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UNICEF Innocenti's complete catalogue of research and reports
Places and Spaces: Environments and children’s well-being
SPOTLIGHT

Places and Spaces: Environments and children’s well-being

Report Card 17 explores how 43 OECD/EU countries are faring in providing healthy environments for children. Do children have clean water to drink? Do they have good-quality air to breathe? Are their homes free of lead and mould? How many children live in overcrowded homes? How many have access to green play spaces, safe from road traffic? Data show that a nation’s wealth does not guarantee a healthy environment. Far too many children are deprived of a healthy home, irreversibly damaging their current and future well-being. Beyond children’s immediate environments, over-consumption in some of the world’s richest countries is destroying children’s environments globally. This threatens both children worldwide and future generations. To provide all children with safe and healthy environments, governments, policymakers, businesses and all stakeholders are called to act on a set of policy recommendations.
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Sexual Abuse and Exploitation of Boys in South Asia. A review of research findings, legislation, policy and programme responses
Sexual Abuse and Exploitation of Boys in South Asia. A review of research findings, legislation, policy and programme responses
Published: 2010 Innocenti Working Papers
This paper provides an overview of research findings, legislation, policy and programme responses to prevent and respond to the sexual abuse and exploitation of boys in South Asia. The background to the paper is based on the findings from previous UNICEF IRC research on child trafficking in the region, which indicated that boys enjoy less legal protection than girls from sexual abuse and exploitation and less access to services for victims. While it is seen that the majority of legislation and policies that address ‘children’ adequately address ‘boys’, this paper notes areas in which the rights and needs of boys require greater focus. Among the concerns is the absence of legal commentary on legislation regarding boys’ issues and an absence of advocacy efforts to take action and amend laws to provide equal protection to boys. In some cases legislation covers only girls and women. And, although research shows that boys face almost the same degree of sexual abuse and exploitation as girls, programming throughout the region is overwhelmingly directed at girls and women.
South Asia in Action: Preventing and responding to child trafficking. Analysis of anti-trafficking initiatives in the region
South Asia in Action: Preventing and responding to child trafficking. Analysis of anti-trafficking initiatives in the region
Published: 2009 Innocenti Insights
This publication provides a regional analysis of anti-trafficking measures relevant to children in the countries of South Asia. It assesses national legal and policy frameworks and provides a list of recommended actions for the application of a rights-based approach to child trafficking. Emphasis is placed on the indivisibility of human rights and the influence that trafficking, exploitation and abuse have on children’s enjoyment of rights and fundamental freedoms.The study is based on the understanding that in order to ensure a comprehensive approach to child trafficking, exploitation and abuse, measures must be developed and implemented in full conformity with the 1989 Convention on the Rights of the Child and the broader framework of human rights.
Intersectional Discrimination against Children: Discrimination against Romani children and anti-discrimination measures to address child trafficking
Intersectional Discrimination against Children: Discrimination against Romani children and anti-discrimination measures to address child trafficking

AUTHOR(S)
Camilla Ida Ravnbøl

Published: 2009 Innocenti Working Papers
This paper adds a perspective to existing research on child protection by engaging in a debate on intersectional discrimination and its relationship to child protection. The paper has a two-fold objective: (1) to further establish intersectionality as a concept to address discrimination against children; and (2) to illustrate the importance of addressing intersectionality within rights-based programmes of child protection.
Children's Work and Independent Child Migration: A critical review
Children's Work and Independent Child Migration: A critical review

AUTHOR(S)
Eric Edmonds; Maheshwor Shrestha

Published: 2009 Innocenti Working Papers
This review considers the evidence from child labour research that is relevant to understanding independent child migration for work. Three factors are relevant: first, migration for work is one of the many possible alternatives for child time allocation. The methodological and analytical tools used in the study of child labour are thus applicable to this study. Second,independent child migration for work will be reduced by factors that improve alternatives to migration. Child labour at home is one possible alternative to migrating. Thus, influences on child labour will affect independent child migration by altering the pressures that push children into migration. Third, the issues that arise in understanding why employers use children are also relevant to understanding what factors pull children into migration. In existing data resources, two methods are used to identify independent child migrants: the roster method and the fertility survey method. The roster approach identifies migrants by enumerating residents in sampled households. As such, it measures migrants in destination areas and misses children that are difficult to locate, especially those who migrate out of country. In the fertility survey method mothers account for the status of all of their children. This is useful for identifying origin areas for the migrants but is uninformative about the current condition of the child migrant. Stronger data collection efforts are necessary to better measure the extent of working independent child migrants and understand both the source and the living conditions of independent child migrants.
South Asia in Action: Preventing and responding to child trafficking. Child rights-based programme practices
South Asia in Action: Preventing and responding to child trafficking. Child rights-based programme practices
Published: 2008 Innocenti Insights
This publication acknowledges the adoption of many international standards and the promotion of regional agreements. At the same time, legislation against trafficking is often considered within the broader context of criminalizing prostitution, addressing organized crime and controlling migration. Although these are important issues, a focus only on these perspectives fails to adequately address the full complexity and dynamics of human trafficking, and fails to give distinct consideration to child trafficking. Existing laws therefore need to be amended and new laws enacted to fully conform with international standards.
South Asia in Action: Preventing and responding to child trafficking. Summary report
South Asia in Action: Preventing and responding to child trafficking. Summary report
Published: 2008 Innocenti Insights
This publication acknowledges the adoption of many international standards and the promotion of regional agreements. At the same time, legislation against trafficking is often considered within the broader context of criminalizing prostitution, addressing organized crime and controlling migration. Although these are important issues, a focus only on these perspectives fails to adequately address the full complexity and dynamics of human trafficking, and fails to give distinct consideration to child trafficking. Existing laws therefore need to be amended and new laws enacted to fully conform with international standards.
Young People’s Voices on Child Trafficking: Experiences from South Eastern Europe
Young People’s Voices on Child Trafficking: Experiences from South Eastern Europe

AUTHOR(S)
Mike Dottridge

Published: 2008 Innocenti Working Papers
Mindful of the important contribution that young people can make to our understanding of the issues that concern them, in 2005 and 2006 UNICEF arranged for children and young people who had been trafficked while under 18 years of age, to be interviewed in their home countries. Interviews were conducted in Albania, Kosovo, Moldova and Romania. Each of the children and young people described their lives before recruitment, their experiences during exploitation, and how they got away from the traffickers. They also spoke of rebuilding their lives once they were free. The interviews formed part of a broader assessment of strategies to counter child trafficking in the region.
Child Trafficking in Europe: A broad vision to put children first
Child Trafficking in Europe: A broad vision to put children first
Published: 2007 Innocenti Insights
Within and across borders in Europe, children are trafficked into a variety of exploitative situations, violating their human rights and threatening their survival and development. This report assesses the legal, policy and implementation frameworks in place to address child trafficking in the region. Covering more than 50 countries/entities, the report investigates the complexity of the trafficking phenomenon, and maps trafficking patterns and targeted legal and policy responses. Child trafficking is addressed in the framework of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, with a focus on prevention, protection and empowerment.
Child Trafficking in Europe: A broad vision to put children first (summary)
Child Trafficking in Europe: A broad vision to put children first (summary)
Published: 2007 Innocenti Publications
Within and across borders in Europe, children are trafficked into a variety of exploitative situations, violating their human rights and threatening their survival and development. This report assesses the legal, policy and implementation frameworks in place to address child trafficking in the region. Covering more than 50 countries/entities, the report investigates the complexity of the trafficking phenomenon, and maps trafficking patterns and targeted legal and policy responses. Child trafficking is addressed in the framework of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, with a focus on prevention, protection and empowerment.
Trafficking for Sexual Exploitation and other Exploitative Purposes
Trafficking for Sexual Exploitation and other Exploitative Purposes
Published: 2005 Innocenti Publications
This report on the protection of children from commercial sexual exploitation and trafficking introduces the topic and then examines law and policy on child trafficking in South Asia. A case study from Latin America and the Caribbean is also included in the preliminary findings as it provides an illustration of a coordinated effort to prevent and combat the sexual exploitation of children for the purposes of sex tourism in the Dominican Republic. Other issues addressed are local governance, local action and child protection; the efficacy of cross border interventions in the prevention of trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation; and migration, mobility and challenges to child protection.
La traite des êtres humaines en Afrique, en particulier des femmes et des enfants
La traite des êtres humaines en Afrique, en particulier des femmes et des enfants

AUTHOR(S)
Andrea Rossi

Published: 2004 Innocenti Insights
La traite des êtres humaines affecte presque toutes les nations d'Afrique pour lesquelles nous disposons de données, que ce soit les pays d'origine ou celles qui servent de destination. Le rapport étudie les informations recueillies dans 53 pays africains et procède à une analyse des schémas et des racines profondes de la traite, ainsi que des pratiques et mesures efficaces prises au niveau national et régional. On a pu observer les phénomènes suivants: la traite est facilitée par l'effondrement du milieu protecteur de l'enfant suite à un conflit armé, des difficultés économiques ou des pratiques discriminatoires. Les attitudes and pratiques traditionelles, le mariage précoce et le fait que les naissances ne soient pas enregistrées rendent estrêmement difficile l'identification des victimes.
Trafficking in Human Beings, Especially Women and Children, in Africa (second edition)
Trafficking in Human Beings, Especially Women and Children, in Africa (second edition)
Published: 2004 Innocenti Insights
Trafficking of human beings affects every country in Africa for which data are available, either as countries of origin or destination. The report looks at information from 53 African countries and provides an analysis of the patterns, root causes, and existing national and regional policy responses and effective practices. Trafficking occurs when a child's protective environment collapses as a result of conflict, economic hardship, or discrimination. Traditional attitudes and practices, early marriage, and lack of birth registration further increase the vulnerability of children and women to exploitation.
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JOURNAL ARTICLES BLOGS
Return on Knowledge: How international development agencies are collaborating to deliver impact through knowledge, learning, research and evidence
Publication

Return on Knowledge: How international development agencies are collaborating to deliver impact through knowledge, learning, research and evidence

Effective collaboration around knowledge management and organizational learning is a key contributor to improving the impact of international development work for the world’s most vulnerable people. But how can it be proven? With only 10 years from the target date for the Sustainable Development Goals, nine of the world’s most influential agencies set out to show to the connection between the use of evidence, knowledge and learning and a better quality of human life. This book – a synthesis of stories, examples and insights that demonstrate where and how these practices have made a positive impact on development programming – is the result of the Multi-Donor Learning Partnership (MDLP), a collective effort to record the ways each of these organizations have leveraged intentional, systematic and resourced approaches to knowledge management and organizational learning in their work.
Gender Solutions: Capturing the impact of UNICEF’s gender equality evidence investments (2014–2021)
Publication

Gender Solutions: Capturing the impact of UNICEF’s gender equality evidence investments (2014–2021)

UNICEF has undertaken hundreds of gender evidence generation activities, supporting programmatic action, advocacy work and policymaking. The Gender Solutions project aims to draw together the knowledge, innovations and impacts of gender evidence work conducted by UNICEF offices since the first UNICEF Gender Action Plan was launched in 2014. A desk review identified over 700 gender-related UNICEF research, evaluation and data evidence generation activities since 2014. Twenty-five outputs were shortlisted because of their high quality and (potential for) impact and three were selected as Gender Evidence Award winners by an external review panel. By capturing the impact of this broad body of work, Gender Solutions aims to showcase UNICEF’s evidence investments, reward excellence and inform the rollout of the UNICEF Gender Policy 2021–2030 and Action Plan 2022–2025.
Annual Report 2021
Publication

Annual Report 2021

The UNICEF Innocenti Annual Report 2021 highlights the key results achieved in research and evidence to inform policymaking and programming.
Responsible Innovation in Technology for Children: Digital technology, play and child well-being
Publication

Responsible Innovation in Technology for Children: Digital technology, play and child well-being

Digital experiences can have significant negative impact on children, exposing them to risks or failing to nurture them adequately. Nevertheless, digital experiences also potentially yield enormous benefits for children, enabling them to learn, to create, to develop friendships, and to build worlds. While global efforts to deepen our understanding of the prevalence and impact of digital risks of harm are burgeoning – a development that is both welcome and necessary – less attention has been paid to understanding and optimizing the benefits that digital technology can provide in supporting children’s rights and their well-being. Benefits here refer not only to the absence of harm, but also to creating additional positive value. How should we recognize the opportunities and benefits of digital technology for children’s well-being? What is the relationship between the design of digital experiences – in particular, play-centred design – and the well-being of children? What guidance and measures can we use to strengthen the design of digital environments to promote positive outcomes for children? And how can we make sure that children’s insights and needs form the foundation of our work in this space? These questions matter for all those who design and promote digital experiences, to keep children safe and happy, and enable positive development and learning. These questions are particularly relevant as the world shifts its attention to emerging digital technologies and experiences, from artificial intelligence (AI) to the metaverse, and seeks to understand their impact on people and society. To begin to tackle these questions, UNICEF and the LEGO Group initiated the Responsible Innovation in Technology for Children (RITEC) project in partnership with the Young and Resilient Research Centre at Western Sydney University; the CREATE Lab at New York University; the Graduate Center, City University of New York; the University of Sheffield; the Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for the Digital Child; and the Joan Ganz Cooney Center. The research is funded by the LEGO Foundation. The partnership is an international, multi-stakeholder and cross-sectoral collaboration between organizations that believe the design and development of digital technology should support the rights and well-being of children as a primary objective – and that children should have a prominent voice in making this a reality. This project’s primary objective is to develop, with children from around the world, a framework that maps how the design of children’s digital experiences affects their well-being, and to provide guidance as to how informed design choices can promote positive well-being outcomes.

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