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UNICEF Innocenti's complete catalogue of research and reports
Increasing Women’s Representation in School Leadership: A promising path towards improving learning
SPOTLIGHT

Increasing Women’s Representation in School Leadership: A promising path towards improving learning

Emerging evidence shows a positive association between women school leaders and student performance. Some studies suggest women school leaders are more likely than their male counterparts to adopt effective management practices that may contribute to improved outcomes. However, women remain largely underrepresented in school leadership positions, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. This brief presents emerging insights on the association between women school leaders and education outcomes and draws attention to women’s underrepresentation in school leadership roles. It highlights the need for further research on gender and school leadership to identify policies and practices that can be implemented to increase women’s representation and scale high-quality management practices adopted by women leaders to more schools to improve education outcomes for all children.
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Annual Report 2021
Publication

Annual Report 2021

The UNICEF Innocenti Annual Report 2021 highlights the key results achieved in research and evidence to inform policymaking and programming.
1 - 12 of 18
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The Subterranean Child Labour Force: Subcontracted home-based manufacturing in Asia
The Subterranean Child Labour Force: Subcontracted home-based manufacturing in Asia

AUTHOR(S)
Santosh Mehrotra; Mario Biggeri

Published: 2002 Innocenti Working Papers
Child labour is widespread in home based manufacturing activities in the informal sector in most developing countries. This form of child labour will not attract the penal provisions of a country’s laws banning child labour. This paper draws on surveys carried out in five Asian countries – two low-income (India, Pakistan) and three middle-income countries (Indonesia, Philippines, Thailand) – where production of manufactured goods is subcontracted to home based workers widely. It examines the incidence of child work in such households, the child’s schooling, reasons why children are working, their work conditions, their health, and gender issues.
Attitudes to Inequality after Ten Years of Transition
Attitudes to Inequality after Ten Years of Transition

AUTHOR(S)
Gerry Redmond; Sylke Schnepf; Marc Suhrcke

Published: 2002 Innocenti Working Papers
This paper compares people’s attitudes to inequality at the end of the 1990s the qualities they perceive are needed to get ahead, the role of government and rewards for employment in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and Western countries. Data (from the 1999 International Social Survey Programme) suggest that overall, people in CEE express substantially more ‘egalitarian’ attitudes than those in the West, even after 10 years of economic adjustment to the market economy. The research produces important messages for policymakers, underlining the degree of support for public action concerning redistribution and warning them of the extent to which inequalities are felt in society, especially those that are perceived to be generated by ‘unfair’ means.
The Impact of the Indonesian Financial Crisis on Children: An analysis using the 100 villages data
The Impact of the Indonesian Financial Crisis on Children: An analysis using the 100 villages data

AUTHOR(S)
Lisa A. Cameron

Published: 2001 Innocenti Working Papers
This paper examines the impact of the Asian crisis on children in Indonesia. School attendance dropped slightly after the onset of the crisis but has since rebounded to higher than pre-crisis levels. Fewer children are now working, although the older children who are working and are not attending school seem to be working longer hours. Several studies have examined the social impacts of the crisis. The findings can largely be summarized as showing that rather than being uniformly negative and severe, the crisis impact has been quite heterogeneous, depending on geographic location and household socio-economic status. Overwhelmingly, households have been shown to be very resilient in the face of hardship.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 32 | Thematic area: Economic Development | Tags: child workers, economic development, economic monitoring, education, health | Publisher: IRC
The Rhetoric of International Development Targets and the Reality of Official Development Assistance
The Rhetoric of International Development Targets and the Reality of Official Development Assistance

AUTHOR(S)
Santosh Mehrotra

Published: 2001 Innocenti Working Papers
Within the last decade governments of donors and developing countries have committed themselves to achieving a number of International Development Targets (IDTs) to be reached by 2015. These include halving the proportion of people living in extreme poverty and ensuring universal primary education. While the bulk of the resources for this task will come from the national budgets of developing countries, without additional official development assistance (ODA) the task is daunting for most of the low-income countries. This paper examines the extent to which poverty alleviation through support for basic social services has become part of the official development assistance strategy of donors. It finds an alarming gap between the rethoric of poverty reduction on the one hand, and the feature of ODA, especially to basic services, on the other.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 62 | Thematic area: Economic Development | Tags: basic services, development aid, economic development, poverty alleviation, poverty reduction | Publisher: Innocenti Research Centre
From Security to Uncertainty: The impact of economic change on child welfare in central Asia
From Security to Uncertainty: The impact of economic change on child welfare in central Asia

AUTHOR(S)
Jane Falkingham

Published: 2000 Innocenti Working Papers
This paper discusses the possible pathways between macroeconomic change and child welfare and develops a typology of the risks that children may face at different stages of the lifecycle. Adopting a multi-dimensional view of child well-being, trends in both economic measures of poverty, based on incomes and expenditures, and in selected capability-based indicators are then examined. The indicators selected reflect the health and survival, education and personal development of children and their social inclusion/exclusion. Not all the news is bad but the data show that the human cost of economic transition has been high and children, far from being protected from its impact, have been amongst those who have suffered the most.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 42 | Thematic area: Countries in Transition | Tags: child education, child survival and development, child welfare, economic development, poverty reduction | Publisher: Innocenti Research Centre
Integrating Economic and Social Policy: Good practices from high achieving countries
Integrating Economic and Social Policy: Good practices from high achieving countries

AUTHOR(S)
Santosh Mehrotra

Published: 2000 Innocenti Working Papers
This paper examines the successes of ten 'high-achievers' - countries with social indicators far higher than might be expected given their national wealth. Their progress in such fields as education and health offers lessons for social policy elsewhere in the developing world. Based on UNICEF-supported studies in each country, the paper shows how, in the space of fifty years, these high-achievers have made advances in health and education that took nearly 200 years in the industrialized world. It pinpoints the policies that have contributed to this success - policies that could be replicated elsewhere.
After the Fall: The human impact of ten years of transition
After the Fall: The human impact of ten years of transition
Published: 1999 Innocenti Publications
Following the fall of the Berlin wall, every former Soviet country experienced an economic crisis of some dimension. In many countries, the end of communism also blew the lid off tensions that had been simmering for decades, if not centuries. Since the late 1980s, armed conflict has broken out in around one third of the countries in the region. The human impact of such changes has been immense. Those born into authoritarian regimes now have the freedom to elect their representatives, to voice their opinions, to chart the course for their own lives. But they find that they must compete for their slice of the pie in the new economic climate. Others have lost their homes, schools, communities and countries as a result of armed conflict. This publication, created to mark the tenth anniversary of the fall of the Berlin wall, looks back at the impact of ten years of transition. It argues for a new focus on the human aspect of transition, and a rededication to its original goals - a better quality of life for every citizen in a humane and democratic society.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 34 | Tags: economic development, economic transition, social development | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
EMU, Macroeconomics and Children
EMU, Macroeconomics and Children

AUTHOR(S)
Anthony B. Atkinson

How can EMU be expected to affect the children of Europe? Macroeconomics in OECD countries has tended to become a remote and abstract subject, discussed in aggregate terms which seem far removed from the everyday experience of families. Much of this paper is concerned with making the link between macroeconomic analysis and family welfare, a link which is important for all age groups, but particularly so for children. Childhood is a vulnerable stage of the life-cycle, and children may be especially sensitive to macroeconomic shocks yet the public debate about EMU has been largely divorced from the concerns of families and children. Several proposals emerge from the analysis for improvements in our monitoring of economic performance to make them more family orientated.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 24 | Thematic area: Economic Development | Tags: child welfare, economic development, european communities, family income, family welfare | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
Poverty, Children and Policy: Responses for a brighter future
Poverty, Children and Policy: Responses for a brighter future
Published: 1995 Regional Monitoring Report
Despite improved economic performance in Central and Eastern Europe in 1994 and 1995, there was still no clear and comprehensive evidence that the welfare crisis was ending. This third Regional Monitoring Report confirms the social trends observed since 1989, showing in particular that children have suffered disproportionately in the fields of child care, education, adolescent protection and poverty. The Report maintains that untimely, partial, or clearly erroneous policies have contributed to this deterioration in child welfare and proposes a series of policy guidelines for a "transition with a human face". These include the promotion of an employment and self-employment based anti-poverty strategy and some important measures in the fields of health, education and child care.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 156 | Thematic area: Countries in Transition | Tags: economic development, economic transition, poverty | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
Mortality as an Indicator of Economic Success and Failure
Mortality as an Indicator of Economic Success and Failure

AUTHOR(S)
Amartya Sen

Published: 1995 Innocenti Lectures
Amartya Sen, the Nobel economist, explains why mortality should, or could, be an indicator of economic success. While mortality is not in itself an economic phenomenon, the influences that increase or reduce mortality often have distinctly economic causes. Consequently there is a prima facie reason for not dismissing mortality as a test of economic performance. He argues that mortality information can throw light on the nature of social inequalities, including gender bias and racial disparities; biases in economic arrangements are often most clearly seen through differential mortality information. He advises that we look beyond the standard statistics of incomes and earnings into the real information on deprivation and hardship.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 32 | Thematic area: Economic Development | Tags: developing countries, economic development, economic indicators, mortality rate, social inequality | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
Poverty, Children and Policy: Responses for a brighter future (Russian version)
Poverty, Children and Policy: Responses for a brighter future (Russian version)
Published: 1995 Regional Monitoring Report
Despite improved economic performance in Central and Eastern Europe in 1994 and 1995, there was still no clear and comprehensive evidence that the welfare crisis was ending. This third Regional Monitoring Report confirms the social trends observed since 1989, showing in particular that children have suffered disproportionately in the fields of child care, education, adolescent protection and poverty. The Report maintains that untimely, partial, or clearly erroneous policies have contributed to this deterioration in child welfare and proposes a series of policy guidelines for a "transition with a human face". These include the promotion of an employment and self-employment based anti-poverty strategy and some important measures in the fields of health, education and child care.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 164 | Thematic area: Countries in Transition | Tags: economic development, economic transition, poverty | Publisher: ICDC
From Adjustment to Development in Africa: Conflict, controversy, convergence, consensus?

AUTHOR(S)
Giovanni Andrea Cornia; Gerald K. Helleiner

Published: 1994 Innocenti Publications
The economic crisis in sub-Saharan Africa in the 1980s and 1990s generated fierce debate among analysts and policy-makers concerning its causes and appropriate ways out of it. This volume addresses the key policy issues in structural adjustment in Africa. Among the policies addressed are those in the spheres of agriculture, trade, exchange rates, privatization, investment, social sectors, external relations and democratization.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 420 | Thematic area: Economic Development | Tags: adjustment policies, agricultural development, democratization, economic development, exchange rate, privatization, trade | Publisher: Publisher MacMillan UK ; UNICEF ICDC, Florence
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Responsible Innovation in Technology for Children: Digital technology, play and child well-being
Publication

Responsible Innovation in Technology for Children: Digital technology, play and child well-being

Digital experiences can have significant negative impact on children, exposing them to risks or failing to nurture them adequately. Nevertheless, digital experiences also potentially yield enormous benefits for children, enabling them to learn, to create, to develop friendships, and to build worlds. While global efforts to deepen our understanding of the prevalence and impact of digital risks of harm are burgeoning – a development that is both welcome and necessary – less attention has been paid to understanding and optimizing the benefits that digital technology can provide in supporting children’s rights and their well-being. Benefits here refer not only to the absence of harm, but also to creating additional positive value. How should we recognize the opportunities and benefits of digital technology for children’s well-being? What is the relationship between the design of digital experiences – in particular, play-centred design – and the well-being of children? What guidance and measures can we use to strengthen the design of digital environments to promote positive outcomes for children? And how can we make sure that children’s insights and needs form the foundation of our work in this space? These questions matter for all those who design and promote digital experiences, to keep children safe and happy, and enable positive development and learning. These questions are particularly relevant as the world shifts its attention to emerging digital technologies and experiences, from artificial intelligence (AI) to the metaverse, and seeks to understand their impact on people and society. To begin to tackle these questions, UNICEF and the LEGO Group initiated the Responsible Innovation in Technology for Children (RITEC) project in partnership with the Young and Resilient Research Centre at Western Sydney University; the CREATE Lab at New York University; the Graduate Center, City University of New York; the University of Sheffield; the Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for the Digital Child; and the Joan Ganz Cooney Center. The research is funded by the LEGO Foundation. The partnership is an international, multi-stakeholder and cross-sectoral collaboration between organizations that believe the design and development of digital technology should support the rights and well-being of children as a primary objective – and that children should have a prominent voice in making this a reality. This project’s primary objective is to develop, with children from around the world, a framework that maps how the design of children’s digital experiences affects their well-being, and to provide guidance as to how informed design choices can promote positive well-being outcomes.
Resources to Support Marginalized Caregivers of Children with Disabilities: Guidelines for Implementation
Publication

Resources to Support Marginalized Caregivers of Children with Disabilities: Guidelines for Implementation

Support from caregivers is critical for children’s learning both at home and at school. However, the COVID-19 pandemic and disruption of education systems globally created additional expectations for parents to support their children’s learning at home. This particularly affected the most marginalized children as the crises exacerbated already existing inequalities in education. This document introduces the approach and purpose of a set of resources to support the marginalized caregivers of children with disabilities with inclusive education. It presents lessons learned from proof-of-concept pilots in Armenia and Uzbekistan, followed by step-by-step guidelines on how to adopt and adapt the resources for education ministries and others who want to implement them in their education system.
Reopening with Resilience: Lessons from Remote Learning during COVID-19: Europe and Central Asia
Publication

Reopening with Resilience: Lessons from Remote Learning during COVID-19: Europe and Central Asia

When schools started closing their doors due to COVID-19, countries in Europe and Central Asia quickly provided alternative learning solutions for children to continue learning. More than 90 per cent of countries offered digital solutions to ensure that education activities could continue. However, lack of access to digital devices and a reliable internet connection excluded a significant amount of already marginalized children and threatened to widen the existing learning disparities. This report builds on existing evidence highlighting key lessons learned during the pandemic to promote learning for all during school closure and provides actionable policy recommendations on how to bridge the digital divide and build resilient education systems in Europe and Central Asia.

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