ha prestado poca atención al enfoque que considera dicha práctica de por sí como una violación de los derechos del niño. El presente Digest analiza las dimensiones del fenómeno, su contexto, sus causas y las consecuencias que tiene en todos los aspectos de la vida de las personas afectadas (especialmente en el caso de las niñas pequeñas) y en la sociedad en general. Traza un perfil de las estrategias a seguir para ayudar a quienes se han tenido que casar a edad temprana y para prevenir los matrimonios prematuros mediante la educación, la sensibilización y la construcción de alianzas. El Digest se concluye con una invitación a realizar, desde una perspectiva basada en el respeto de los derechos humanos, más investigaciones sobre la cuestión, que tiene consecuencias de vasta repercusión.
Il Matrimonio Precoce
Il Matrimonio Precoce
Published: 2001 Innocenti Digest
Questo numero di Innocenti Digest affronta il tema del matrimonio precoce, la pratica di far sposare bambini ed adolescenti al di sotto dei 18 anni d'età, e ne analizza gli aspetti relativi ai diritti umani. In genere, la ricerca sul matrimonio precoce ha concentrato l'attenzione sulla salute riproduttiva, sull'abbandono scolastico e sulla crescita demografica. La pratica non è stata sufficientemente presa in esame dal punto di vista delle violazioni dei diritti umani dei minori. Il Digest esamina la portata del problema, il contesto in cui si manifesta, le sue cause e le ripercussioni su tutti gli aspetti della vita di coloro che ne sono coinvolti, in particolare le ragazze adolescenti, nonché sull'intera società. Il Digest propone anche alcune strategie per aiutare coloro che sono stati fatti sposare ad un'età troppo giovane, e per prevenire il matrimonio precoce attraverso l'istruzione, la promozione di una cultura di rispetto dei diritti e la costituzione di alleanze. Il Digest si conclude con la raccomandazione di tenere maggiormente conto dell'aspetto dei diritti nella ricerca su di un problema con effetti tanto profondi.
The Outcomes of Teenage Motherhood in Europe
The Outcomes of Teenage Motherhood in Europe
Published: 2001 Innocenti Working Papers
Research in many countries has confirmed that teenage mothers and their families are often at a disadvantage compared with those whose children are born in their twenties or thirties. But there has never been an opportunity for a systematic comparison between countries, based on a common data source. This paper analyses the current situation of women whose first child was born when they were teenagers, across 13 countries in the European Union, based on the European Community Household Panel survey. Outcomes considered include educational attainment, family structure, family employment and household income. Teenage mothers were disadvantaged in all countries, but the severity of their position varied substantially between countries.
Domestic Violence against Women and Girls
Domestic Violence against Women and Girls

AUTHOR(S)
Sushma Kapoor

Published: 2000 Innocenti Digest
This Digest focuses on domestic violence as one of the most prevalent yet relatively hidden and ignored forms of violence against women and girls globally. Domestic violence is a health, legal, economic, educational, developmental and, above all, a human rights issue. The Digest looks at the magnitude and universality of domestic violence, and its impact on the rights of women and children. It emphasizes the need for coordinated and integrated policy responses; implementing existing leglisation; and ensuring greater accountability from governments in order to eliminate this violence. Information on regional and international NGOs working in this area, and suggestions for further reading are also provided.
Violence domestique a l'égard des femmes et des filles
Violence domestique a l'égard des femmes et des filles
Published: 2000 Innocenti Digest
Ce digest souligne la violence domestique comme une des formes les plus répandues, même si elle est relativement occultée et méconnue, de la violence à l'égard des femmes et des filles au niveau mondial. La violence domestique est un problème qui concerne la santé, le droit, l'économie, l'éducation, le développement et, avant tout, les droits humains. Le digest examine l'ampleur et l'universalité du problème de la violence domestique, et son impact sur les droits des femmes et des enfants. Il met l'accent sur la nécessité de réponses politiques coordonnées et intégrées, par une majeure collaboration entre les parties intéressées, par l'établissement de mécanismes de surveillance et d'évaluation des programmes et des politiques, par l'application de la législation en vigueur, et par l'obligation pour les gouvernements d'assumer davantage leurs responsabilités, afin d'éliminer cette violence. Le digest fournit également des informations sur les ONG régionales et internationales oeuvrant dans ce domaine, ainsi que des suggestions de lecture.
Violenza domestica contro le donne e le bambine
Violenza domestica contro le donne e le bambine
Published: 2000 Innocenti Digest
Questo numero di Innocenti Digest affronta il tema della violenza domestica, una delle forme globalmente più diffuse di violenza contro le donne e le ragazze, che però rimane relativamente nascosta e ignorata. Il problema della violenza domestica chiama in causa una varietà di ambiti: la sanità, la giustizia, l'economia, l'istruzione, lo sviluppo e, soprattutto, i diritti dell'uomo. Il Digest esamina le dimensioni e la diffusione del problema, e le ripercussioni che esso ha sui diritti delle donne e dei minori. Sottolinea l'esigenza di fornire risposte politiche coordinate e integrate: con una più efficace applicazione della legislazione esistente e con un impegno più diretto e visibile nella lotta contro questa violenza da parte dei governi. Lo studio contiene inoltre informazioni sulle ONG regionali e internazionali attive su questo tema, oltre che indicazioni bibliografiche utili per approfondire l'argomento.
La violencia doméstica contra mujeres y niñas
La violencia doméstica contra mujeres y niñas
Published: 2000 Innocenti Digest
Este número del Innocenti Digest afronta el tema de la violencia doméstica, una de las formas de violencia contra mujeres y niñas más difundidas a nivel mundial, aunque suele permanecer relativamente oculta e ignorada. La violencia doméstica es un problema que afecta numerosos campos: la sanidad, la justicia, la economia, la educación, el desarollo y, sobre todo, los derechos humanos. El Digest examina las dimensiones y el carácter universal de la violencia doméstica, como asimismo la repercusión que tiene en los derechos de mujeres y niños.
Women in Transition: A summary
Women in Transition: A summary
Published: 1999 Regional Monitoring Report
The 1999 Central and Eastern Europe and Commonwealth of Independent States Regional Monitoring Report focuses on the experiences of girls and women during the transition, highlighting their role in regional progress and the obstacles they face. The Report covers a broad range of issues, including women’s participation in the emerging market economy and democratic governments, female access to health and education, trends in family formation and violence against women and girls. The Report calls for the full implementation of existing human rights agreements and emphasizes the importance and benefits of integrating gender equality into the foundations of these new societies. The MONEE project is a unique source of information on the social side of the transition taking place in the CEE CIS Region. Each year's Report contains an update on the social and economic trends affecting children and families in the region, in-depth analysis of a particular theme and a detailed Statistical Annex.
Le donne e la transizione: una sintesi
Published: 1999 Regional Monitoring Report
Il Rapporto evidenzia il fallimento del comunismo nella promozione di una reale cultura dell’uguaglianza, risulta anche evidente che il sistema ha prodotto alcune positive eredità per le donne. Un forte investimento nei servizi sociali di base ha significato un alto grado di istruzione tra le donne e buoni livelli di assistenza sanitaria; le donne avevano ottime prospettive di lavoro, un livello alto di assistenza all’infanzia, possibilità di guadagnare e di curare i familiari. Anche dieci anni dopo l’inizio del processo di transizione, in termini di sviluppo umano, la differenza tra uomini e donne è minore rispetto a molti altri paesi con livelli simili di reddito.
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JOURNAL ARTICLES BLOGS
Learning at a Distance: Children’s remote learning experiences in Italy during the COVID-19 pandemic
Publication Publication

Learning at a Distance: Children’s remote learning experiences in Italy during the COVID-19 pandemic

Italy was the first country in Europe to implement a nationwide lockdown. Children and their families lived in nearly complete isolation for almost two months. Students missed 65 days of school compared to an average of 27 missed days among high-income countries worldwide. This prolonged break is of concern, as even short breaks in schooling can cause significant loss of learning for children and lead to educational inequalities over time. At least 3 million Italian students may not have been reached by remote learning due to a lack of internet connectivity or devices at home. This report explores children’s and parents’ experiences of remote learning during the lockdown in Italy, drawing on data collected from 11 European countries (and coordinated by the European Commission’s Joint Research Center). It explores how children's access and use of digital technologies changed during the pandemic; highlights how existing inequalities might undermine remote learning opportunities, even among those with internet access; and provides insights on how to support children’s remote learning in the future. *** L'Italia e’ stata il primo paese in Europa ad aver applicato la misura del lockdown su tutto il territorio. I bambini e le loro famiglie hanno vissuto in quasi completo isolamento per circa due mesi. Gli studenti hanno perduto 65 giorni di scuola rispetto ad una media di 27 negli altri paesi ad alto reddito del mondo. Questa interruzione prolungata rappresenta motivo di preoccupazione, in quanto persino interruzioni piu’ brevi nella didattica possono causare significative perdite nel livello di istruzione dei ragazzi e portare col tempo a diseguaglianze educative. Almeno 3 milioni di studenti in Italia non sono stati coinvolti nella didattica a distanza a causa d una mancanza di connessione ad internet o di dispositivi adeguati a casa. Questo rapporto analizza l’esperienza della didattica a distanza di ragazzi e genitori in Italia durante il lockdown, sulla base dei dati raccolti in 11 paesi europei (e coordinati dal Centro comune di ricerca della Commissione Europea). Studia il cambiamento nell’accesso e nell’uso delle tecnologie digitali dei bambini e ragazzi durante la pandemia; mette in evidenza come le diseguaglianze esistenti possano diminuire le opportunità offerte dalla didattica a distanza, anche tra coloro che hanno accesso ad internet; e fornisce approfondimenti su come sostenere la didattica a distanza di bambini e ragazzi in futuro.
Time to Teach: Teacher attendance and time on task in Eastern and Southern Africa
Publication Publication

Time to Teach: Teacher attendance and time on task in Eastern and Southern Africa

There is a learning crisis. Fifty-three per cent of children in low- and middle-income countries are in ‘learning poverty’, i.e. they cannot read and understand a simple text by the end of primary school age. In sub- Saharan Africa, the learning poverty rate is 87 per cent overall, and ranges from 40 per cent to as high as 99 per cent in the 21 countries with available data. Teachers attending lessons and spending quality time on task is a critical prerequisite to learning. However, in sub-Saharan Africa, teacher absenteeism ranges from 15 to 45 per cent. Teacher absenteeism and reduced time on task wastes valuable financial resources, short-changes students and is one of the most cumbersome obstacles on the path toward the education Sustainable Development Goal and to the related vision of the new UNICEF education strategy: Every Child Learns. Whilst the stark numbers are available to study, and despite teacher absenteeism being a foremost challenge for education systems in Africa, the evidence base on how policies and practices can influence teacher attendance remains scant. Time to Teach (TTT) is a research initiative that looks at primary school teacher attendance in eight countries and territories in the Eastern and Southern Africa (ESA) region: the Comoros; Kenya; Rwanda, Puntland, State of Somalia; South Sudan; the United Republic of Tanzania, mainland; the United Republic of Tanzania, Zanzibar; and Uganda. Its primary objective is to identify factors affecting the various forms of teacher attendance, which include being at school, being punctual, being in the classroom, and teaching when in the classroom, and use this evidence to inform the design and implementation of teacher policies.

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