Innocenti Working Papers Measuring Inequality in Children’s Education in Rich Countries AUTHOR(S) Gwyther Rees; Yekaterina Chzhen; Jose Cuesta; Zlata Bruckhauf Published: 2018 Innocenti Working Papers There is growing recognition among international organizations, scholars and policymakers that education systems must produce equitable outcomes, but there is far less consensus on what this means in practice. This paper analyses differences in inequality of outcome and inequality of opportunity in educational achievement among primary and secondary schoolchildren across 38 countries of the European Union (EU) and/or the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). The analysis focuses on reading achievement, drawing on data from the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) and the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). We use several measures to operationalize the two concepts of inequality in education. Our results show that inequality of outcome does not necessarily go hand in hand with inequality of opportunity. These two concepts lead to measures that produce very different country rankings. We argue that information on both inequality of outcome and inequality of opportunity is necessary for a better understanding of equity in children’s education. + - Cite this publication | No. of pages: 48 | Thematic area: Education | Tags: educational development, educational indicators, educational levels, inequality × COPY BIBLIOGRAPHIC CITATION Gwyther Rees; Yekaterina Chzhen; Jose Cuesta; Zlata Bruckhauf 2018 Measuring Inequality in Children’s Education in Rich Countries. , pp. 48.