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UNICEF Innocenti's complete catalogue of research and reports
Reimagining Migration Responses: Learning from children and young people who move in the Horn of Africa
SPOTLIGHT

Reimagining Migration Responses: Learning from children and young people who move in the Horn of Africa

The number of international migrants under 18 is rising, accelerated by complex and fast-evolving economic, demographic, security and environmental drivers. Based on interviews carried out with 1,290 migrant children and young people in Ethiopia, Somalia and Sudan, this report helps address the evidence gap on children and young people migrating in the Horn of Africa by providing a better understanding of their protective environments; their access to services and resources; and their perceptions of safety, well-being and trust in authorities and other providers. It concludes by offering policy and programme recommendations to rethink child protection approaches for migrants in the region.
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COVID-19: Missing More Than a Classroom. The impact of school closures on children’s nutrition
Blog Blog

COVID-19: Missing More Than a Classroom. The impact of school closures on children’s nutrition

In 2019, 135 million people in 55 countries were in food crises or worse, and 2 billion people did not have regular access to safe, nutritious and sufficient food. COVID-19 has exacerbated these hardships and may result in an additional 121 million people facing acute food insecurity by the end of 2020. Further, since the beginning of the pandemic, an estimated 1.6 billion learners in 199 countries worldwide were affected by school closures, with nearly 370 million children not receiving a school meal in 150 countries. The paper presents the evidence on the potential negative short-term and long-term effects of school meal scheme disruption during Covid-19 globally. It shows how vulnerable the children participating in these schemes are, how coping and mitigation measures are often only short-term solutions, and how prioritizing school re-opening is critical. For instance, it highlights how girls are at greater risk of not being in school or of being taken out of school early, which may lead to poor nutrition and health for themselves and their children. However, well-designed school feeding programmes have been shown to enable catch-up from early growth failure and other negative shocks. As such, once schools re-open, school meal schemes can help address the deprivation that children have experienced during the closures and provide an incentive for parents to send and keep their children, especially girls, in school.
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Children and Disability in Transition in CEE/CIS and Baltic States
Children and Disability in Transition in CEE/CIS and Baltic States
Published: 2005 Innocenti Insights
This Innocenti Insight looks at how children with disabilities and their families have fared in the rapidly changing environment of this region since transition in the early 1980’s. It builds upon the significant body of research and policy reflections accrued at the UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre (IRC) with the support of national statistical offices in the 27 countries of the region. UNICEF IRC has tracked and explored the impact on children and their families of economic and social changes in the region since transition began. This report draws upon three new pieces of research that include data, a qualitative survey and first-person interviews. The results highlight the legacies of the past, the momentum for change and areas where action is further needed. Institutionalisation, segregation and discrimination are still prominent features of the environment in which children with disabilities live across the region.
ПРОБЛЕМЫ ДЕТСКОЙ ИНВАЛИДНОСТИ
ПРОБЛЕМЫ ДЕТСКОЙ ИНВАЛИДНОСТИ
Published: 2005 Innocenti Insights
В настоящий доклад включены три новых элемента ис- следований, которые содержат данные, качественный анализ и личные интервью. Результаты исследования отражают наследие прошлого, стремление к изменени-ям и области, требующие принятия мер. Помещение в специализированные учреждения, сегрегация и дискри- минация все еще являются характерными чертами сре- ды, в которой повсюду в этом регионе живут дети с ог-раниченными возможностями. Тем не менее становится все очевиднее, что отношение общества к инвалиднос- ти меняется, и можно привести много конкретных при-меров интегрирования детей с ограниченными возмож- ностями в общество. Первое и главное условие, необ-ходимое для обеспечения соблюдения прав детей с ог-раниченными возможностями в регионе, заключается в том, чтобы положить конец общепринятой практике помещения таких детей в специализированные детские ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ Я хочу, чтобы вы написали, что я не считаю себя больной. Наоборот – хорошо- жить и быть молодой. Валя, 17 лет, с ограниченными возможностями, живет дома, Болгария учреждения и особые школы. Это требует от местныхвластей выделения бoльших ресурсов и оказания боль-шей поддержки семьям, имеющим детей с ограничен-ными возможностями – важных шагов в пер- од истори- ческих усилий по восстановлению демократического гражданского общества в этих странах, переживающих переходный период.
How High is Infant Mortality in Central and Eastern Europe and the CIS?
How High is Infant Mortality in Central and Eastern Europe and the CIS?
Published: 2003 Innocenti Working Papers
There are worrying indications that official infant mortality counts, based on administrative data, may underestimate the true gravity of the problem in 15 countires in the CEE / CIS region, including 11 out of 12 CIS countries. However, the paper also finds that surveys are rather blunt instruments, and that the confidence intervals that surround estimates from these surveys are often large.
Innocenti Social Monitor 2002
Innocenti Social Monitor 2002
Published: 2002 Innocenti Social Monitor
Social Monitor 2002 reviews recent socio-economic developments in the 27 countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States. It contains three articles: Social trends in transition: an update on trends in a range of topics including income and poverty, fertility, infant and adult mortality, enrolment in education and care of children at risk. HIV/AIDS and young people: awareness, behaviour and policy: focuses on the spread of HIV, and young people’s knowledge about HIV prevention. Quality of learning: towards "unilateral educational disarmament"?: examines new information to compare learning outcomes in transition countries and in the West. In addition, the Statistical Annex covers a range of indicators for the years 1989 to 2000-2001, as well as comprehensive statistical profiles on each country in the region. Social Monitor 2002 builds on the eight Regional Monitoring Reports produced by the MONEE Project at the UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre between 1993 and 2001.
A League Table of Teenage Births in Rich Nations
A League Table of Teenage Births in Rich Nations
Published: 2001 Innocenti Report Card
The third Innocenti Report Card presents the most up-to-date and comprehensive survey so far of teenage birth rates in the industrialized world. And it attempts at least a partial analysis of why some countries have teenage birth rates that are ten or even fifteen times higher than others. Approximately 1.25 million teenagers become pregnant each year in the 28 OECD nations under review. Of those, approximately half a million will seek an abortion and approximately three quarters of a million will become teenage mothers. The five countries with the lowest teenage birth rates are Korea, Japan, Switzerland, the Netherlands and Sweden - all with teen birth rates of fewer than 10 per 1,000. The United States teenage birth rate of 52.1 is the highest in the developed world – and more than twice the European average. The United Kingdom has the highest teenage birth rate in Europe.
A Subnational Outreach Programme: Proposed action steps and training for primary health care implementation
A Subnational Outreach Programme: Proposed action steps and training for primary health care implementation

AUTHOR(S)
James B. Mayfield

Cite this publication | No. of pages: 52 | Thematic area: Health, National Development Programmes | Tags: health policy, implementation programmes, primary health care | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
Changes in Health Care Financing and Health Status: The case of China in the 1980s
Changes in Health Care Financing and Health Status: The case of China in the 1980s

AUTHOR(S)
Yu Dezhi

Cite this publication | No. of pages: 70 | Thematic area: Economic Development, Health | Tags: health, health care facilities, health expenditures | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
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Learning at a Distance: Children’s remote learning experiences in Italy during the COVID-19 pandemic
Publication Publication

Learning at a Distance: Children’s remote learning experiences in Italy during the COVID-19 pandemic

Italy was the first country in Europe to implement a nationwide lockdown. Children and their families lived in nearly complete isolation for almost two months. Students missed 65 days of school compared to an average of 27 missed days among high-income countries worldwide. This prolonged break is of concern, as even short breaks in schooling can cause significant loss of learning for children and lead to educational inequalities over time. At least 3 million Italian students may not have been reached by remote learning due to a lack of internet connectivity or devices at home. This report explores children’s and parents’ experiences of remote learning during the lockdown in Italy, drawing on data collected from 11 European countries (and coordinated by the European Commission’s Joint Research Center). It explores how children's access and use of digital technologies changed during the pandemic; highlights how existing inequalities might undermine remote learning opportunities, even among those with internet access; and provides insights on how to support children’s remote learning in the future. *** L'Italia e’ stata il primo paese in Europa ad aver applicato la misura del lockdown su tutto il territorio. I bambini e le loro famiglie hanno vissuto in quasi completo isolamento per circa due mesi. Gli studenti hanno perduto 65 giorni di scuola rispetto ad una media di 27 negli altri paesi ad alto reddito del mondo. Questa interruzione prolungata rappresenta motivo di preoccupazione, in quanto persino interruzioni piu’ brevi nella didattica possono causare significative perdite nel livello di istruzione dei ragazzi e portare col tempo a diseguaglianze educative. Almeno 3 milioni di studenti in Italia non sono stati coinvolti nella didattica a distanza a causa d una mancanza di connessione ad internet o di dispositivi adeguati a casa. Questo rapporto analizza l’esperienza della didattica a distanza di ragazzi e genitori in Italia durante il lockdown, sulla base dei dati raccolti in 11 paesi europei (e coordinati dal Centro comune di ricerca della Commissione Europea). Studia il cambiamento nell’accesso e nell’uso delle tecnologie digitali dei bambini e ragazzi durante la pandemia; mette in evidenza come le diseguaglianze esistenti possano diminuire le opportunità offerte dalla didattica a distanza, anche tra coloro che hanno accesso ad internet; e fornisce approfondimenti su come sostenere la didattica a distanza di bambini e ragazzi in futuro.
Time to Teach: Teacher attendance and time on task in Eastern and Southern Africa
Publication Publication

Time to Teach: Teacher attendance and time on task in Eastern and Southern Africa

There is a learning crisis. Fifty-three per cent of children in low- and middle-income countries are in ‘learning poverty’, i.e. they cannot read and understand a simple text by the end of primary school age. In sub- Saharan Africa, the learning poverty rate is 87 per cent overall, and ranges from 40 per cent to as high as 99 per cent in the 21 countries with available data. Teachers attending lessons and spending quality time on task is a critical prerequisite to learning. However, in sub-Saharan Africa, teacher absenteeism ranges from 15 to 45 per cent. Teacher absenteeism and reduced time on task wastes valuable financial resources, short-changes students and is one of the most cumbersome obstacles on the path toward the education Sustainable Development Goal and to the related vision of the new UNICEF education strategy: Every Child Learns. Whilst the stark numbers are available to study, and despite teacher absenteeism being a foremost challenge for education systems in Africa, the evidence base on how policies and practices can influence teacher attendance remains scant. Time to Teach (TTT) is a research initiative that looks at primary school teacher attendance in eight countries and territories in the Eastern and Southern Africa (ESA) region: the Comoros; Kenya; Rwanda, Puntland, State of Somalia; South Sudan; the United Republic of Tanzania, mainland; the United Republic of Tanzania, Zanzibar; and Uganda. Its primary objective is to identify factors affecting the various forms of teacher attendance, which include being at school, being punctual, being in the classroom, and teaching when in the classroom, and use this evidence to inform the design and implementation of teacher policies.

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