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UNICEF Innocenti's complete catalogue of research and reports
Places and Spaces: Environments and children’s well-being
SPOTLIGHT

Places and Spaces: Environments and children’s well-being

Report Card 17 explores how 43 OECD/EU countries are faring in providing healthy environments for children. Do children have clean water to drink? Do they have good-quality air to breathe? Are their homes free of lead and mould? How many children live in overcrowded homes? How many have access to green play spaces, safe from road traffic? Data show that a nation’s wealth does not guarantee a healthy environment. Far too many children are deprived of a healthy home, irreversibly damaging their current and future well-being. Beyond children’s immediate environments, over-consumption in some of the world’s richest countries is destroying children’s environments globally. This threatens both children worldwide and future generations. To provide all children with safe and healthy environments, governments, policymakers, businesses and all stakeholders are called to act on a set of policy recommendations.
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A Cash Plus Model for Safe Transitions to a Healthy and Productive Adulthood Round 3 Report
A Cash Plus Model for Safe Transitions to a Healthy and Productive Adulthood Round 3 Report
Published: 2021 Innocenti Research Report

“Ujana Salama” (‘Safe Youth’ in Swahili) is a cash plus programme targeting adolescents in households receiving the United Republic of Tanzania’s Productive Social Safety Net (PSSN). Implemented by the Tanzania Social Action Fund (TASAF), with technical assistance of the Tanzania Commission for AIDS (TACAIDS) and UNICEF Tanzania, the ‘plus’ component includes in-person training, mentoring, grants and health services. The impact evaluation studies the differential impact of the integrated programme (cash plus intervention targeting adolescents) with respect to the PSSN only. It is a mixed methods study, including baseline (2017), Round 2 (2018), Round 3 (2019) and Round 4 (2021) surveys. This report provides findings from the Round 3 survey, which was conducted one year after the training, three months after the mentorship period, and one to two months after grant disbursement. The previous report (Round 2) is available here.

A Cash Plus Model for Safe Transitions to a Healthy and Productive Adulthood: Midline Report
A Cash Plus Model for Safe Transitions to a Healthy and Productive Adulthood: Midline Report
Published: 2020 Innocenti Research Report
This report provides midline findings from the impact evaluation of a cash plus model targeting youth in households receiving the United Republic of Tanzania’s Productive Social Safety Net (PSSN). Implemented by the Tanzania Social Action Fund (TASAF), with technical assistance of the Tanzania Commission for AIDS (TACAIDS) and UNICEF Tanzania, the programme aims to improve livelihood opportunities and facilitate a safe transition to adulthood. The 'plus' component included training on livelihoods and sexual and reproductive health (SRH)-HIV, mentoring and productive grants, as well as linkages to youth-friendly health services. The impact evaluation is a longitudinal, mixed methods study. The midline analysis was conducted immediately after training (before mentoring, disbursement of productive grants and health facility strengthening). The baseline report is available here.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 160 | Thematic area: Social Policies | Tags: social protection, social safety nets, youth
Exploring the potential of cash transfers to delay early marriage and pregnancy among youth in Malawi and Zambia
Exploring the potential of cash transfers to delay early marriage and pregnancy among youth in Malawi and Zambia

AUTHOR(S)
Luisa Natali; Fidelia Dake

Published: 2019 Innocenti Research Briefs
There is increasing interest in the potential of cash transfers to facilitate safe transitions to adulthood among vulnerable youth in low-income settings. However, little evidence exists that analyses these linkages from at-scale government-run programmes. This brief summarizes the impacts of two government-run large-scale unconditional cash transfers on outcomes of early marriage and pregnancy among youth in Malawi and Zambia after approximately three years. Results indicate limited impacts on safe transitions for both males and females. However, the programmes were successful in reducing poverty and improving schooling outcomes—two main pathways for safe transitions as reported in the literature. Research implications include the need to study transitions over longer time periods, including tracking of youth as they transition out of study households. If reducing early marriage and pregnancy is among policy makers’ primary priorities, then dedicated programming via cash plus or services specifically targeted at addressing the needs of adolescents and youth should be considered.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 3 | Thematic area: Social Policies | Tags: cash transfers, early marriage, pregnancy, youth
Tanzania Youth Study of the Productive Social Safety Net (PSSN) Evaluation: Endline Report
Tanzania Youth Study of the Productive Social Safety Net (PSSN) Evaluation: Endline Report
Published: 2018 Innocenti Research Report

This report provides endline findings from an 18-month (2015-2017), mixed methods study to provide evidence on the effects that the Government of Tanzania’s Productive Social Safety Net has had on youth well-being and the transition to adulthood. The study was led by UNICEF Office of Research – Innocenti in collaboration with REPOA. Results of this evaluation can help assess what other measures or interventions are necessary to improve adolescent and youth well-being and how these can complement and provide synergies with the government’s institutionalized social protection strategy.

Cite this publication | No. of pages: 136 | Thematic area: Social Policies | Tags: social protection, social safety nets, youth
A Cash Plus Model for Safe Transitions to a Healthy and Productive Adulthood: Baseline Report
A Cash Plus Model for Safe Transitions to a Healthy and Productive Adulthood: Baseline Report
Published: 2018 Innocenti Research Report

This report presents the evaluation design and baseline findings from a 24-month, mixed methods study to provide evidence on the potential for an additional plus component targeted to youth that is layered on top of the Government of Tanzania’s Productive Social Safety Net to improve future economic opportunities for youth and facilitate their safe transitions to adulthood. This pilot study is based on the recognition that cash alone is rarely sufficient to mitigate all risks and vulnerabilities youth face or to overcome structural barriers to education, delayed marriage and pregnancy, and other safe transitions. The model the intervention follows was informed by a workshop held in Tanzania in February 2016 with government, researchers and development partners.

Delivering a Parenting Programme in Rural South Africa: The Local Child and Youth Care Worker Experience
Delivering a Parenting Programme in Rural South Africa: The Local Child and Youth Care Worker Experience

AUTHOR(S)
Jenny Doubt; Heidi Loening-Voysey; Daphnée Blanc; Lucie Cluver; Jasmina Byrne; Tshiamo Petersen

Published: 2018 Innocenti Working Papers

A pre-post study examining the effectiveness of a parenting support programme in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, showed reductions in child abuse, child delinquency, parent and child depression, parenting stress and substance use. It also showed improvements in parental supervision, positive parenting and social support. In addition to the pre-post study, a qualitative enquiry was conducted with the programme facilitators. This paper explores the experiences and perception of local child and youth care workers, who were trained to deliver the parenting programme in vulnerable, semi-rural communities. The purpose of this publication is to make recommendations on how to improve the programme for scale-up, in South Africa and beyond.

Children of the Recession: The impact of the economic crisis on child well-being in rich countries
Children of the Recession: The impact of the economic crisis on child well-being in rich countries

AUTHOR(S)
Gonzalo Fanjul

Published: 2014 Innocenti Report Card
As the data in this new edition of the Innocenti Report Card series show, in the past five years, rising numbers of children and their families have experienced difficulty in satisfying their most basic material and educational needs. Most importantly, the Great Recession is about to trap a generation of educated and capable youth in a limbo of unmet expectations and lasting vulnerability. League Tables, the flagship tool of the Innocenti Report Card series, rank the change, since the onset of the crisis, in the poverty levels of children and the impact of the recession on youth. The Report also explores the effects of the recession on youth seeking to enter or remain in the labour force in the middle of a recession.
Figli della recessione: L'impatto della crisi economica sul benessere dei bambini nei paesi ricchi
Figli della recessione: L'impatto della crisi economica sul benessere dei bambini nei paesi ricchi

AUTHOR(S)
Gonzalo Fanjul

Published: 2014 Innocenti Report Card
Come dimostrano i dati riportati in questa nuova edizione della Innocenti Report Card, negli ultimi cinque anni è aumentato il numero di bambini e di famiglie che incontrano difficoltà a soddisfare le più fondamentali esigenze materiali ed educative. Cosa ancor più importante, la Grande Recessione sta per intrappolare una generazione di giovani istruiti e capaci in un limbo di aspettative insoddisfatte e di perdurante vulnerabilità. Delle classifiche forniscono una "graduatoria del benessere". Tali classifiche valutano infatti le variazioni, dall'inizio della crisi, dei livelli di povertà dei bambini e l'impatto della recessione sui giovani. Il rapporto esplore inoltre gli effetti della recessione sui giovani che cercano di entrare, o di rimanere, nel mondo del lavoro nel bel mezzo di una recessione.
Les enfants de la récession : Impact de la crise économique sur le bien-être des enfants dans les pays riches
Les enfants de la récession : Impact de la crise économique sur le bien-être des enfants dans les pays riches

AUTHOR(S)
Gonzalo Fanjul

Published: 2014 Innocenti Report Card
Comme le montrent les données de ce nouveau numéro de la série des Bilans Innocenti, de plus en plus d’enfants et de familles ont eu des difficultés à répondre à leurs besoins matériels et éducatifs les plus essentiels ces cinq dernières années. Plus inquiétant encore, la Grande Récession est sur le point de plonger une génération de jeunes instruits et compétents dans les limbes d’attentes non satisfaites et dans une vulnérabilité durable. Des tableaux de classement indiquent l’évolution du niveau de pauvreté des enfants depuis le début de la crise et l’impact de la récession sur les jeunes. Le rapport étudie également les effets de la récession sur les jeunes qui cherchent à entrer ou à rester sur le marché du travail malgré la récession.
Los niños de la recesión: El impacto de la crisis económica en el bienestar infantil en los países ricos
Los niños de la recesión: El impacto de la crisis económica en el bienestar infantil en los países ricos

AUTHOR(S)
Gonzalo Fanjul

Published: 2014 Innocenti Report Card
Los datos que se exponen en esta nueva edición de la serie Report Card de Innocenti demuestran que, en los últimos cinco años, un número creciente de niños y familias han tenido dificultades para satisfacer sus necesidades materiales y educativas más fundamentales. Lo que es más importante, la Gran Recesión está a punto de atrapar a una generación de jóvenes formados y capaces en un limbo de expectativas insatisfechas y vulnerabilidad duradera. Una serie de tablas clasificatorias reflejan los cambios experimentados desde el inicio de la crisis en el nivel de pobreza de los niños, y la incidencia de la recesión entre los jóvenes. También el informe examina las consecuencias de la recesión para los jóvenes que tratan de introducirse en el mercado laboral o intentan mantenerse en él en plena recesión.
Young People (not) in the Labour Market in Rich Countries during the Great Recession
Young People (not) in the Labour Market in Rich Countries during the Great Recession

AUTHOR(S)
Yekaterina Chzhen; Dominic Richardson

Published: 2014 Innocenti Working Papers
The global financial crisis of 2007/2008 spilled over into the real economy reducing demand for labour and increasing unemployment. Young people were hit hard, with record numbers of 15-24-year-olds out of work and many of them not in education, employment or training (NEET). More than five years since the outbreak of the financial crisis, the economic recovery remains weak and uneven. The study documents a substantial worsening in the youth labour market situation during the Great Recession across the EU and/or OECD, particularly in countries that suffered greater falls in economic output per capita.
The Challenges of Climate Change: Children on the front line
The Challenges of Climate Change: Children on the front line

AUTHOR(S)
Patrizia Faustini

Published: 2014 Innocenti Insights
Children and young people represent 30 per cent of the world’s population. Not only do they represent the largest group of people currently affected by climate change, but they are also more vulnerable than adults to its harmful effects. Children and young people also constitute the generation that will be required to deal with the future impacts of climate change and that will have to deliver the very deep cuts in greenhouse gas emissions that will be essential in the coming decades. This book is an attempt to redress the balance. It brings together the knowledge and opinions of 40 contributors - scientists, development workers, and experts in health, nutrition and children’s rights - in an attempt to build up a clear picture of what climate change means for the children of today and tomorrow.
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JOURNAL ARTICLES BLOGS
Return on Knowledge: How international development agencies are collaborating to deliver impact through knowledge, learning, research and evidence
Publication

Return on Knowledge: How international development agencies are collaborating to deliver impact through knowledge, learning, research and evidence

Effective collaboration around knowledge management and organizational learning is a key contributor to improving the impact of international development work for the world’s most vulnerable people. But how can it be proven? With only 10 years from the target date for the Sustainable Development Goals, nine of the world’s most influential agencies set out to show to the connection between the use of evidence, knowledge and learning and a better quality of human life. This book – a synthesis of stories, examples and insights that demonstrate where and how these practices have made a positive impact on development programming – is the result of the Multi-Donor Learning Partnership (MDLP), a collective effort to record the ways each of these organizations have leveraged intentional, systematic and resourced approaches to knowledge management and organizational learning in their work.
Gender Solutions: Capturing the impact of UNICEF’s gender equality evidence investments (2014–2021)
Publication

Gender Solutions: Capturing the impact of UNICEF’s gender equality evidence investments (2014–2021)

UNICEF has undertaken hundreds of gender evidence generation activities, supporting programmatic action, advocacy work and policymaking. The Gender Solutions project aims to draw together the knowledge, innovations and impacts of gender evidence work conducted by UNICEF offices since the first UNICEF Gender Action Plan was launched in 2014. A desk review identified over 700 gender-related UNICEF research, evaluation and data evidence generation activities since 2014. Twenty-five outputs were shortlisted because of their high quality and (potential for) impact and three were selected as Gender Evidence Award winners by an external review panel. By capturing the impact of this broad body of work, Gender Solutions aims to showcase UNICEF’s evidence investments, reward excellence and inform the rollout of the UNICEF Gender Policy 2021–2030 and Action Plan 2022–2025.
Annual Report 2021
Publication

Annual Report 2021

The UNICEF Innocenti Annual Report 2021 highlights the key results achieved in research and evidence to inform policymaking and programming.
Responsible Innovation in Technology for Children: Digital technology, play and child well-being
Publication

Responsible Innovation in Technology for Children: Digital technology, play and child well-being

Digital experiences can have significant negative impact on children, exposing them to risks or failing to nurture them adequately. Nevertheless, digital experiences also potentially yield enormous benefits for children, enabling them to learn, to create, to develop friendships, and to build worlds. While global efforts to deepen our understanding of the prevalence and impact of digital risks of harm are burgeoning – a development that is both welcome and necessary – less attention has been paid to understanding and optimizing the benefits that digital technology can provide in supporting children’s rights and their well-being. Benefits here refer not only to the absence of harm, but also to creating additional positive value. How should we recognize the opportunities and benefits of digital technology for children’s well-being? What is the relationship between the design of digital experiences – in particular, play-centred design – and the well-being of children? What guidance and measures can we use to strengthen the design of digital environments to promote positive outcomes for children? And how can we make sure that children’s insights and needs form the foundation of our work in this space? These questions matter for all those who design and promote digital experiences, to keep children safe and happy, and enable positive development and learning. These questions are particularly relevant as the world shifts its attention to emerging digital technologies and experiences, from artificial intelligence (AI) to the metaverse, and seeks to understand their impact on people and society. To begin to tackle these questions, UNICEF and the LEGO Group initiated the Responsible Innovation in Technology for Children (RITEC) project in partnership with the Young and Resilient Research Centre at Western Sydney University; the CREATE Lab at New York University; the Graduate Center, City University of New York; the University of Sheffield; the Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for the Digital Child; and the Joan Ganz Cooney Center. The research is funded by the LEGO Foundation. The partnership is an international, multi-stakeholder and cross-sectoral collaboration between organizations that believe the design and development of digital technology should support the rights and well-being of children as a primary objective – and that children should have a prominent voice in making this a reality. This project’s primary objective is to develop, with children from around the world, a framework that maps how the design of children’s digital experiences affects their well-being, and to provide guidance as to how informed design choices can promote positive well-being outcomes.

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