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UNICEF Innocenti's complete catalogue of research and reports
Best of UNICEF Research 2021
SPOTLIGHT

Best of UNICEF Research 2021

Best of UNICEF Research showcases the most rigorous, innovative and impactful research produced by UNICEF offices worldwide. While evidence highlights emerging issues, it also informs decisions and provides policy and programme recommendations for governments and partners to improve children’s lives. This ninth edition brings together 11 powerful studies from around the world and across the five Strategic Goal Areas. How do South Asian youth feel about entering the world of work? What is the effect of climate-related hazards on access to healthcare? How has COVID-19 affected children and their families in the Republic of Moldova? With social and economic inequalities increasing and progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals lagging, rigorous research – answers to these questions – has never mattered more.
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COVID-19: Missing More Than a Classroom. The impact of school closures on children’s nutrition
Blog Blog

COVID-19: Missing More Than a Classroom. The impact of school closures on children’s nutrition

In 2019, 135 million people in 55 countries were in food crises or worse, and 2 billion people did not have regular access to safe, nutritious and sufficient food. COVID-19 has exacerbated these hardships and may result in an additional 121 million people facing acute food insecurity by the end of 2020. Further, since the beginning of the pandemic, an estimated 1.6 billion learners in 199 countries worldwide were affected by school closures, with nearly 370 million children not receiving a school meal in 150 countries. The paper presents the evidence on the potential negative short-term and long-term effects of school meal scheme disruption during Covid-19 globally. It shows how vulnerable the children participating in these schemes are, how coping and mitigation measures are often only short-term solutions, and how prioritizing school re-opening is critical. For instance, it highlights how girls are at greater risk of not being in school or of being taken out of school early, which may lead to poor nutrition and health for themselves and their children. However, well-designed school feeding programmes have been shown to enable catch-up from early growth failure and other negative shocks. As such, once schools re-open, school meal schemes can help address the deprivation that children have experienced during the closures and provide an incentive for parents to send and keep their children, especially girls, in school.
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A Decade of Transition (Russian)
A Decade of Transition (Russian)
Published: 2001 Regional Monitoring Report
The fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 paved the way for changes in every aspect of life in this region. New opportunities and new risks emerged for all members of society. The main drive for change has been bold economic and political reform - the transition from planned systems to market economies and from authoritarian regimes to more participatory societies. But the 1990s also saw a broader, worldwide transition: a change in thinking about what constitutes social progress. The 1990s represent only the first period in a continuing process of economic and social change. Nevertheless, a decade is sufficient time to see the main trends clearly and to identify both the advances and the setbacks that the transition has entailed for different aspects of human welfare, together with the possibilities for progress in the future.
Regional Monitoring of Child and Family Well-Being: UNICEF's MONEE Project
Regional Monitoring of Child and Family Well-Being: UNICEF's MONEE Project

AUTHOR(S)
Gaspar Fajth

Published: 2000 Innocenti Working Papers
The project, through a series of reports on child and family well-being, has had a remarkable impact on policy makers, academics, politicians and members of the public. One of the keys to its success has been the comprehensive set of demographic and social indicators and related policy and institutional information collected via a wide network of experts. By drawing a comparison with similar analytical efforts, this paper highlights the distinctive features of the project, including a holistic and regional perspective based on a systematic mix of statistical and analytical investigations. This approach offers some comparative advantages relative to UNICEF's global surveys and national situation analyses in terms of its capacity to grasp key patterns of change and the role of institutional factors.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 42 | Thematic area: Countries in Transition | Tags: child welfare, demographic indicators, economic transition, family policy, family welfare, social indicators | Publisher: Innocenti Research Centre
Education, Inequality and Transition
Education, Inequality and Transition

AUTHOR(S)
John Micklewright

Published: 2000 Innocenti Working Papers
Evidence is considered on differences in access to education and in learning achievement within the countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. The situation inherited from the communist period is first summarized: there were some significant disparities with, for example, family background having a strong association with tertiary enrolments, as in Western countries. Analysis of the transition period focuses on the differences in access and achievement associated with household income and geographic location. Disparities are not the same across the region; in some countries, such as Russia, there are clear grounds for serious concern, but it is unlikely that any country has cause for complacency.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 44 | Thematic area: Countries in Transition | Tags: access to education, economic transition, education, equal opportunities, family income | Publisher: Innocenti Research Centre
I giovani nelle società in trasformazione - Sintesi
I giovani nelle società in trasformazione - Sintesi
Published: 2000 Regional Monitoring Report
'I giovani nelle società in trasformazione' analizza le esperienze della 'generazione della transizione', i 68 milioni di giovani tra i 15 e i 24 anni di età dell'Europa centrale e orientale e della CSI. Essendo la prima generazione a terminare gli studi, cercare lavoro e fondare una famiglia in un clima sociale ed economico nuovo, essi mettono alla prova le riforme dello scorso decennio. Di questa generazione il Rapporto esamina le condizioni di salute, l'ingresso nel mercato del lavoro, i possibili conflitti con la legge ed il ruolo di giovani cittadini, e mostra come il progresso della condizione dei giovani e l'avanzamento della transizione siano processi che si rafforzano a vicenda. I giovani colgono le nuove opportunità con iniziativa, creativa e flessibilità. Ma le nuove libertà portano anche nuovi rischi, inclusi problemi sconosciuti alle generazioni precedenti: disoccupazione, droga, aumento delle disparità e dell'esclusione.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 28 | Thematic area: Countries in Transition | Tags: adolescents, children's participation, economic transition, education, health, juvenile justice | Publisher: Innocenti Research Centre
Young People in Changing Societies
Young People in Changing Societies
Published: 2000 Regional Monitoring Report
This seventh Regional Monitoring Report focuses on the experiences of young people during the transition. It examines the advantages and the obstacles youth encounter as they grow up in rapidly transforming societies. The Report covers a broad range of issues, including the participation of adolescents in education and of young men and women in the political lives of their nations. It examines the special problems of young people in the area of health and in the labour market. It notes trends among youth in conflict with the law. The Report calls for the full implementation of existing human rights agreements. It emphasizes the importance and the benefits of listening to youth and seeking their help in the search for solutions to the problems of young people. This is highlighted by “Voices of Youth”, quotations from young people in the transition region as they speak about their difficulties and their dreams.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 190 | Thematic area: Countries in Transition | Tags: adolescents, economic transition, education, health, juvenile justice | Publisher: Innocenti Research Centre
Young People in Changing Societies - Summary
Young People in Changing Societies - Summary
Published: 2000 Regional Monitoring Report
Young People in Changing Societies focuses on the experiences of the ‘transition generation’ - the 65 million young people aged 15-24 in Central and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States. They are putting the reforms of the last decade to the test as the first generation to complete their education, look for jobs and make decisions about raising families in a new socio-economic climate. The Report looks at their health, their education, their entry into the labour market, their possible conflicts with the law and their role as young citizens, finding that progress for young people and progress in the transition are mutually supportive. Young people are grasping their new opportunities with initiative, creativity and flexibility. But new freedoms also mean new risks, including challenges almost unknown to earlier generations: unemployment, drugs, greater inequality and exclusion.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 20 | Thematic area: Rights of the Child | Tags: adolescents, economic transition, education, health, juvenile justice | Publisher: Innocenti Research Centre
Young People in Changing Societies (Russian Version)
Young People in Changing Societies (Russian Version)
Published: 2000 Regional Monitoring Report
The Report focuses on the experiences of young people during the transition. It examines the advantages and the obstacles youth encounter as they grow up in rapidly transforming societies. The Report covers a broad range of issues, including the participation of adolescents in education and of young men and women in the political lives of their nations. It examines the special problems of young people in the areas of health and in the labour market. The Report calls for the full implementation of existing human rights ageements. It emphasizes the importance and the benefits of listening to youth and seeking their help in the search for solutions to the problems of young people.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 180 | Thematic area: Countries in Transition | Tags: adolescents, economic transition, education, health, juvenile justice | Publisher: IRC
After the Fall: The human impact of ten years of transition
After the Fall: The human impact of ten years of transition
Published: 1999 Innocenti Publications
Following the fall of the Berlin wall, every former Soviet country experienced an economic crisis of some dimension. In many countries, the end of communism also blew the lid off tensions that had been simmering for decades, if not centuries. Since the late 1980s, armed conflict has broken out in around one third of the countries in the region. The human impact of such changes has been immense. Those born into authoritarian regimes now have the freedom to elect their representatives, to voice their opinions, to chart the course for their own lives. But they find that they must compete for their slice of the pie in the new economic climate. Others have lost their homes, schools, communities and countries as a result of armed conflict. This publication, created to mark the tenth anniversary of the fall of the Berlin wall, looks back at the impact of ten years of transition. It argues for a new focus on the human aspect of transition, and a rededication to its original goals - a better quality of life for every citizen in a humane and democratic society.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 34 | Tags: economic development, economic transition, social development | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
Après la chute
Après la chute
Published: 1999 Innocenti Publications
Le Centre de recherche Innocenti de l'UNICEF a dressé un tableau de la situation des femmes et des enfants dans la région depuis la chute du communisme. Le projet MONEE du centre, lancé en 1992, analyse les conditions sociales et les politiques publiques concernant les enfants et leurs familles à travers cette région très variée. Son rapport annuel de surveillance régionale, consacré à l'étude de questions-clés comme la pauvreté, la santé, l'éducation, les enfants à risque et la progression des femmes, est considéré comme la source la plus autorisée en ce qui concerne le côté humain de la transition.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 36 | Thematic area: Countries in Transition | Tags: economic and social development, economic transition | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
Women in Transition
Women in Transition
Published: 1999 Regional Monitoring Report
The 1999 Central and Eastern Europe and Commonwealth of Independent States Regional Monitoring Report focuses on the experiences of girls and women during the transition, highlighting their role in regional progress and the obstacles they face. The Report covers a broad range of issues, including women’s participation in the emerging market economy and democratic governments, female access to health and education, trends in family formation and violence against women and girls. The Report calls for the full implementation of existing human rights agreements and emphasizes the importance and benefits of integrating gender equality into the foundations of these new societies. The MONEE project is a unique source of information on the social side of the transition taking place in the CEE CIS Region. Each year's Report contains an update on the social and economic trends affecting children and families in the region, in-depth analysis of a particular theme and a detailed Statistical Annex.
Women in Transition: A summary
Women in Transition: A summary
Published: 1999 Regional Monitoring Report
The 1999 Central and Eastern Europe and Commonwealth of Independent States Regional Monitoring Report focuses on the experiences of girls and women during the transition, highlighting their role in regional progress and the obstacles they face. The Report covers a broad range of issues, including women’s participation in the emerging market economy and democratic governments, female access to health and education, trends in family formation and violence against women and girls. The Report calls for the full implementation of existing human rights agreements and emphasizes the importance and benefits of integrating gender equality into the foundations of these new societies. The MONEE project is a unique source of information on the social side of the transition taking place in the CEE CIS Region. Each year's Report contains an update on the social and economic trends affecting children and families in the region, in-depth analysis of a particular theme and a detailed Statistical Annex.
Le donne e la transizione: una sintesi
Published: 1999 Regional Monitoring Report
Il Rapporto evidenzia il fallimento del comunismo nella promozione di una reale cultura dell’uguaglianza, risulta anche evidente che il sistema ha prodotto alcune positive eredità per le donne. Un forte investimento nei servizi sociali di base ha significato un alto grado di istruzione tra le donne e buoni livelli di assistenza sanitaria; le donne avevano ottime prospettive di lavoro, un livello alto di assistenza all’infanzia, possibilità di guadagnare e di curare i familiari. Anche dieci anni dopo l’inizio del processo di transizione, in termini di sviluppo umano, la differenza tra uomini e donne è minore rispetto a molti altri paesi con livelli simili di reddito.
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JOURNAL ARTICLES BLOGS
Learning at a Distance: Children’s remote learning experiences in Italy during the COVID-19 pandemic
Publication Publication

Learning at a Distance: Children’s remote learning experiences in Italy during the COVID-19 pandemic

Italy was the first country in Europe to implement a nationwide lockdown. Children and their families lived in nearly complete isolation for almost two months. Students missed 65 days of school compared to an average of 27 missed days among high-income countries worldwide. This prolonged break is of concern, as even short breaks in schooling can cause significant loss of learning for children and lead to educational inequalities over time. At least 3 million Italian students may not have been reached by remote learning due to a lack of internet connectivity or devices at home. This report explores children’s and parents’ experiences of remote learning during the lockdown in Italy, drawing on data collected from 11 European countries (and coordinated by the European Commission’s Joint Research Center). It explores how children's access and use of digital technologies changed during the pandemic; highlights how existing inequalities might undermine remote learning opportunities, even among those with internet access; and provides insights on how to support children’s remote learning in the future. *** L'Italia e’ stata il primo paese in Europa ad aver applicato la misura del lockdown su tutto il territorio. I bambini e le loro famiglie hanno vissuto in quasi completo isolamento per circa due mesi. Gli studenti hanno perduto 65 giorni di scuola rispetto ad una media di 27 negli altri paesi ad alto reddito del mondo. Questa interruzione prolungata rappresenta motivo di preoccupazione, in quanto persino interruzioni piu’ brevi nella didattica possono causare significative perdite nel livello di istruzione dei ragazzi e portare col tempo a diseguaglianze educative. Almeno 3 milioni di studenti in Italia non sono stati coinvolti nella didattica a distanza a causa d una mancanza di connessione ad internet o di dispositivi adeguati a casa. Questo rapporto analizza l’esperienza della didattica a distanza di ragazzi e genitori in Italia durante il lockdown, sulla base dei dati raccolti in 11 paesi europei (e coordinati dal Centro comune di ricerca della Commissione Europea). Studia il cambiamento nell’accesso e nell’uso delle tecnologie digitali dei bambini e ragazzi durante la pandemia; mette in evidenza come le diseguaglianze esistenti possano diminuire le opportunità offerte dalla didattica a distanza, anche tra coloro che hanno accesso ad internet; e fornisce approfondimenti su come sostenere la didattica a distanza di bambini e ragazzi in futuro.
Vite a Colori: Esperienze, percezioni e opinioni di bambinə e ragazzə sulla pandemia di Covid-19 in Italia
Publication Publication

Vite a Colori: Esperienze, percezioni e opinioni di bambinə e ragazzə sulla pandemia di Covid-19 in Italia

Il rapporto Vite a Colori racconta le esperienze, percezioni ed opinioni di un gruppo di adolescenti sul primo anno di pandemia di Covid-19 in Italia cercando di comprendere le loro esperienze e punti di vista, attraverso le loro parole. La raccolta dati si è svolta tra febbraio e giugno 2021 con 114 partecipanti tra i 10 e i 19 anni, frequentanti le scuole superiori del primo e del secondo ciclo di 16 regioni italiane. Bambinɘ e ragazzɘ che si identificano come LGBTQI+, minori stranieri non accompagnati (MSNA) e adolescenti con background socioeconomico svantaggiato sono stati deliberatamente inclusi nel campione interessato dalla ricerca

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