Tableau de classement des décès d'enfants par suite de maltraitance dans les nations riches

Tableau de classement des décès d'enfants par suite de maltraitance dans les nations riches

Published: 2003 Innocenti Report Card
Près de 3500 enfants de moins de 15 ans (don’t plus de 1000 rien qu'au Mexique) succombent chaque année par suite de négligence et de sévices physiques. La maltraitance tue chaque semaine deux enfants en Allemagne et au Royaume-Uni, trois en France, près de quatre au Japon, et 27 aux Etats-Unis. Globalement, environ un tiers de ces décès entre dans la catégorie " cause indéterminée ". On ne possède encore de donées internationalement comparables pour ventiler ces 3500 décès annuels en décès dus à la violence physique et décès par négligence. Mais au sein même des divers nations, des tentatives ont été faites pour évaluer l'importance relative de ces deux catégories. Des divergences dans la classification et un manque de définitionis et de méthodes de recherches communes font que l'on a peu de donées internationalement comparables, et que l'ampleur de la maltraitance des enfants est presque certainement plus forte que ne l'indiquent les statistiques.
Social Exclusion and Children: A European view for a US debate

Social Exclusion and Children: A European view for a US debate

AUTHOR(S)
John Micklewright

Published: 2002 Innocenti Working Papers
The concept of social exclusion has been widely debated in Europe but its application to children has seen relatively little discussion. What the social exclusion of children can lead to is the first main theme of the paper, where among other things, the choice of reference group, the geographical dimension of exclusion, and the issue of who is responsible for any exclusion of children are considered. The second main theme is the use of the concept of exclusion in the USA, where in contrast to Europe it has achieved little penetration to date. To assess whether there is fertile ground for discussion of social exclusion as it relates to children in the US, various features of US society and institutions including the measurement of poverty, analysis of children's living standards, state versus federal responsibilities, welfare reform and the emphasis on 'personal responsibility', are all considered.
When the Invisible Hand Rocks the Cradle: New Zealand children in a time of change

When the Invisible Hand Rocks the Cradle: New Zealand children in a time of change

AUTHOR(S)
Alison J. Blaiklock; Cynthia A. Kiro; Michael Belgrave; Will Low; Eileen Davenport; Ian B. Hassall

Published: 2002 Innocenti Working Papers
This paper investigates the impact of economic and social reforms on the well-being of children in New Zealand. These reforms were among the most sweeping in scope and scale in any industrialized democracy, but have not led to an overall improvement in the well-being of children. There has been widening inequality between ethnic and income groups which has left many Maori and Pacific children, and children from one parent and poorer families, relatively worse off. The New Zealand experience illustrates the vulnerability of children during periods of social upheaval and change and the importance of having effective mechanisms to monitor, protect and promote the interests of children.
A League Table of Child Deaths by Injury in Rich Nations

A League Table of Child Deaths by Injury in Rich Nations

Published: 2001 Innocenti Report Card
In every single industrialized country, injury has now become the leading killer of children between the ages of 1 and 14. Taken together, traffic accidents, intentional injuries, drownings, falls, fires, poisonings and other accidents kill more than 20,000 children every year throughout the OECD. Despite these statistics, and the rising worries of parents everywhere, the likelihood of a child dying from intentional or unintentional injury is small and becoming smaller. For a child born into the developed world today, the chances of death by injury before the age of 15 are approximately 1 in 750 - less than half the level of 30 years ago. The likelihood of death from abuse or intentional harm is smaller still - less than 1 in 5,000. On the roads of the industrialized world, child deaths have been declining steadily for more than two decades.
The Dynamics of Child Poverty in Industrialised Countries

The Dynamics of Child Poverty in Industrialised Countries

AUTHOR(S)
John Micklewright; Bruce Bradbury; Stephen P. Jenkins

Published: 2001 Innocenti Publications
A child poverty rate of ten percent could mean that every tenth child is always poor, or that all children are in poverty for one month in every ten. Knowing where reality lies between these extremes is vital to understanding the problem facing many countries of poverty among the young. This unique study goes beyond the standard analysis of child poverty based on poverty rates at one point in time and documents how much movement into and out of poverty by children there actually is, covering a range of industrialised countries - the USA, UK, Germany, Ireland, Spain, Hungary and Russia. Five main topics are addressed: conceptual and measurement issues associated with a dynamic view of child poverty; cross-national comparisons of child poverty rates and trends; cross-national comparisons of children’s movements into and out of poverty; country-specific studies of child poverty dynamics; and the policy implications of taking a dynamic perspective.
The Outcomes of Teenage Motherhood in Europe

The Outcomes of Teenage Motherhood in Europe

AUTHOR(S)
Richard Berthoud; Karen Robson

Published: 2001 Innocenti Working Papers
Research in many countries has confirmed that teenage mothers and their families are often at a disadvantage compared with those whose children are born in their twenties or thirties. But there has never been an opportunity for a systematic comparison between countries, based on a common data source. This paper analyses the current situation of women whose first child was born when they were teenagers, across 13 countries in the European Union, based on the European Community Household Panel survey. Outcomes considered include educational attainment, family structure, family employment and household income. Teenage mothers were disadvantaged in all countries, but the severity of their position varied substantially between countries.
A League Table of Teenage Births in Rich Nations

A League Table of Teenage Births in Rich Nations

Published: 2001 Innocenti Report Card
The third Innocenti Report Card presents the most up-to-date and comprehensive survey so far of teenage birth rates in the industrialized world. And it attempts at least a partial analysis of why some countries have teenage birth rates that are ten or even fifteen times higher than others. Approximately 1.25 million teenagers become pregnant each year in the 28 OECD nations under review. Of those, approximately half a million will seek an abortion and approximately three quarters of a million will become teenage mothers. The five countries with the lowest teenage birth rates are Korea, Japan, Switzerland, the Netherlands and Sweden - all with teen birth rates of fewer than 10 per 1,000. The United States teenage birth rate of 52.1 is the highest in the developed world – and more than twice the European average. The United Kingdom has the highest teenage birth rate in Europe.
Child Well-Being in the EU and Enlargement to the East

Child Well-Being in the EU and Enlargement to the East

AUTHOR(S)
Kitty Stewart; John Micklewright

Published: 2000 Innocenti Working Papers
The accession of up to 13 new members in the next decade is the most important development now facing the European Union. This paper analyses measurable differences in the well-being of children between current club members, the EU Member States, and the 10 Central and Eastern European applicants seeking admission. Two themes are used as a framework for the paper. First, the importance of economic, social and cultural rights in the human rights dimension of the 'Copenhagen criteria' laid down for EU accession. Second, the need for a wider approach to measuring differences in living standards and 'economic and social cohesion' within the Union than that currently taken by the European Commission. In both cases the necessity for considering the position of children is emphasised. The empirical sections of the paper then consider in turn three dimensions of well-being of European children in Member States and the applicant countries: their economic welfare, their health, and their education.
How Effective is the British Government's Attempt to Reduce Child Poverty?

How Effective is the British Government's Attempt to Reduce Child Poverty?

AUTHOR(S)
Holly Sutherland; David Piachaud

Published: 2000 Innocenti Working Papers
The Labour Government elected in 1997 in Britain made the reduction of child poverty one of its central objectives. This paper describes the specific initiatives involved in Labour’s approach and weighs them up in terms of their potential impact. After setting out the extent of the problem of child poverty, the causes are discussed and Britain's problem is set in international perspective. The impact on child poverty of policies designed to raise incomes directly is analysed using micro-simulation modelling. A major emphasis of the policy was the promotion of paid work, and the potential for poverty reduction of increasing the employment of parents is explored.
The Welfare of Europe's Children

The Welfare of Europe's Children

AUTHOR(S)
John Micklewright; Kitty Stewart

Published: 2000 Innocenti Publications
This book analyses the living standards of the nearly 80 million children in the European Union, who represent over a fifth of its total population. By analysing the trends of child well-being in Europe over the last two decades, this book asks: Is the well-being of children in the EU becoming more similar across member states? Or are countries diverging while their economies converge?
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 168 | Thematic area: Industrialized Countries | Tags: child welfare, industrialized countries | Publisher: IRC

Child Poverty across Industrialized Nations

AUTHOR(S)
Bruce Bradbury; Markus Jantti

While child poverty is everywhere seen as an important social problem, there is considerable variation in both anti-poverty policies and poverty outcomes across the industrialized nations. In this paper we present new estimates of patterns of child income poverty in 25 nations using data from the Luxembourg Income Study. These estimates are presented using a range of alternative income poverty definitions and describe the correlations of outcomes with different demographic patterns and labour market and social transfer incomes. Evidence on cross-national patterns of non-cash income receipt suggests that more comprehensive measures, which include non-cash benefits, would be unlikely to change the overall pattern of poverty. We then examine the impact of household savings patterns (particularly via house purchase) on child consumption and conclude that this also does not change the picture provided by income measures alone. The paper concludes with an analysis of the sources of the variation in child poverty across nations.
Accounting for the Family: The treatment of marriage and children in European income tax systems

Accounting for the Family: The treatment of marriage and children in European income tax systems

AUTHOR(S)
Cathal O’Donoghue; Holly Sutherland

In some countries family status has little or no impact on the amount of tax that an individual pays. In others the income tax system plays a major role in the redistribution of income among families of different types. This paper examines the treatment of the family in European tax systems. It surveys the various instruments which are used to take account of marriage and the presence of children and describes the current systems in the 15 European Union countries. Tax systems are expected to achieve many things, and the paper discusses the tradeoffs involved in attempting to reconcile conflicting aims, with a particular focus on the impact of the various approaches on the welfare of children.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 54 | Thematic area: Industrialized Countries | Tags: family income, income distribution, income redistribution, tax systems | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
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