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UNICEF Innocenti's complete catalogue of research and reports
Increasing Women’s Representation in School Leadership: A promising path towards improving learning
SPOTLIGHT

Increasing Women’s Representation in School Leadership: A promising path towards improving learning

Emerging evidence shows a positive association between women school leaders and student performance. Some studies suggest women school leaders are more likely than their male counterparts to adopt effective management practices that may contribute to improved outcomes. However, women remain largely underrepresented in school leadership positions, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. This brief presents emerging insights on the association between women school leaders and education outcomes and draws attention to women’s underrepresentation in school leadership roles. It highlights the need for further research on gender and school leadership to identify policies and practices that can be implemented to increase women’s representation and scale high-quality management practices adopted by women leaders to more schools to improve education outcomes for all children.
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Annual Report 2021
Publication

Annual Report 2021

The UNICEF Innocenti Annual Report 2021 highlights the key results achieved in research and evidence to inform policymaking and programming.
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Do constraints on women worsen child deprivations? Framework, measurement, and evidence from India
Do constraints on women worsen child deprivations? Framework, measurement, and evidence from India

AUTHOR(S)
Alberto Posso; Stephen C. Smith; Lucia Ferrone

Published: 2019 Innocenti Working Papers
This paper provides a framework for analyzing constraints that apply specifically to women, which theory suggests may have negative impacts on child outcomes (as well as on women). We classify women’s constraints into four dimensions: (i) low influence on household decisions, (ii) restrictions on mobility, (iii) domestic physical and psychological abuse, and (iv) limited information access. Each of these constraints are in principle determined within households. We test the impact of women’s constraints on child outcomes using nationally representative household Demographic and Health Survey data from India, including 53,030 mothers and 113,708 children, collected in 2015-16. We examine outcomes including nutrition, health, education, water quality, and sanitation. In our primary specification, outcomes are measured as multidimensional deprivations incorporating indicators for each of these deficiencies, utilizing a version of UNICEF’s Multidimensional Overlapping Deprivation Analysis index. We identify causal impacts using a Lewbel specification and present an array of additional econometric strategies and robustness checks. We find that children of women who are subjected to domestic abuse, have low influence in decision making, and limited freedom of mobility are consistently more likely to be deprived, measured both multidimensionally and with separate indicators.
Understanding Children’s Experiences of Violence in Viet Nam: Evidence from Young Lives
Understanding Children’s Experiences of Violence in Viet Nam: Evidence from Young Lives

AUTHOR(S)
Thi Thanh Huong Vu

Published: 2016 Innocenti Working Papers

This paper explores children’s accounts of violence at home in Viet Nam, and the ways in which factors at the individual, family, community and society levels affect their experiences of violence. The paper analyses cross-sectional survey data and qualitative data gathered from Young Lives; it explores what children know about violence, how they experience it, what they think drives violence at home, what they perceive the consequences to be, and finally, the support they find effective in addressing violence. High proportions of children experience violence (mostly physical punishment and emotional abuse). The paper contributes to knowledge about the nature and experience of violence affecting children in resource-poor settings, and concludes with some suggestions for policy, programming and practice.

A Study on Violence against Girls: Report on the International Girl Child Conference March 9-10, The Hague
A Study on Violence against Girls: Report on the International Girl Child Conference March 9-10, The Hague
Published: 2009 Innocenti Publications
This publication was jointly developed by the UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre (IRC) and the Government of the Netherlands. It includes a background document prepared by IRC and summarizes the discussions and outcomes of the International Conference on Violence against the Girl Child held in The Hague from 9-10 March 2009. The conference addressed gaps in knowledge, research and responses to violence against girls in the home and family, and was a follow-up to the United Nations Secretary-General’s Study on Violence against Children.
Domestic Violence against Women and Girls
Domestic Violence against Women and Girls

AUTHOR(S)
Sushma Kapoor

Published: 2000 Innocenti Digest
This Digest focuses on domestic violence as one of the most prevalent yet relatively hidden and ignored forms of violence against women and girls globally. Domestic violence is a health, legal, economic, educational, developmental and, above all, a human rights issue. The Digest looks at the magnitude and universality of domestic violence, and its impact on the rights of women and children. It emphasizes the need for coordinated and integrated policy responses; implementing existing leglisation; and ensuring greater accountability from governments in order to eliminate this violence. Information on regional and international NGOs working in this area, and suggestions for further reading are also provided.
La violencia doméstica contra mujeres y niñas
La violencia doméstica contra mujeres y niñas
Published: 2000 Innocenti Digest
Este número del Innocenti Digest afronta el tema de la violencia doméstica, una de las formas de violencia contra mujeres y niñas más difundidas a nivel mundial, aunque suele permanecer relativamente oculta e ignorada. La violencia doméstica es un problema que afecta numerosos campos: la sanidad, la justicia, la economia, la educación, el desarollo y, sobre todo, los derechos humanos. El Digest examina las dimensiones y el carácter universal de la violencia doméstica, como asimismo la repercusión que tiene en los derechos de mujeres y niños.
Violence domestique a l'égard des femmes et des filles
Violence domestique a l'égard des femmes et des filles
Published: 2000 Innocenti Digest
Ce digest souligne la violence domestique comme une des formes les plus répandues, même si elle est relativement occultée et méconnue, de la violence à l'égard des femmes et des filles au niveau mondial. La violence domestique est un problème qui concerne la santé, le droit, l'économie, l'éducation, le développement et, avant tout, les droits humains. Le digest examine l'ampleur et l'universalité du problème de la violence domestique, et son impact sur les droits des femmes et des enfants. Il met l'accent sur la nécessité de réponses politiques coordonnées et intégrées, par une majeure collaboration entre les parties intéressées, par l'établissement de mécanismes de surveillance et d'évaluation des programmes et des politiques, par l'application de la législation en vigueur, et par l'obligation pour les gouvernements d'assumer davantage leurs responsabilités, afin d'éliminer cette violence. Le digest fournit également des informations sur les ONG régionales et internationales oeuvrant dans ce domaine, ainsi que des suggestions de lecture.
Violenza domestica contro le donne e le bambine
Violenza domestica contro le donne e le bambine
Published: 2000 Innocenti Digest
Questo numero di Innocenti Digest affronta il tema della violenza domestica, una delle forme globalmente più diffuse di violenza contro le donne e le ragazze, che però rimane relativamente nascosta e ignorata. Il problema della violenza domestica chiama in causa una varietà di ambiti: la sanità, la giustizia, l'economia, l'istruzione, lo sviluppo e, soprattutto, i diritti dell'uomo. Il Digest esamina le dimensioni e la diffusione del problema, e le ripercussioni che esso ha sui diritti delle donne e dei minori. Sottolinea l'esigenza di fornire risposte politiche coordinate e integrate: con una più efficace applicazione della legislazione esistente e con un impegno più diretto e visibile nella lotta contro questa violenza da parte dei governi. Lo studio contiene inoltre informazioni sulle ONG regionali e internazionali attive su questo tema, oltre che indicazioni bibliografiche utili per approfondire l'argomento.
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Responsible Innovation in Technology for Children: Digital technology, play and child well-being
Publication

Responsible Innovation in Technology for Children: Digital technology, play and child well-being

Digital experiences can have significant negative impact on children, exposing them to risks or failing to nurture them adequately. Nevertheless, digital experiences also potentially yield enormous benefits for children, enabling them to learn, to create, to develop friendships, and to build worlds. While global efforts to deepen our understanding of the prevalence and impact of digital risks of harm are burgeoning – a development that is both welcome and necessary – less attention has been paid to understanding and optimizing the benefits that digital technology can provide in supporting children’s rights and their well-being. Benefits here refer not only to the absence of harm, but also to creating additional positive value. How should we recognize the opportunities and benefits of digital technology for children’s well-being? What is the relationship between the design of digital experiences – in particular, play-centred design – and the well-being of children? What guidance and measures can we use to strengthen the design of digital environments to promote positive outcomes for children? And how can we make sure that children’s insights and needs form the foundation of our work in this space? These questions matter for all those who design and promote digital experiences, to keep children safe and happy, and enable positive development and learning. These questions are particularly relevant as the world shifts its attention to emerging digital technologies and experiences, from artificial intelligence (AI) to the metaverse, and seeks to understand their impact on people and society. To begin to tackle these questions, UNICEF and the LEGO Group initiated the Responsible Innovation in Technology for Children (RITEC) project in partnership with the Young and Resilient Research Centre at Western Sydney University; the CREATE Lab at New York University; the Graduate Center, City University of New York; the University of Sheffield; the Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for the Digital Child; and the Joan Ganz Cooney Center. The research is funded by the LEGO Foundation. The partnership is an international, multi-stakeholder and cross-sectoral collaboration between organizations that believe the design and development of digital technology should support the rights and well-being of children as a primary objective – and that children should have a prominent voice in making this a reality. This project’s primary objective is to develop, with children from around the world, a framework that maps how the design of children’s digital experiences affects their well-being, and to provide guidance as to how informed design choices can promote positive well-being outcomes.
Resources to Support Marginalized Caregivers of Children with Disabilities: Guidelines for Implementation
Publication

Resources to Support Marginalized Caregivers of Children with Disabilities: Guidelines for Implementation

Support from caregivers is critical for children’s learning both at home and at school. However, the COVID-19 pandemic and disruption of education systems globally created additional expectations for parents to support their children’s learning at home. This particularly affected the most marginalized children as the crises exacerbated already existing inequalities in education. This document introduces the approach and purpose of a set of resources to support the marginalized caregivers of children with disabilities with inclusive education. It presents lessons learned from proof-of-concept pilots in Armenia and Uzbekistan, followed by step-by-step guidelines on how to adopt and adapt the resources for education ministries and others who want to implement them in their education system.
Reopening with Resilience: Lessons from Remote Learning during COVID-19: Europe and Central Asia
Publication

Reopening with Resilience: Lessons from Remote Learning during COVID-19: Europe and Central Asia

When schools started closing their doors due to COVID-19, countries in Europe and Central Asia quickly provided alternative learning solutions for children to continue learning. More than 90 per cent of countries offered digital solutions to ensure that education activities could continue. However, lack of access to digital devices and a reliable internet connection excluded a significant amount of already marginalized children and threatened to widen the existing learning disparities. This report builds on existing evidence highlighting key lessons learned during the pandemic to promote learning for all during school closure and provides actionable policy recommendations on how to bridge the digital divide and build resilient education systems in Europe and Central Asia.

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