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UNICEF Innocenti's complete catalogue of research and reports
Increasing Women’s Representation in School Leadership: A promising path towards improving learning
SPOTLIGHT

Increasing Women’s Representation in School Leadership: A promising path towards improving learning

Emerging evidence shows a positive association between women school leaders and student performance. Some studies suggest women school leaders are more likely than their male counterparts to adopt effective management practices that may contribute to improved outcomes. However, women remain largely underrepresented in school leadership positions, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. This brief presents emerging insights on the association between women school leaders and education outcomes and draws attention to women’s underrepresentation in school leadership roles. It highlights the need for further research on gender and school leadership to identify policies and practices that can be implemented to increase women’s representation and scale high-quality management practices adopted by women leaders to more schools to improve education outcomes for all children.
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Annual Report 2021
Publication

Annual Report 2021

The UNICEF Innocenti Annual Report 2021 highlights the key results achieved in research and evidence to inform policymaking and programming.
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Child Poverty and Deprivation in Bosnia and Herzegovina: National Multiple Overlapping Deprivation Analysis (N-MODA)
Child Poverty and Deprivation in Bosnia and Herzegovina: National Multiple Overlapping Deprivation Analysis (N-MODA)

AUTHOR(S)
Yekaterina Chzhen; Lucia Ferrone

Published: 2015 Innocenti Working Papers
This report presents the results of the National Multiple Overlapping Deprivation Analysis (N-MODA) for Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH). The study shows that almost all children aged 0 to 4 (98.1%) are deprived in at least one dimension, and a third (33.2%) are deprived in four or more dimensions at a time. Children in rural areas are more likely to be deprived in Information and Housing (mostly driven by lack of proper sanitation) than urban children, suggesting infrastructural problems. Having a mother with no or only primary education increases the probability of being deprived in all dimensions except Nutrition and Housing. This study also finds a high degree of overlap across dimensions.
Child Well-being in Rich Countries: Comparing Japan (Japanese version)
Child Well-being in Rich Countries: Comparing Japan (Japanese version)
Published: 2013 Innocenti Report Card
This report is a Japanese version of the UNICEF Innocenti Report Card 11. In the original report, Japan was not included in the league table of child well-being because data on a number of indicators were missing. Using national data sources from Japan and matching it carefully with the data used in the original Report Card 11, this report manages to include Japan in the league table and subsequent ranking in each of five dimensions in order to assess Japan’s performance in child well-being among developed countries.
Comparing Child Well-Being in OECD Countries: Concepts and methods
Comparing Child Well-Being in OECD Countries: Concepts and methods

AUTHOR(S)
Jonathan Bradshaw; Petra Hoelscher; Dominic Richardson

Published: 2007 Innocenti Working Papers
This paper is produced alongside Innocenti Report Card 7 "Child Well-being in Rich Countries". It provides more detail on how the indicators were chosen for the Report Card, and how they were combined into components and then into dimensions. It also provides additional analysis to complement the Report Card.
Overview of Child Well-Being in Germany: Policy towards a supportive environment for children
Overview of Child Well-Being in Germany: Policy towards a supportive environment for children

AUTHOR(S)
Hans Bertram

Published: 2007 Innocenti Working Papers
Children’s opportunities to develop according to their talents and competencies and to establish trust in the adults with whom they live, their neighbourhoods, kindergardens, schools and municipalities crucially influence the future of the society in which they grow up. Yet, international comparisons have until recently centred on resource availability, material well-being and health outcomes. However, initiatives such as the OECD/PISA and WHO surveys of ‘healthy lifestyles among school-aged children’ have explored child well-being along several dimensions. In the case of Germany child well-being appears to be more advanced in the western than the eastern regions of the country, and in the south compared to the north. On the basis of the analysis a series of policy recommendations may be identified for the federal states and the municipalities concerning dimensions of child well-being which deserve special attention in their particular regional context.
Zur Lage der Kinder in Deutschland: Politik für Kinder als Zukunftsgestaltung
Zur Lage der Kinder in Deutschland: Politik für Kinder als Zukunftsgestaltung

AUTHOR(S)
Hans Bertram

Published: 2007 Innocenti Working Papers
Die Chancen von Kindern, sich in ihrer Lebensumwelt entsprechend ihren Fähigkeiten und Kompetenzen entwickeln zu können und Vertrauen zu den Erwachsenen aufzubauen, mit denen sie in Elternhaus, Nachbarschaft, Kindergarten, Schule und Gemeinde zusammenleben oder zusammen sind, entscheiden auch über die Zukunft der Gesellschaft, in der sie aufwachsen. Internationale Vergleiche stellten lange fast ausschließlich das materielle Risiko von Kindern in den Mittelpunkt. Die Bildungsvergleiche der OECD/PISA und die Übersichten der WHO zu gesundheitsbezogenen Verhaltensweisen von Schulkindern haben die Perspektive erweitert. Darauf aufbauend vergleicht die Innocenti Report Card 7 (2007) ‘Child Poverty in Perspective: An Overview of Child-wellbeing in Rich Countries’ die Situation von Kindern anhand der sechs Dimensionen: Materielle Lage, Gesundheit und Sicherheit, Bildung, die Beziehungen zu Eltern und Freunden, die Risiken im Alltag und das subjektive Wohlbefinden von Kindern.
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JOURNAL ARTICLES BLOGS
Responsible Innovation in Technology for Children: Digital technology, play and child well-being
Publication

Responsible Innovation in Technology for Children: Digital technology, play and child well-being

Digital experiences can have significant negative impact on children, exposing them to risks or failing to nurture them adequately. Nevertheless, digital experiences also potentially yield enormous benefits for children, enabling them to learn, to create, to develop friendships, and to build worlds. While global efforts to deepen our understanding of the prevalence and impact of digital risks of harm are burgeoning – a development that is both welcome and necessary – less attention has been paid to understanding and optimizing the benefits that digital technology can provide in supporting children’s rights and their well-being. Benefits here refer not only to the absence of harm, but also to creating additional positive value. How should we recognize the opportunities and benefits of digital technology for children’s well-being? What is the relationship between the design of digital experiences – in particular, play-centred design – and the well-being of children? What guidance and measures can we use to strengthen the design of digital environments to promote positive outcomes for children? And how can we make sure that children’s insights and needs form the foundation of our work in this space? These questions matter for all those who design and promote digital experiences, to keep children safe and happy, and enable positive development and learning. These questions are particularly relevant as the world shifts its attention to emerging digital technologies and experiences, from artificial intelligence (AI) to the metaverse, and seeks to understand their impact on people and society. To begin to tackle these questions, UNICEF and the LEGO Group initiated the Responsible Innovation in Technology for Children (RITEC) project in partnership with the Young and Resilient Research Centre at Western Sydney University; the CREATE Lab at New York University; the Graduate Center, City University of New York; the University of Sheffield; the Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for the Digital Child; and the Joan Ganz Cooney Center. The research is funded by the LEGO Foundation. The partnership is an international, multi-stakeholder and cross-sectoral collaboration between organizations that believe the design and development of digital technology should support the rights and well-being of children as a primary objective – and that children should have a prominent voice in making this a reality. This project’s primary objective is to develop, with children from around the world, a framework that maps how the design of children’s digital experiences affects their well-being, and to provide guidance as to how informed design choices can promote positive well-being outcomes.
Resources to Support Marginalized Caregivers of Children with Disabilities: Guidelines for Implementation
Publication

Resources to Support Marginalized Caregivers of Children with Disabilities: Guidelines for Implementation

Support from caregivers is critical for children’s learning both at home and at school. However, the COVID-19 pandemic and disruption of education systems globally created additional expectations for parents to support their children’s learning at home. This particularly affected the most marginalized children as the crises exacerbated already existing inequalities in education. This document introduces the approach and purpose of a set of resources to support the marginalized caregivers of children with disabilities with inclusive education. It presents lessons learned from proof-of-concept pilots in Armenia and Uzbekistan, followed by step-by-step guidelines on how to adopt and adapt the resources for education ministries and others who want to implement them in their education system.
Reopening with Resilience: Lessons from Remote Learning during COVID-19: Europe and Central Asia
Publication

Reopening with Resilience: Lessons from Remote Learning during COVID-19: Europe and Central Asia

When schools started closing their doors due to COVID-19, countries in Europe and Central Asia quickly provided alternative learning solutions for children to continue learning. More than 90 per cent of countries offered digital solutions to ensure that education activities could continue. However, lack of access to digital devices and a reliable internet connection excluded a significant amount of already marginalized children and threatened to widen the existing learning disparities. This report builds on existing evidence highlighting key lessons learned during the pandemic to promote learning for all during school closure and provides actionable policy recommendations on how to bridge the digital divide and build resilient education systems in Europe and Central Asia.

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