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Time to Teach: Teacher attendance and time on task in Eastern and Southern Africa
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Time to Teach: Teacher attendance and time on task in Eastern and Southern Africa

There is a learning crisis. Fifty-three per cent of children in low- and middle-income countries are in ‘learning poverty’, i.e. they cannot read and understand a simple text by the end of primary school age. In sub- Saharan Africa, the learning poverty rate is 87 per cent overall, and ranges from 40 per cent to as high as 99 per cent in the 21 countries with available data. Teachers attending lessons and spending quality time on task is a critical prerequisite to learning. However, in sub-Saharan Africa, teacher absenteeism ranges from 15 to 45 per cent. Teacher absenteeism and reduced time on task wastes valuable financial resources, short-changes students and is one of the most cumbersome obstacles on the path toward the education Sustainable Development Goal and to the related vision of the new UNICEF education strategy: Every Child Learns. Whilst the stark numbers are available to study, and despite teacher absenteeism being a foremost challenge for education systems in Africa, the evidence base on how policies and practices can influence teacher attendance remains scant. Time to Teach (TTT) is a research initiative that looks at primary school teacher attendance in eight countries and territories in the Eastern and Southern Africa (ESA) region: the Comoros; Kenya; Rwanda, Puntland, State of Somalia; South Sudan; the United Republic of Tanzania, mainland; the United Republic of Tanzania, Zanzibar; and Uganda. Its primary objective is to identify factors affecting the various forms of teacher attendance, which include being at school, being punctual, being in the classroom, and teaching when in the classroom, and use this evidence to inform the design and implementation of teacher policies.
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Beyond Masks: A Policy Panel Discussion
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Beyond Masks: A Policy Panel Discussion

UNICEF Innocenti’s new report – Beyond Masks: Societal impacts of COVID-19 and accelerated solutions for children and adolescents – offers a comprehensive picture of the health, economic, and social impacts of the pandemic, and its implications for children and adolescents. The report examines evidence from the current crisis, examines past health crises such as HIV/AIDS, SARS and Ebola to provide insights into the current one, and proposes proven and promising solutions.
Protecting children from harm during COVID-19 needs evidence
Blog Blog

Protecting children from harm during COVID-19 needs evidence

Although much of the world is focused on the “silver lining” that COVID-19 does not appear to severely impact children’s health, UNICEF is raising the alarm about the potential damage of the hidden impacts on children’s health as well as the indirect socio-economic effects of the fallout from the pandemic. In response, UNICEF Innocenti is generating evidence to assist and inform UNICEF’s COVID-19 work. This blog is about a research conducted by UNICEF on the impacts of pandemics and epidemics on child protection, including topics such as violence against children, child labour and child marriage.
COVID-19 & Children
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COVID-19 & Children

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Best of UNICEF Research and Evaluation 2020
Best of UNICEF Research and Evaluation 2020
Published: 2020 Miscellanea

Evidence and objective assessment are needed more than ever to help enhance the rights and well-being of the world’s children. Researching the changing world around us and evaluating progress are two sides of the same coin, both critical to reimagining a better future for children. In recognition of this, UNICEF celebrates and showcases innovative and influential research and evaluations from our offices around the world every year. For 2020, Innocenti and the Evaluation Office joined forces to find the most rigorous UNICEF studies with greatest influence on policies and programmes that benefit children.

I paesi più ricchi del mondo sostengono le famiglie? Politiche dell’OCSE e dell’UE
I paesi più ricchi del mondo sostengono le famiglie? Politiche dell’OCSE e dell’UE
Published: 2019 Innocenti Research Report
I bambini hanno migliori prospettive di vita e i genitori sono in grado di bilanciare meglio il lavoro e gli altri impegni in paesi che hanno delle politiche a sostegno delle famiglie. Queste includono il congedo parentale retribuito, il sostegno per l’allattamento al seno, l’assistenza all’infanzia e l’educazione prescolare a prezzi accessibili e di alta qualità. Il presente rapporto esamina le politiche favorevoli alla famiglia di 41 paesi ad alto e medio reddito attraverso quattro indicatori a livello nazionale: la durata delle ferie retribuite a disposizione delle madri, la durata delle ferie retribuite riservata specificamente ai padri, la quota di bambini sotto i tre anni nei nidi e centri per l’infanzia e la quota di bambini tra i tre anni e l’età dell’obbligo scolastico nei centri e scuole per l’infanzia. Svezia, Norvegia e Islanda sono i tre paesi che più sostengono le famiglie per i quali disponiamo di dati completi. Cipro, Grecia e Svizzera occupano gli ultimi tre posti. Dieci dei 41 paesi non dispongono di dati sufficienti sull’infanzia per essere inseriti nella nostra classifica. Non abbiamo a disposizione abbastanza informazioni aggiornate per mettere a confronto i diversi paesi sulla qualità dei centri per l’infanzia o sulle tariffe e le politiche per l’allattamento al seno. Per i paesi più ricchi esiste un margine per migliorare le loro politiche familiari e per raccogliere dati più accurati.
Are the world’s richest countries family friendly? Policy in the OECD and EU
Are the world’s richest countries family friendly? Policy in the OECD and EU
Published: 2019 Innocenti Research Report
Children get a better start in life and parents are better able to balance work and home commitments in countries that have family-friendly policies. These include paid parental leave, support for breastfeeding and affordable, high-quality childcare and preschool education. This report looks at family-friendly policies in 41 high- and middle-income countries using four country-level indicators: the duration of paid leave available to mothers; the duration of paid leave reserved specifically for fathers; the share of children below the age of three in childcare centres; and the share of children  between the age of three and compulsory school age in childcare or preschool centres. Sweden, Norway and Iceland are the three most family-friendly countries for which we have complete data. Cyprus, Greece and Switzerland occupy the bottom three places. Ten of the 41 countries do not have sufficient data on childcare enrolment to be ranked in our league table. There is not enough up-to-date information available for us to compare across countries the quality of childcare centres or breastfeeding rates and policies. There is scope for the world’s richest countries to improve their family policies and collect better data.
Declaración de Innocenti del 2005 sobre la alimentación de lactantes y niños pequeños
Declaración de Innocenti del 2005 sobre la alimentación de lactantes y niños pequeños
Published: 2007 Innocenti Publications
En los 15 años transcurridos desde la adopción de la versión original de la Declaración de Innocenti, en 1990, se ha logrado un notable progreso en lo que a mejorar las prácticas mundiales de alimentación de lactantes y niños pequeños se refiere. No obstante ello, las prácticas de alimentación inapropiadas, es decir la alimentación subóptima o la ausencia de lactancia materna y la alimentación complementaria inadecuada, continúan representando la principal amenaza para la salud y la supervivencia infantil en todo el mundo. Una mejor práctica de la lactancia materna por si sola ayudaría a salvar las vidas de más de 3.500 niños y niñas por día, más que cualquier otra intervención preventiva. Guiados por principios aceptados de derechos humanos, en especial aquellos plasmados en la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño, nuestra visión es crear un entorno que permita a las madres, sus familias y otras personas a cargo del cuidado de los niños realizar decisiones informadas acerca de una alimentación óptima, definida como la lactancia materna exclusiva durante seis meses con la posterior introducción de la alimentación complementaria apropiada y la lactancia materna continuada hasta los dos años de edad o más.
Declaration Innocenti 2005 sur l’alimentation du nourrisson et du jeune enfant
Declaration Innocenti 2005 sur l’alimentation du nourrisson et du jeune enfant
Published: 2007 Innocenti Publications
Depuis 15 ans qu’a été adoptée la première Déclaration Innocenti, en 1990, l’alimentation des nourrissons et des jeunes enfants a fait des progrès remarquables dans le monde entier. Cependant, des pratiques alimentaires inappropriées - allaitement insuffisant ou inexistant et alimentation complémentaire inadéquate - restent dans le monde ce qui menace le plus la santé et la survie de l’enfant. Une amélioration de la pratique de l’allaitement maternel pourrait à elle seule sauver chaque jour les vies de plus de 3500 enfants, soit plus que toute autre action préventive. Conformément aux principes communément admis des droits de la personne humaine, en particulier ceux énoncés dans la Convention relative aux droits de l’enfant, notre but est de créer un environnement permettant aux mères, aux familles et aux autres personnes qui s’occupent des enfants de choisir en pleine connaissance de cause une alimentation optimale, qui est définie comme un allaitement maternel exclusif jusqu’à l’âge de six mois, suivi par l’introduction d’une alimentation complémentaire appropriée en parallèle avec la continuation de l’allaitement au sein jusqu’à l’âge de deux ans ou audelà.
Dichiarazione degli Innocenti 2005 sull’alimentazione dei neonati e dei bambini
Dichiarazione degli Innocenti 2005 sull’alimentazione dei neonati e dei bambini
Published: 2007 Innocenti Publications
Nel 1990 con la Dichiarazione degli Innocenti sulla Protezione, Promozione e Sostegno all'Allattamento Materno si è stabilita una agenda internazionale con obiettivi ambiziosi da raggiungere. Nel Novembre 2005 Firenze ha nuovamente ospitato un congresso internazionale per la celebrazione del 15mo anniversario della Dichiarazione degli Innocenti. L'anniversario è stato celebrato per: valutare i progressi fatti nella promozione, protezione e sostegno all'allattamento materno a partire dal 1990; richiamare l'attenzione dei governi, della società civile e dei donanti ad aumentare gli sforzi per l'attuazione degli obiettivi della Dichiarazione degli Innocenti e degli obiettivi addizionali stabiliti nel 2002 con la Strategia Globale per l'alimentazione dell'infanzia e del bambino; accrescere la coscienza intorno al diritto di ogni bambino ad una alimentazione adeguata, e agli obblighi per ogni settore della società ad assicurare che questo diritto venga rispettato. La Dichiarazione degli Innocenti sull'alimentazione dell'infanzia e del bambino riprende i rinnovati impegni presi durante questa storica celebrazione e registra i 5 obiettivi addizionali che sono stati identificati come parte della Strategia Globale in corso sull'alimentazione dell'infanzia e del bambino.
Innocenti Declaration 2005 on Infant and Young Child Feeding
Innocenti Declaration 2005 on Infant and Young Child Feeding
Published: 2007 Innocenti Publications
In 1990 the Innocenti Declaration on the Protection, Promotion and Support of Breastfeeding set an international agenda with ambitious targets for action. In November 2005 Florence was again the gathering place to celebrate the 15th Anniversary of the Innocenti Declaration. The Anniversary was observed to: assess progress made in the protection, promotion and support of breastfeeding since 1990; call upon governments, civil society and donors to increase efforts to implement the targets of the Innocenti Declaration and the additional targets established in 2002 within the Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding; raise awareness of every child’s right to adequate nutrition, and the corresponding obligations on all sectors of society to ensure that this right is realized. The Innocenti Declaration on Infant and Young Child Feeding captures the renewed commitments made at this historic anniversary meeting and records the additional five operational targets that were identified as part of the ongoing global strategy on Infant and Young Child feeding. The Declaration was endorsed by the Standing Committee on Nutrition on 17 March, 2006 and the Call for Action made in the declaration was welcomed by the World Health Assembly on 27 May, 2006.
Innocenti Declaration 2005 on Infant and Young Child Feeding (Arabic version)
Innocenti Declaration 2005 on Infant and Young Child Feeding (Arabic version)
Published: 2007 Innocenti Publications
In 1990 the Innocenti Declaration on the Protection, Promotion and Support of Breastfeeding set an international agenda with ambitious targets for action. In November 2005 Florence was again the gathering place to celebrate the 15th Anniversary of the Innocenti Declaration. The Anniversary was observed to: assess progress made in the protection, promotion and support of breastfeeding since 1990; call upon governments, civil society and donors to increase efforts to implement the targets of the Innocenti Declaration and the additional targets established in 2002 within the Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding; raise awareness of every child’s right to adequate nutrition, and the corresponding obligations on all sectors of society to ensure that this right is realized. The Innocenti Declaration on Infant and Young Child Feeding captures the renewed commitments made at this historic anniversary meeting and records the additional five operational targets that were identified as part of the ongoing global strategy on Infant and Young Child feeding. The Declaration was endorsed by the Standing Committee on Nutrition on 17 March, 2006 and the Call for Action made in the declaration was welcomed by the World Health Assembly on 27 May, 2006.
Innocenti Declaration 2005 on Infant and Young Child Feeding (Chinese version)
Innocenti Declaration 2005 on Infant and Young Child Feeding (Chinese version)
Published: 2007 Innocenti Publications
In 1990 the Innocenti Declaration on the Protection, Promotion and Support of Breastfeeding set an international agenda with ambitious targets for action. In November 2005 Florence was again the gathering place to celebrate the 15th Anniversary of the Innocenti Declaration. The Anniversary was observed to: assess progress made in the protection, promotion and support of breastfeeding since 1990; call upon governments, civil society and donors to increase efforts to implement the targets of the Innocenti Declaration and the additional targets established in 2002 within the Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding; raise awareness of every child’s right to adequate nutrition, and the corresponding obligations on all sectors of society to ensure that this right is realized. The Innocenti Declaration on Infant and Young Child Feeding captures the renewed commitments made at this historic anniversary meeting and records the additional five operational targets that were identified as part of the ongoing global strategy on Infant and Young Child feeding. The Declaration was endorsed by the Standing Committee on Nutrition on 17 March, 2006 and the Call for Action made in the declaration was welcomed by the World Health Assembly on 27 May, 2006.
Innocenti Declaration 2005 on Infant and Young Child Feeding (Russian version)
Innocenti Declaration 2005 on Infant and Young Child Feeding (Russian version)
Published: 2007 Innocenti Publications
За 15 лет, прошедших с момента принятия в 1990 г. Первоначальной Инночентийской декларации, в улучшении питания детей грудного и раннего возраста во всем мире были достигнуты ощутимые успехи. Вместе с тем, неправильная практика вскармливания, не соответствующая оптимальной, или отсутствие грудного вскармливания и неадекватное дополнительное питание остаются самыми значительными угрозами здоровью и выживанию детей во всем мире. Одно лишь улучшение грудного вскармливания может спасти жизни более чем 3500 детей ежедневно, что превышает показатели любых других профилактических мер.
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Time to Teach: Combating Teacher Absenteeism in Rwanda
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Time to Teach: Combating Teacher Absenteeism in Rwanda

The evolving picture of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 in children: critical knowledge gaps
Journal Article Journal Article

The evolving picture of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 in children: critical knowledge gaps

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