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UNICEF Innocenti's complete catalogue of research and reports
Life in Lockdown: Child and adolescent mental health and well-being in the time of COVID-19
SPOTLIGHT

Life in Lockdown: Child and adolescent mental health and well-being in the time of COVID-19

COVID-19 lockdowns have significantly disrupted the daily lives of children and adolescents, with increased time at home, online learning and limited physical social interaction. This report seeks to understand the immediate effects on their mental health. Covering more than 130,000 children and adolescents across 22 countries, the evidence shows increased stress, anxiety and depressive symptoms, as well as increased alcohol and substance use, and  externalizing behavioural problems. Children and adolescents also reported positive coping strategies, resilience, social connectedness through digital media, more family time, and relief from academic stress. Factors such as demographics, relationships and pre-existing conditions are critical. To ensure children and adolescents are supported, the report recommends building the evidence on the longer-term impact of the pandemic on child and adolescent mental health in low- and middle-income countries, including vulnerable populations. To ensure children and adolescents are supported, the report recommends building the evidence on the longer-term impact of the pandemic on child and adolescent mental health in low- and middle-income countries, including vulnerable populations.
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COVID-19: Missing More Than a Classroom. The impact of school closures on children’s nutrition
Blog Blog

COVID-19: Missing More Than a Classroom. The impact of school closures on children’s nutrition

In 2019, 135 million people in 55 countries were in food crises or worse, and 2 billion people did not have regular access to safe, nutritious and sufficient food. COVID-19 has exacerbated these hardships and may result in an additional 121 million people facing acute food insecurity by the end of 2020. Further, since the beginning of the pandemic, an estimated 1.6 billion learners in 199 countries worldwide were affected by school closures, with nearly 370 million children not receiving a school meal in 150 countries. The paper presents the evidence on the potential negative short-term and long-term effects of school meal scheme disruption during Covid-19 globally. It shows how vulnerable the children participating in these schemes are, how coping and mitigation measures are often only short-term solutions, and how prioritizing school re-opening is critical. For instance, it highlights how girls are at greater risk of not being in school or of being taken out of school early, which may lead to poor nutrition and health for themselves and their children. However, well-designed school feeding programmes have been shown to enable catch-up from early growth failure and other negative shocks. As such, once schools re-open, school meal schemes can help address the deprivation that children have experienced during the closures and provide an incentive for parents to send and keep their children, especially girls, in school.
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Bambini e adolescenti ai margini. Un quadro comparativo sulla disuguaglianza nel benessere dei bambini nei paesi ricchi
Bambini e adolescenti ai margini. Un quadro comparativo sulla disuguaglianza nel benessere dei bambini nei paesi ricchi

AUTHOR(S)
Peter Adamson

Published: 2010 Innocenti Report Card
Questa Report Card presenta una prima panoramica sulle disuguaglianze nel benessere dei bambini in 24 dei paesi più ricchi del mondo. Vi si prendono in esame tre dimensioni di disuguaglianza: il benessere materiale, l'istruzione e la salute. In ciascun caso e per ogni paese, la domanda posta è: "fino a che punto si permette che i bambini più svantaggiati rimangano indietro?" Il rapporto sostiene l’argomento che i bambini meritano il miglior inizio possibile nella loro esistenza, che le prime esperienze possono gettare una lunga ombra sul loro futuro, e che i bambini non devono essere ritenuti responsabili per le circostanze in cui nascono. In questo senso, il metro utilizzato in questo studio, ossia il grado di disuguaglianza nella parte inferiore della distribuzione del benessere dei bambini, è una misura dei progressi compiuti verso una società più giusta.
Les enfants laissés pour compte : tableau de classement des inégalités de bien-être entre les enfants des pays riches
Les enfants laissés pour compte : tableau de classement des inégalités de bien-être entre les enfants des pays riches

AUTHOR(S)
Peter Adamson

Published: 2010 Innocenti Report Card
Le présent Bilan présente un premier aperçu des inégalités en termes de bien-être infantile dans vingt-quatre des pays les plus riches du monde. Trois dimensions de l’inégalité sont examinées : le bien-être matériel, l’éducation et la santé. Dans chaque cas et pour chaque pays, la question posée est la suivante : ‘Dans quelle mesure les pays autorisent-ils que le bien-être infantile soit mis à mal ?’ Le rapport souligne que les enfants méritent le meilleur départ possible, qu’une expérience à un jeune âge peut avoir des répercussions durables et que les enfants ne doivent pas être tenus pour responsables des conditions de leur naissance. En ce sens, les paramètres utilisés - le niveau d’inégalité criant en termes de bien-être infantile - sont une mesure des progrès enregistrés vers une société plus juste. Ce rapport, qui collationne des données de la majorité des pays de l’OCDE, tente de stigmatiser les pays qui autorisent une dégradation inacceptable du bien-être des enfants en termes d’éducation, de santé et de bien-être matériel (les pays les plus en pointe servant d’étalon pour l’établissement d’une norme minimale quant aux résultats à atteindre). En attirant l’attention sur l’ampleur des disparités mises en exergue et en faisant la synthèse des conséquences connues, ce rapport souligne que cette ‘mise au ban’ est une question critique non seulement pour des millions d’enfants aujourd'hui, mais aussi pour l’avenir socio-économique de leurs pays.
Los niños dejados atrás: una tabla clasificatoria de la desigualdad respecto al bienestar infantil en las naciones ricas del mundo
Los niños dejados atrás: una tabla clasificatoria de la desigualdad respecto al bienestar infantil en las naciones ricas del mundo

AUTHOR(S)
Peter Adamson

Published: 2010 Innocenti Report Card
Esta Report Card presenta un primer panorama general de las desigualdades respecto al bienestar infantil en 24 de los países más ricos del mundo. Se examinan tres dimensiones de la desigualdad: el bienestar material, la educación y la salud. En cada uno de los casos y para cada uno de los países, el interrogante planteado es "¿hasta qué punto se deja que los niños se queden atrás?" El informe sostiene que la infancia se merece el mejor comienzo posible, que la experiencia temprana puede proyectar una larga sombra en la vida y que los niños no pueden considerarse responsables de las circunstancias en que han nacido. En este sentido, el parámetro utilizado -el grado de desigualdad en el extremo inferior de la escala respecto al bienestar infantil- es una medida del progreso que se está haciendo hacia una sociedad más justa. Al aportar datos sobre la mayoría de los países de la OCDE, el informe ha tratado de mostrar cuáles de ellos están permitiendo que los niños se queden atrás más de lo necesario en lo que respecta a la educación, la salud y el bienestar infantil (utilizando los países con mejor desempeño como nivel mínimo de lo que puede lograrse). Al llamar la atención sobre la profundidad de las disparidades reveladas y al resumir lo que sabemos acerca de las consecuencias, el informe sostiene que el fenómeno de "quedarse atrás" es una cuestión decisiva no sólo para los millones de niños de hoy sino también para el futuro económico y social de sus países el día de mañana.
Pobreza infantil nos paises ricos 2005
Pobreza infantil nos paises ricos 2005
Published: 2006 Innocenti Report Card
Este estudo de 2005 sobre pobreza infantil nos países ricos conclui que a percentagem de crianças pobres no mundo desenvolvido aumentou em 17 dos 24 países da OCDE para os quais existem dados. Independentemente do instrumento aplicado para medir a pobreza, a situação das crianças parece ter-se deteriorado ao longo da última década. A redução da pobreza infantil é uma medida do progresso no sentido da coesão social, da igualdade de oportunidades e do investimento nas crianças de hoje e no mundo de amanhã.
Child Poverty and Changes in Child Poverty in Rich Countries since 1990
Child Poverty and Changes in Child Poverty in Rich Countries since 1990
Published: 2005 Innocenti Working Papers
This paper documents levels and changes in child poverty rates in 12 OECD countries using data from the Luxembourg Income Study project, and focusing upon an analysis of the reasons for changes over the 1990s. The objective is to uncover the relative role of income transfers from the state in determining the magnitude and direction of change in child poverty rates, holding other demographic and labour market factors constant. As such the paper offers a cross-country overview of child poverty, changes in child poverty and the impact of public policy in North America and Europe. The paper offers a set of country specific results, and also attempts to draw general lessons. First, family and demographic forces play only a limited role in determining changes in child poverty rates. These forces change only gradually and are limited in their ability to cushion children from detrimental shocks originating in the labour market or in the government sector, which are the sources of the major forces determining the direction of change in child poverty. Second, in countries facing severe economic crises it does not appear that the amount of social transfers available were increased in a way to cushion children from these changes and put a backstop on their risk of low income. Third, there is no single road to lower child poverty rates. Changes in income transfers need to be thought through in conjunction with the nature of labour markets.
Child Poverty in Rich Countries 2005
Child Poverty in Rich Countries 2005
Published: 2005 Innocenti Report Card
The proportion of children living in poverty has risen in a majority of the world's developed economies. No matter which of the commonly-used poverty measures is applied, the situation of children is seen to have deteriorated over the last decade. This publication is the sixth in a series of Innocenti Report Cards designed to monitor and compare the performance of the OECD countries in meeting the needs of their children.
La pauvreté des enfants dans les pays riches 2005
La pauvreté des enfants dans les pays riches 2005
Published: 2005 Innocenti Report Card
La proportion d’enfants dans l’indigence a augmenté au sein de la plupart des économies développées dans le monde. Quels que soient les critères retenus parmi ceux communément utilisés pour mesurer la pauvreté, force est de constater que la situation des enfants s’est dégradée au cours de la dernière décennie. Cette publication est la sixième de la série des Bilans Innocenti qui visent à suivre et à comparer les résultats obtenus par les pays de l’OCDE pour répondre aux besoins de leurs enfants.
Pobreza infantil en países ricos 2005
Pobreza infantil en países ricos 2005
Published: 2005 Innocenti Report Card
La proporción de niños que viven en situación de pobreza ha aumentado en la mayoría de las economías desarrolladas. Independientemente del instrumento aplicado para medir la pobreza, la situación de los niños ha experimentado un deterioro en la última década. Esta publicación es el sexto número de una serie titulada Innocenti Report Cards (Boletines de Clasificaciones Innocenti), cuyo objetivo es evaluar y comparar en qué medida los países de la OCDE cubren las necesidades de sus niños.
Povertà dei bambini nei paesi ricchi 2005
Povertà dei bambini nei paesi ricchi 2005
Published: 2005 Innocenti Report Card
La percentuale di bambini poveri è aumentata nella maggior parte delle economie sviluppate del mondo. Indipendentemente dai parametri applicati comunemente per misurare la povertà, la situazione dei bambini risulta essere peggiorata negli ultimi dieci anni. Invertire questa tendenza è una priorità per i paesi OCSE. La riduzione della povertà infantile è una misura del progresso verso la coesione sociale, l'uguaglianza di opportunità, e un investimento sui bambini di oggi e sul mondo di domani. Questa pubblicazione è la sesta della serie Report Cards Innocenti, concepita per registrare e comparare la prestazione dei paesi OCSE nel soddisfare le esigenze dei loro bambini.
A League Table of Child Maltreatment Deaths in Rich Nations
A League Table of Child Maltreatment Deaths in Rich Nations
Published: 2003 Innocenti Report Card
This report represents the first ever attempt to draw a comparative picture of the physical abuse of children in the 27 richest nations of the world. UNICEF research estimates that almost 3,500 children under the age of 15 die from physical abuse and neglect every year in the industrialized world. The greatest risk is among younger children. A small group of countries - Spain, Greece, Italy, Ireland and Norway - appear to have an exceptionally low incidence of child maltreatment deaths; Belgium, the Czech Republic, New Zealand, Hungary and France have levels that are four to six times higher. The United States, Mexico and Portugal have rates that are between 10 and 15 times higher than those at the top of the league table. The good news is that child deaths from maltreatment appear to be declining in the great majority of industrialized countries.
Child Poverty in English-Speaking Countries
Child Poverty in English-Speaking Countries

AUTHOR(S)
John Micklewright

Published: 2003 Innocenti Working Papers
The paper considers child poverty in rich English-speaking countries - the U.S., Canada, Australia, New Zealand, the U.K. and Ireland. It is sometimes assumed that these countries stand out from other OECD countries for their levels of child poverty. The paper looks at the policies they have adopted to address the problem. 'Poverty' is interpreted broadly and hence the available cross-national evidence on edicational disadvantage and teenage births is considered alongside that on low household income. Discussion of policy initiatives ranges across a number of areas of government activity.
Tableau de classement des décès d'enfants par suite de maltraitance dans les nations riches
Tableau de classement des décès d'enfants par suite de maltraitance dans les nations riches
Published: 2003 Innocenti Report Card
Près de 3500 enfants de moins de 15 ans (don’t plus de 1000 rien qu'au Mexique) succombent chaque année par suite de négligence et de sévices physiques. La maltraitance tue chaque semaine deux enfants en Allemagne et au Royaume-Uni, trois en France, près de quatre au Japon, et 27 aux Etats-Unis. Globalement, environ un tiers de ces décès entre dans la catégorie " cause indéterminée ". On ne possède encore de donées internationalement comparables pour ventiler ces 3500 décès annuels en décès dus à la violence physique et décès par négligence. Mais au sein même des divers nations, des tentatives ont été faites pour évaluer l'importance relative de ces deux catégories. Des divergences dans la classification et un manque de définitionis et de méthodes de recherches communes font que l'on a peu de donées internationalement comparables, et que l'ampleur de la maltraitance des enfants est presque certainement plus forte que ne l'indiquent les statistiques.
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JOURNAL ARTICLES BLOGS
Learning at a Distance: Children’s remote learning experiences in Italy during the COVID-19 pandemic
Publication Publication

Learning at a Distance: Children’s remote learning experiences in Italy during the COVID-19 pandemic

Italy was the first country in Europe to implement a nationwide lockdown. Children and their families lived in nearly complete isolation for almost two months. Students missed 65 days of school compared to an average of 27 missed days among high-income countries worldwide. This prolonged break is of concern, as even short breaks in schooling can cause significant loss of learning for children and lead to educational inequalities over time. At least 3 million Italian students may not have been reached by remote learning due to a lack of internet connectivity or devices at home. This report explores children’s and parents’ experiences of remote learning during the lockdown in Italy, drawing on data collected from 11 European countries (and coordinated by the European Commission’s Joint Research Center). It explores how children's access and use of digital technologies changed during the pandemic; highlights how existing inequalities might undermine remote learning opportunities, even among those with internet access; and provides insights on how to support children’s remote learning in the future. *** L'Italia e’ stata il primo paese in Europa ad aver applicato la misura del lockdown su tutto il territorio. I bambini e le loro famiglie hanno vissuto in quasi completo isolamento per circa due mesi. Gli studenti hanno perduto 65 giorni di scuola rispetto ad una media di 27 negli altri paesi ad alto reddito del mondo. Questa interruzione prolungata rappresenta motivo di preoccupazione, in quanto persino interruzioni piu’ brevi nella didattica possono causare significative perdite nel livello di istruzione dei ragazzi e portare col tempo a diseguaglianze educative. Almeno 3 milioni di studenti in Italia non sono stati coinvolti nella didattica a distanza a causa d una mancanza di connessione ad internet o di dispositivi adeguati a casa. Questo rapporto analizza l’esperienza della didattica a distanza di ragazzi e genitori in Italia durante il lockdown, sulla base dei dati raccolti in 11 paesi europei (e coordinati dal Centro comune di ricerca della Commissione Europea). Studia il cambiamento nell’accesso e nell’uso delle tecnologie digitali dei bambini e ragazzi durante la pandemia; mette in evidenza come le diseguaglianze esistenti possano diminuire le opportunità offerte dalla didattica a distanza, anche tra coloro che hanno accesso ad internet; e fornisce approfondimenti su come sostenere la didattica a distanza di bambini e ragazzi in futuro.
Time to Teach: Teacher attendance and time on task in Eastern and Southern Africa
Publication Publication

Time to Teach: Teacher attendance and time on task in Eastern and Southern Africa

There is a learning crisis. Fifty-three per cent of children in low- and middle-income countries are in ‘learning poverty’, i.e. they cannot read and understand a simple text by the end of primary school age. In sub- Saharan Africa, the learning poverty rate is 87 per cent overall, and ranges from 40 per cent to as high as 99 per cent in the 21 countries with available data. Teachers attending lessons and spending quality time on task is a critical prerequisite to learning. However, in sub-Saharan Africa, teacher absenteeism ranges from 15 to 45 per cent. Teacher absenteeism and reduced time on task wastes valuable financial resources, short-changes students and is one of the most cumbersome obstacles on the path toward the education Sustainable Development Goal and to the related vision of the new UNICEF education strategy: Every Child Learns. Whilst the stark numbers are available to study, and despite teacher absenteeism being a foremost challenge for education systems in Africa, the evidence base on how policies and practices can influence teacher attendance remains scant. Time to Teach (TTT) is a research initiative that looks at primary school teacher attendance in eight countries and territories in the Eastern and Southern Africa (ESA) region: the Comoros; Kenya; Rwanda, Puntland, State of Somalia; South Sudan; the United Republic of Tanzania, mainland; the United Republic of Tanzania, Zanzibar; and Uganda. Its primary objective is to identify factors affecting the various forms of teacher attendance, which include being at school, being punctual, being in the classroom, and teaching when in the classroom, and use this evidence to inform the design and implementation of teacher policies.

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