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UNICEF Innocenti's complete catalogue of research and reports
Reimagining Migration Responses: Learning from children and young people who move in the Horn of Africa
SPOTLIGHT

Reimagining Migration Responses: Learning from children and young people who move in the Horn of Africa

The number of international migrants under 18 is rising, accelerated by complex and fast-evolving economic, demographic, security and environmental drivers. Based on interviews carried out with 1,290 migrant children and young people in Ethiopia, Somalia and Sudan, this report helps address the evidence gap on children and young people migrating in the Horn of Africa by providing a better understanding of their protective environments; their access to services and resources; and their perceptions of safety, well-being and trust in authorities and other providers. It concludes by offering policy and programme recommendations to rethink child protection approaches for migrants in the region.
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COVID-19: Missing More Than a Classroom. The impact of school closures on children’s nutrition
Blog Blog

COVID-19: Missing More Than a Classroom. The impact of school closures on children’s nutrition

In 2019, 135 million people in 55 countries were in food crises or worse, and 2 billion people did not have regular access to safe, nutritious and sufficient food. COVID-19 has exacerbated these hardships and may result in an additional 121 million people facing acute food insecurity by the end of 2020. Further, since the beginning of the pandemic, an estimated 1.6 billion learners in 199 countries worldwide were affected by school closures, with nearly 370 million children not receiving a school meal in 150 countries. The paper presents the evidence on the potential negative short-term and long-term effects of school meal scheme disruption during Covid-19 globally. It shows how vulnerable the children participating in these schemes are, how coping and mitigation measures are often only short-term solutions, and how prioritizing school re-opening is critical. For instance, it highlights how girls are at greater risk of not being in school or of being taken out of school early, which may lead to poor nutrition and health for themselves and their children. However, well-designed school feeding programmes have been shown to enable catch-up from early growth failure and other negative shocks. As such, once schools re-open, school meal schemes can help address the deprivation that children have experienced during the closures and provide an incentive for parents to send and keep their children, especially girls, in school.
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Unconditional Government Social Cash Transfers in Africa Do Not Increase Fertility: Issue Brief
Unconditional Government Social Cash Transfers in Africa Do Not Increase Fertility: Issue Brief

AUTHOR(S)
Tia Palermo; Lisa Hjelm

Published: 2016 Innocenti Research Briefs

A common perception surrounding the design and implementation of social cash transfers is that those targeted to families with young children will incentivize families to have more children. To date, however, research on unconditional cash transfer programmes in Africa (including Kenya, Malawi, South Africa and Zambia) have demonstrated no impacts of cash transfer programmes on increased fertility. Examples are given of how some design features capable of minimizing the fertility incentive can be built into programmes.

Family and Parenting Support: Policy and Provision in a Global Context
Family and Parenting Support: Policy and Provision in a Global Context
Published: 2015 Innocenti Insights
Families, parents and caregivers play a central role in child well-being and development. They offer identity, love, care, provision and protection to children and adolescents as well as economic security and stability. In keeping with the spirit of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, family and parenting support is increasingly recognized as an important part of national social policies and social investment packages aimed at reducing poverty, decreasing inequality and promoting positive parental and child well-being. This publication seeks to develop a research agenda on family support and parenting support globally.
Strengthening Child Protection Systems for Unaccompanied Migrant Children in Mozambique: A case study of the border town of Ressano Garcia
Strengthening Child Protection Systems for Unaccompanied Migrant Children in Mozambique: A case study of the border town of Ressano Garcia

AUTHOR(S)
Andrea Verdasco

Published: 2013 Innocenti Working Papers
This research sets out to understand the why, how and with whom of rural-urban internal migration of children to the Mozambique border town of Ressano Garcia. In doing so, it aims to address the overarching research question of how to strengthen child protection systems for unaccompanied migrant children. Research took place at the border town of Ressano Garcia and in the Mozambican capital city of Maputo, between July and September 2012. Following a thorough analysis of the qualitative data, engaging with the current debate on migration and child protection issues, this paper critically assesses the current interconnected ‘protective actors’ and protection mechanisms and provides recommendations. Under a qualitative child participatory approach, children and their views are placed at the centre of the research. Research participants also include protective actors that are the cornerstone of child protection mechanisms, including: civil society organizations (CSOs) in both Ressano Garcia and Maputo, and government officials at local, district, provincial and central level, thus allowing for a triangulation of sources.
Innocenti Social Monitor 2009. Child Well-being at a Crossroads: Evolving challenges in Central and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States
Innocenti Social Monitor 2009. Child Well-being at a Crossroads: Evolving challenges in Central and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States
Published: 2009 Innocenti Social Monitor
The evolving and diverging challenges for the well-being of children after two decades of transition are examined. Following a long period of sustained economic growth and gradual improvements in living standards, the global economic crisis is now threatening to reverse some of the recent positive achievements and plunge households and children into another phase of uncertainty.
The Innocenti Social Monitor 2009 uses information from administrative and survey sources, some of it not previously available, to identify critical economic and social trends and assess the impact of policies on children in the period immediately preceding the current crisis. It also looks at changes in the economic and demographic context in which children are growing up as well as at trends of public social expenditure, all influencing policy choices that affect children. While acknowledging the important improvements in living standards which growth brought to children in the region, the report highlights persistent disparities in the distribution of benefits and in particular the vulnerability of children to the process of change. This has been partly due to the difficulties of policy to reach population groups most at risk and to provide adequate support to reduce inequalities and exclusion.
Providing a comprehensive overview of the decade up to 2008 and discussing monitoring and data challenges for the region, the report aims to help support and guide policy debate and decisions in a period of economic crisis. It is hoped to encourage policy makers to have a greater focus on child well-being, guided by human rights principles, to support those children most in need, to promote social inclusion and to give all children the opportunity to develop to their full potential.
Социальный мониторинг
Социальный мониторинг "Инноченти",2009 год:Благополучие ребенка:переломный момент.Динамика проблем в Центральной и Восточной Европе и СНГ
Published: 2009 Innocenti Social Monitor
По прошествии почти двух десятилетий переходного периода регион ЦВЕ/СНГ по-прежнему находится в состоянии перемен. После продолжительного периода устойчивого экономического роста и постепенного повышения среднего уровня жизни глобальный кризис угрожает обратить вспять некоторые из этих достижений и вернуть регион в период неопределенности в отношении обеспечения благо - получия семей и детей. В «Социальном мониторинге "Инноченти", 2009 год» имеющиеся данные используются в целях выявления переломных экономических и социальных тенденций и оценки воздействия соответствующих стратегий на положение детей в период экономического роста, кото - рый непосредственно предшествовал нынешнему кризису. В нем так - же рассматриваются изменения тех условий, в которых растут дети: характер экономического роста, углубляющееся неравенство, пора - зительные демографические тенденции, а также уровни и структура государственных расходов, – все это влияет на выбор политики, за- трагивающей интересы детей. Наряду с признанием значительных выгод, которые этот период принес детям в данном регионе, в докладе также уделяется особое внимание хроническому неравенству в распределении плодов эконо - мического роста и приводятся факты в подтверждение того, что в течение этого периода дети получили меньше благ, чем остальное население. Отчасти это объяснялось несостоятельностью политики в плане охвата тех групп детей, которые подвергаются наибольшему риску, и неспособностью обеспечить надлежащую политическую поддержку и ресурсы, необходимые для сокращения неравенства и риска социальной изоляции. Цель настоящего доклада, в котором содержится всесторонний обзор десятилетия вплоть до 2008 года, состоит в том, чтобы стать под - держкой и ориентиром в дискуссиях о политической программе и при принятии политических решений в период экономического кри - зиса, а также побудить политиков в большей степени учитывать интересы детей, уделять больше внимания выявлению и поддержке наиболее нуждающихся детей, содействовать социальной интегра - ции и обеспечивать каждому ребенку возможность в полной мере раз - вить свой потенциал.
Poverty, Inequality and Policy Affecting Vulnerable Groups in Moldova
Poverty, Inequality and Policy Affecting Vulnerable Groups in Moldova
Published: 2006 Innocenti Working Papers
This paper analyzes the changes that have intervened in the field of income poverty and human poverty since the onset of the transition in Moldova. With a biblical contraction of GDP, a fast rise in inequality, a drop in social expenditure and a weakening of civil society, most indicators of income poverty and human poverty deteriorated sharply after 1991. A clear improvement is evident since 2001, but most indicators of well-being still have to recover their pre-transition levels. There is some scope for social and macroeconomic policy to help reduce the negative inheritance of the first ten years of transition. Macroeconomic policy is rather deflationary, and keeps aggregate growth below what is needed to eradicate poverty quickly while paying little attention to its impact on inequality. There is room therefore to place greater emphasis on an equitable pro-poor growth characterized by greater investment in agriculture and higher overall employment intensity, as well as a better allocation of migrant remittances and stronger social policies.
Children of International Migrants in Indonesia, Thailand, and the Philippines: A review of evidence and policies
Children of International Migrants in Indonesia, Thailand, and the Philippines: A review of evidence and policies

AUTHOR(S)
John Bryant

Published: 2005 Innocenti Working Papers
This paper considers three groups of children affected by international migration: (i) children left behind by international labour migrants from the Philippines, Indonesia, and Thailand; (ii) children of Thai nationals in Japan; and (iii) children brought along by irregular migrants in Malaysia and Thailand. Based on the limited data available from published sources, the paper constructs preliminary estimates of numbers of children involved. It then synthesizes available evidence on problems and opportunities faced by the children, and on policies towards them. There are, however, important gaps in the available evidence. The paper identifies these gaps and suggests ways in which they might be filled.
Child Poverty in English-Speaking Countries
Child Poverty in English-Speaking Countries

AUTHOR(S)
John Micklewright

Published: 2003 Innocenti Working Papers
The paper considers child poverty in rich English-speaking countries - the U.S., Canada, Australia, New Zealand, the U.K. and Ireland. It is sometimes assumed that these countries stand out from other OECD countries for their levels of child poverty. The paper looks at the policies they have adopted to address the problem. 'Poverty' is interpreted broadly and hence the available cross-national evidence on edicational disadvantage and teenage births is considered alongside that on low household income. Discussion of policy initiatives ranges across a number of areas of government activity.
El registro de nacimiento: el derecho a tener derechos
El registro de nacimiento: el derecho a tener derechos
Published: 2002 Innocenti Digest
Este número del Innocenti Digest se está dedicado al tema del registro de nacimiento, un derecho humano fundamental que abre el camino a los demás derechos, como el derecho a la educación y a los cuidados médicos, a la participación y a la protección. Se explica por qué cada año queda sin inscribir en un registro el nacimiento de más de 50 millones de bebés. Jurídicamente hablando, estos niños no existen y se les niega el derecho a tener un nombre y una nacionalidad oficiales. Sus posibilidades concretas de acceder a los servicios básicos pueden verse seriamente comprometidas y los niños mismos pueden encontrarse en una situación de mayor vulnerabilidad frente a los abusos y la explotación.
L'enregistrement à la naissance : un droit pour commencer
L'enregistrement à la naissance : un droit pour commencer
Published: 2002 Innocenti Digest
Le présent Digest étudie l’enregistrement de la naissance, un droit humain fondamental, qui est aussi la clé d’autres droits à l’éducation, aux soins de santé, à la participation, à la protection. Il explique comment il se fait que chaque année, plus de 50 millions de naissances ne soient pas enregistrées. Ces nouveau-nés n’existent pas aux yeux de la loi, et ils se voient dénier leur droit à un nom officiel et à une nationalité. Leur accès aux services de santé de base risque de se heurter à de terribles obstacles, et ils sont plus vulnérables aux abus et à l’exploitation. Les effets du non-enregistrement de la naissance peuvent se faire sentir tout au long de la vie, interdisant à l’adulte de voter, d’ouvrir un compte en banque, de se marier légalement. Pour l’Etat aussi, les implications en sont graves. Les pays ont en effet besoin, pour établir une planification efficace, de savoir quelle est leur population actuelle et quelle elle devrait être dans l’avenir. Ce Digest insiste sur l’importance cruciale de l’enregistrement des naissances, examine les obstacles à un enregistrement universel, et met en lumière les actions - sensibilisation, changements dans la législation, allocations de ressources et constitution de capacités - qui devront être prises pour garantir l’enregistrement de tous les enfants.
Targeting Social Assistance in a Transition Economy: the Mahallas in Uzbekistan
Targeting Social Assistance in a Transition Economy: the Mahallas in Uzbekistan
Falling output and living standards have pushed countries in transition from the socialist system to re-consider how best to target public resources on those in need. The paper investigates the workings of a new social assistance benefit in Uzbekistan, the largest of the former Soviet Central Asian republics, administered by community organizations, the Mahallas. Data used from a 1995 household survey to assess the scheme's success in targeting the most vulnerable households, using a variety of indicators including income, durable goods ownership, agricultural assets, employment status, and the anthropometric status of children. The separate probabilities of knowledge of the scheme, of application for benefit, and of award are modelled.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 32 | Thematic area: Countries in Transition | Tags: economic transition, living standards, social indicators, social policy | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
Marital Splits and Income Changes: Evidence for Britain
Marital Splits and Income Changes: Evidence for Britain
The relationship between marital splits and personal income changes is of great relevance to social policy. The aim of this paper is to provide new longitudinal evidence for Britain about the relationship between marital splits and changes in personal economic well-being using data from the first four waves (1991-94) of the British Household Panel Survey. It finds that marital dissolution is associated with significant decreases in real income for separating wives and the children of separating couples, and that separating husbands do not fare as badly. The paper’s conclusions about the different experiences of separating husbands and separating wives and children echo those of earlier studies for the United States, Germany and Canada. This is interesting because of the diversity of labour markets and welfare states across these countries and suggests that outcomes may be linked to gender-related differences that are common across countries.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 38 | Thematic area: Industrialized Countries | Tags: divorce, family income, family life, family relationships, social policy | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
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Learning at a Distance: Children’s remote learning experiences in Italy during the COVID-19 pandemic
Publication Publication

Learning at a Distance: Children’s remote learning experiences in Italy during the COVID-19 pandemic

Italy was the first country in Europe to implement a nationwide lockdown. Children and their families lived in nearly complete isolation for almost two months. Students missed 65 days of school compared to an average of 27 missed days among high-income countries worldwide. This prolonged break is of concern, as even short breaks in schooling can cause significant loss of learning for children and lead to educational inequalities over time. At least 3 million Italian students may not have been reached by remote learning due to a lack of internet connectivity or devices at home. This report explores children’s and parents’ experiences of remote learning during the lockdown in Italy, drawing on data collected from 11 European countries (and coordinated by the European Commission’s Joint Research Center). It explores how children's access and use of digital technologies changed during the pandemic; highlights how existing inequalities might undermine remote learning opportunities, even among those with internet access; and provides insights on how to support children’s remote learning in the future. *** L'Italia e’ stata il primo paese in Europa ad aver applicato la misura del lockdown su tutto il territorio. I bambini e le loro famiglie hanno vissuto in quasi completo isolamento per circa due mesi. Gli studenti hanno perduto 65 giorni di scuola rispetto ad una media di 27 negli altri paesi ad alto reddito del mondo. Questa interruzione prolungata rappresenta motivo di preoccupazione, in quanto persino interruzioni piu’ brevi nella didattica possono causare significative perdite nel livello di istruzione dei ragazzi e portare col tempo a diseguaglianze educative. Almeno 3 milioni di studenti in Italia non sono stati coinvolti nella didattica a distanza a causa d una mancanza di connessione ad internet o di dispositivi adeguati a casa. Questo rapporto analizza l’esperienza della didattica a distanza di ragazzi e genitori in Italia durante il lockdown, sulla base dei dati raccolti in 11 paesi europei (e coordinati dal Centro comune di ricerca della Commissione Europea). Studia il cambiamento nell’accesso e nell’uso delle tecnologie digitali dei bambini e ragazzi durante la pandemia; mette in evidenza come le diseguaglianze esistenti possano diminuire le opportunità offerte dalla didattica a distanza, anche tra coloro che hanno accesso ad internet; e fornisce approfondimenti su come sostenere la didattica a distanza di bambini e ragazzi in futuro.
Time to Teach: Teacher attendance and time on task in Eastern and Southern Africa
Publication Publication

Time to Teach: Teacher attendance and time on task in Eastern and Southern Africa

There is a learning crisis. Fifty-three per cent of children in low- and middle-income countries are in ‘learning poverty’, i.e. they cannot read and understand a simple text by the end of primary school age. In sub- Saharan Africa, the learning poverty rate is 87 per cent overall, and ranges from 40 per cent to as high as 99 per cent in the 21 countries with available data. Teachers attending lessons and spending quality time on task is a critical prerequisite to learning. However, in sub-Saharan Africa, teacher absenteeism ranges from 15 to 45 per cent. Teacher absenteeism and reduced time on task wastes valuable financial resources, short-changes students and is one of the most cumbersome obstacles on the path toward the education Sustainable Development Goal and to the related vision of the new UNICEF education strategy: Every Child Learns. Whilst the stark numbers are available to study, and despite teacher absenteeism being a foremost challenge for education systems in Africa, the evidence base on how policies and practices can influence teacher attendance remains scant. Time to Teach (TTT) is a research initiative that looks at primary school teacher attendance in eight countries and territories in the Eastern and Southern Africa (ESA) region: the Comoros; Kenya; Rwanda, Puntland, State of Somalia; South Sudan; the United Republic of Tanzania, mainland; the United Republic of Tanzania, Zanzibar; and Uganda. Its primary objective is to identify factors affecting the various forms of teacher attendance, which include being at school, being punctual, being in the classroom, and teaching when in the classroom, and use this evidence to inform the design and implementation of teacher policies.

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