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UNICEF Innocenti's complete catalogue of research and reports
Reimagining Migration Responses: Learning from children and young people who move in the Horn of Africa
SPOTLIGHT

Reimagining Migration Responses: Learning from children and young people who move in the Horn of Africa

The number of international migrants under 18 is rising, accelerated by complex and fast-evolving economic, demographic, security and environmental drivers. Based on interviews carried out with 1,290 migrant children and young people in Ethiopia, Somalia and Sudan, this report helps address the evidence gap on children and young people migrating in the Horn of Africa by providing a better understanding of their protective environments; their access to services and resources; and their perceptions of safety, well-being and trust in authorities and other providers. It concludes by offering policy and programme recommendations to rethink child protection approaches for migrants in the region.
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COVID-19: Missing More Than a Classroom. The impact of school closures on children’s nutrition
Blog Blog

COVID-19: Missing More Than a Classroom. The impact of school closures on children’s nutrition

In 2019, 135 million people in 55 countries were in food crises or worse, and 2 billion people did not have regular access to safe, nutritious and sufficient food. COVID-19 has exacerbated these hardships and may result in an additional 121 million people facing acute food insecurity by the end of 2020. Further, since the beginning of the pandemic, an estimated 1.6 billion learners in 199 countries worldwide were affected by school closures, with nearly 370 million children not receiving a school meal in 150 countries. The paper presents the evidence on the potential negative short-term and long-term effects of school meal scheme disruption during Covid-19 globally. It shows how vulnerable the children participating in these schemes are, how coping and mitigation measures are often only short-term solutions, and how prioritizing school re-opening is critical. For instance, it highlights how girls are at greater risk of not being in school or of being taken out of school early, which may lead to poor nutrition and health for themselves and their children. However, well-designed school feeding programmes have been shown to enable catch-up from early growth failure and other negative shocks. As such, once schools re-open, school meal schemes can help address the deprivation that children have experienced during the closures and provide an incentive for parents to send and keep their children, especially girls, in school.
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Child Trafficking in Europe: A broad vision to put children first (summary)
Child Trafficking in Europe: A broad vision to put children first (summary)
Published: 2007 Innocenti Publications
Within and across borders in Europe, children are trafficked into a variety of exploitative situations, violating their human rights and threatening their survival and development. This report assesses the legal, policy and implementation frameworks in place to address child trafficking in the region. Covering more than 50 countries/entities, the report investigates the complexity of the trafficking phenomenon, and maps trafficking patterns and targeted legal and policy responses. Child trafficking is addressed in the framework of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, with a focus on prevention, protection and empowerment.
Child Trafficking in Europe: A broad vision to put children first
Child Trafficking in Europe: A broad vision to put children first
Published: 2007 Innocenti Insights
Within and across borders in Europe, children are trafficked into a variety of exploitative situations, violating their human rights and threatening their survival and development. This report assesses the legal, policy and implementation frameworks in place to address child trafficking in the region. Covering more than 50 countries/entities, the report investigates the complexity of the trafficking phenomenon, and maps trafficking patterns and targeted legal and policy responses. Child trafficking is addressed in the framework of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, with a focus on prevention, protection and empowerment.
Asegurar los derechos de los niños indígenas
Asegurar los derechos de los niños indígenas

AUTHOR(S)
Michael Miller

Published: 2004 Innocenti Digest
En todo el mundo, tanto en las áreas rurales como en las urbanas, los niños indígenas a menudo constituyen uno de los grupos más desventajados y sus derechos (el derecho a la sobrevivencia y al desarrollo, al mejor nivel posible de salud, a una educación que respete su identidad cultural, y a la protección contra los abusos, la violencia y la exploitación) se ven frecuentemente comprometidos. Al mismo tiempo, sin embargo, los niños indígenas poseen recursos muy especiales: son los custodios de una multitud de culturas, idiomas, sistemas de valores y conocimientos, cada uno de los cuales es un precioso elemento de nuestro patrimonio colectivo. Como explica el presente Digest las inicitivas más eficaces para promover los derechos de los niños indígenas se basan precisamente en dichos elementos. Tales iniciativas reconocen la fuerza intrínseca de las comunidades, familias y niños indígenas, respetan su dignidad y les conceden la palabra en todas las cuestiones que los afectan.
Ensuring the rights of indigenous children
Ensuring the rights of indigenous children

AUTHOR(S)
Michael Miller

Published: 2004 Innocenti Digest
Around the world, in rural and urban areas alike, indigenous chilldren frequently constitute one of the most disadvantaged groups, and their rights - including those to survival and development, to the highest standards of health, to education that respects their cultural identity, and to protection from abuse, violence and exploitation - are often compromised. At the same time, however, indigenous children possess very special resources: they are the custodians of a multitude of cultures, languages, beliefs and knowledge systems, each of which is a precious element of our collective heritage. As this Digest discusses, the most effective initiatives to promote the rights of indigenous children build upon these very elements. Such initiatives recognize the inherent strength of indigenous communities, families and children, respect their dignity and give them full voice in all matters that affect them.
Garantir les droits des enfants autochtones
Garantir les droits des enfants autochtones

AUTHOR(S)
Michael Miller

Published: 2004 Innocenti Digest
Dans le monde, que ce soit dans les zones urbaines ou rurale, les enfants autochtones constituent fréquentement l'un de groupes le plus défavorisés, et leurs droits - notamment à la survie et au développement, jusqu'au niveau le plus élevé de santé, à l'éducation qui respecte leur identité culturelle, et à la protection contre les mauvais traitements, la violence et l'exploitation - sont souvent bafoués. Parallèlement, toutefois, les enfants autochtones possèdent des resources très particulières : ils sont les gardiens d'une multitude de cultures, de langues, de croyances et de systèmes de connaissances, qui répresentent une partie précieuse de notre patrimoine collectif. Comme l'illustre le Digest, les initiatives les plus efficaces afin de promouvoir les droits des enfants atochtones se fondent justement sur ces éléments. Ces initiatives reconnaissent la force inhérente des communautés, des familles et des enfants autochtones, elles respectent leurs dignité et leur donnent pleinement la parole dans tous les domaines qui les concernent.
A League Table of Child Maltreatment Deaths in Rich Nations
A League Table of Child Maltreatment Deaths in Rich Nations
Published: 2003 Innocenti Report Card
This report represents the first ever attempt to draw a comparative picture of the physical abuse of children in the 27 richest nations of the world. UNICEF research estimates that almost 3,500 children under the age of 15 die from physical abuse and neglect every year in the industrialized world. The greatest risk is among younger children. A small group of countries - Spain, Greece, Italy, Ireland and Norway - appear to have an exceptionally low incidence of child maltreatment deaths; Belgium, the Czech Republic, New Zealand, Hungary and France have levels that are four to six times higher. The United States, Mexico and Portugal have rates that are between 10 and 15 times higher than those at the top of the league table. The good news is that child deaths from maltreatment appear to be declining in the great majority of industrialized countries.
Tableau de classement des décès d'enfants par suite de maltraitance dans les nations riches
Tableau de classement des décès d'enfants par suite de maltraitance dans les nations riches
Published: 2003 Innocenti Report Card
Près de 3500 enfants de moins de 15 ans (don’t plus de 1000 rien qu'au Mexique) succombent chaque année par suite de négligence et de sévices physiques. La maltraitance tue chaque semaine deux enfants en Allemagne et au Royaume-Uni, trois en France, près de quatre au Japon, et 27 aux Etats-Unis. Globalement, environ un tiers de ces décès entre dans la catégorie " cause indéterminée ". On ne possède encore de donées internationalement comparables pour ventiler ces 3500 décès annuels en décès dus à la violence physique et décès par négligence. Mais au sein même des divers nations, des tentatives ont été faites pour évaluer l'importance relative de ces deux catégories. Des divergences dans la classification et un manque de définitionis et de méthodes de recherches communes font que l'on a peu de donées internationalement comparables, et que l'ampleur de la maltraitance des enfants est presque certainement plus forte que ne l'indiquent les statistiques.
Birth Registration: Right from the Start
Birth Registration: Right from the Start
Published: 2002 Innocenti Digest
This Digest looks at birth registration, a fundamental human right that opens the door to other rights, including education and health care, participation and protection. It explains why the births of more than 50 million babies go unregistered every year. In legal terms, these children do not exist and their right to an official name and nationality is denied. Their access to basic services may be severely jeopardised and they may find themselves more vulnerable to abuse and exploitation. The effects can last a lifetime, with the unregistered adult unable to vote, open a bank account or obtain a marriage licence. Non-registration also has serious implications for the State. Put simply, countries need to know how many people they have and how many there are likely to be in the future, in order to plan effectively. This Digest emphasizes the crucial importance of birth registration, explores the obstacles to universal registration and highlights the actions - including awareness raising, legislative changes, resource allocation and capacity building - that are needed to ensure the registration of every child.
Child Trafficking in West Africa - Policy Responses
Child Trafficking in West Africa - Policy Responses
Published: 2002 Innocenti Insights
The trafficking of children is one of the gravest violations of human rights in the world today. Every year, hundreds of thousands of children are smuggled across borders and sold as mere commodities. Their survival and development are threatened, and their rights to education, to health, to grow up within a family, to protection from exploitation and abuse, are denied. The UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre has worked with the UNICEF Regional Office for West and Central Africa to identify effective policy solutions to this issue in eight countries: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Côte d’Ivoire, Gabon, Mali, Nigeria and Togo. This study focuses on a region that is badly affected by the phenomenon, aiming to increase understanding of this reality and maximize the effectiveness of measures to overcome it. It illustrates the importance of field-driven research and the essential role that research plays in policy formulation and the proper design of programmes.
El registro de nacimiento: el derecho a tener derechos
El registro de nacimiento: el derecho a tener derechos
Published: 2002 Innocenti Digest
Este número del Innocenti Digest se está dedicado al tema del registro de nacimiento, un derecho humano fundamental que abre el camino a los demás derechos, como el derecho a la educación y a los cuidados médicos, a la participación y a la protección. Se explica por qué cada año queda sin inscribir en un registro el nacimiento de más de 50 millones de bebés. Jurídicamente hablando, estos niños no existen y se les niega el derecho a tener un nombre y una nacionalidad oficiales. Sus posibilidades concretas de acceder a los servicios básicos pueden verse seriamente comprometidas y los niños mismos pueden encontrarse en una situación de mayor vulnerabilidad frente a los abusos y la explotación.
L'enregistrement à la naissance : un droit pour commencer
L'enregistrement à la naissance : un droit pour commencer
Published: 2002 Innocenti Digest
Le présent Digest étudie l’enregistrement de la naissance, un droit humain fondamental, qui est aussi la clé d’autres droits à l’éducation, aux soins de santé, à la participation, à la protection. Il explique comment il se fait que chaque année, plus de 50 millions de naissances ne soient pas enregistrées. Ces nouveau-nés n’existent pas aux yeux de la loi, et ils se voient dénier leur droit à un nom officiel et à une nationalité. Leur accès aux services de santé de base risque de se heurter à de terribles obstacles, et ils sont plus vulnérables aux abus et à l’exploitation. Les effets du non-enregistrement de la naissance peuvent se faire sentir tout au long de la vie, interdisant à l’adulte de voter, d’ouvrir un compte en banque, de se marier légalement. Pour l’Etat aussi, les implications en sont graves. Les pays ont en effet besoin, pour établir une planification efficace, de savoir quelle est leur population actuelle et quelle elle devrait être dans l’avenir. Ce Digest insiste sur l’importance cruciale de l’enregistrement des naissances, examine les obstacles à un enregistrement universel, et met en lumière les actions - sensibilisation, changements dans la législation, allocations de ressources et constitution de capacités - qui devront être prises pour garantir l’enregistrement de tous les enfants.
Early Marriage: Child Spouses
Early Marriage: Child Spouses
Published: 2001 Innocenti Digest
This Digest focuses on early marriage - the marriage of children and young people under the age of 18 - from a human rights perspective. Research into early marriage has tended to concentrate on its impact on reproductive health, school drop-out and rising population figures, and there has been little examination of the practice as a human rights violation in itself. The Digest examines the scale of early marriage, its context, causes and its impact on every aspect of the lives of those affected - particularly young girls - and on wider society. It outlines strategies to help those who have been married at an early age, and for the prevention of early marriage through education, advocacy and alliance-building. The Digest concludes with a call for more rights-based research on an issue that has far-reaching consequences.
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Learning at a Distance: Children’s remote learning experiences in Italy during the COVID-19 pandemic
Publication Publication

Learning at a Distance: Children’s remote learning experiences in Italy during the COVID-19 pandemic

Italy was the first country in Europe to implement a nationwide lockdown. Children and their families lived in nearly complete isolation for almost two months. Students missed 65 days of school compared to an average of 27 missed days among high-income countries worldwide. This prolonged break is of concern, as even short breaks in schooling can cause significant loss of learning for children and lead to educational inequalities over time. At least 3 million Italian students may not have been reached by remote learning due to a lack of internet connectivity or devices at home. This report explores children’s and parents’ experiences of remote learning during the lockdown in Italy, drawing on data collected from 11 European countries (and coordinated by the European Commission’s Joint Research Center). It explores how children's access and use of digital technologies changed during the pandemic; highlights how existing inequalities might undermine remote learning opportunities, even among those with internet access; and provides insights on how to support children’s remote learning in the future. *** L'Italia e’ stata il primo paese in Europa ad aver applicato la misura del lockdown su tutto il territorio. I bambini e le loro famiglie hanno vissuto in quasi completo isolamento per circa due mesi. Gli studenti hanno perduto 65 giorni di scuola rispetto ad una media di 27 negli altri paesi ad alto reddito del mondo. Questa interruzione prolungata rappresenta motivo di preoccupazione, in quanto persino interruzioni piu’ brevi nella didattica possono causare significative perdite nel livello di istruzione dei ragazzi e portare col tempo a diseguaglianze educative. Almeno 3 milioni di studenti in Italia non sono stati coinvolti nella didattica a distanza a causa d una mancanza di connessione ad internet o di dispositivi adeguati a casa. Questo rapporto analizza l’esperienza della didattica a distanza di ragazzi e genitori in Italia durante il lockdown, sulla base dei dati raccolti in 11 paesi europei (e coordinati dal Centro comune di ricerca della Commissione Europea). Studia il cambiamento nell’accesso e nell’uso delle tecnologie digitali dei bambini e ragazzi durante la pandemia; mette in evidenza come le diseguaglianze esistenti possano diminuire le opportunità offerte dalla didattica a distanza, anche tra coloro che hanno accesso ad internet; e fornisce approfondimenti su come sostenere la didattica a distanza di bambini e ragazzi in futuro.
Time to Teach: Teacher attendance and time on task in Eastern and Southern Africa
Publication Publication

Time to Teach: Teacher attendance and time on task in Eastern and Southern Africa

There is a learning crisis. Fifty-three per cent of children in low- and middle-income countries are in ‘learning poverty’, i.e. they cannot read and understand a simple text by the end of primary school age. In sub- Saharan Africa, the learning poverty rate is 87 per cent overall, and ranges from 40 per cent to as high as 99 per cent in the 21 countries with available data. Teachers attending lessons and spending quality time on task is a critical prerequisite to learning. However, in sub-Saharan Africa, teacher absenteeism ranges from 15 to 45 per cent. Teacher absenteeism and reduced time on task wastes valuable financial resources, short-changes students and is one of the most cumbersome obstacles on the path toward the education Sustainable Development Goal and to the related vision of the new UNICEF education strategy: Every Child Learns. Whilst the stark numbers are available to study, and despite teacher absenteeism being a foremost challenge for education systems in Africa, the evidence base on how policies and practices can influence teacher attendance remains scant. Time to Teach (TTT) is a research initiative that looks at primary school teacher attendance in eight countries and territories in the Eastern and Southern Africa (ESA) region: the Comoros; Kenya; Rwanda, Puntland, State of Somalia; South Sudan; the United Republic of Tanzania, mainland; the United Republic of Tanzania, Zanzibar; and Uganda. Its primary objective is to identify factors affecting the various forms of teacher attendance, which include being at school, being punctual, being in the classroom, and teaching when in the classroom, and use this evidence to inform the design and implementation of teacher policies.

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