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UNICEF Innocenti's complete catalogue of research and reports
Best of UNICEF Research 2021
SPOTLIGHT

Best of UNICEF Research 2021

Best of UNICEF Research showcases the most rigorous, innovative and impactful research produced by UNICEF offices worldwide. While evidence highlights emerging issues, it also informs decisions and provides policy and programme recommendations for governments and partners to improve children’s lives. This ninth edition brings together 11 powerful studies from around the world and across the five Strategic Goal Areas. How do South Asian youth feel about entering the world of work? What is the effect of climate-related hazards on access to healthcare? How has COVID-19 affected children and their families in the Republic of Moldova? With social and economic inequalities increasing and progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals lagging, rigorous research – answers to these questions – has never mattered more.
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COVID-19: Missing More Than a Classroom. The impact of school closures on children’s nutrition
Blog Blog

COVID-19: Missing More Than a Classroom. The impact of school closures on children’s nutrition

In 2019, 135 million people in 55 countries were in food crises or worse, and 2 billion people did not have regular access to safe, nutritious and sufficient food. COVID-19 has exacerbated these hardships and may result in an additional 121 million people facing acute food insecurity by the end of 2020. Further, since the beginning of the pandemic, an estimated 1.6 billion learners in 199 countries worldwide were affected by school closures, with nearly 370 million children not receiving a school meal in 150 countries. The paper presents the evidence on the potential negative short-term and long-term effects of school meal scheme disruption during Covid-19 globally. It shows how vulnerable the children participating in these schemes are, how coping and mitigation measures are often only short-term solutions, and how prioritizing school re-opening is critical. For instance, it highlights how girls are at greater risk of not being in school or of being taken out of school early, which may lead to poor nutrition and health for themselves and their children. However, well-designed school feeding programmes have been shown to enable catch-up from early growth failure and other negative shocks. As such, once schools re-open, school meal schemes can help address the deprivation that children have experienced during the closures and provide an incentive for parents to send and keep their children, especially girls, in school.
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Bambini a rischio in Europa centrale ed orientale: pericoli e prospettive - sintesi
Bambini a rischio in Europa centrale ed orientale: pericoli e prospettive - sintesi
Published: 1997 Regional Monitoring Report
Questa pubblicazione è una sintesi del quarto Regional Monitoring Report che copre 18 paesi dell'Europa Centrale ed Orientale e dell'ex Unione Sovietica. Il quarto rapporto contiene: un aggiornamento sui cambiamenti nelle condizioni di vita delle famiglie e dell'infanzia; un indagine sui fattori di rischio per l'infanzia durante la transizione; un'analisi speciale sui bambini affidati alle cure pubbliche.
Children in Difficult Circumstances in Poland
Children in Difficult Circumstances in Poland
This paper offers an analysis of the hardships and the threats to children during the transition in Poland. Because all the various poverty lines used to distinguish the poor from the non-poor point to the same conclusion that under-15-year-olds represent the population group most at risk of poverty. The paper also presents a picture of the most significant negative social effects of the transition process, particularly as they apply to households with children.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 66 | Thematic area: Countries in Transition | Tags: child poverty, economic and social conditions, economic transition | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
Children at Risk in Romania:  Problems old and new
Children at Risk in Romania: Problems old and new
This paper has three parts. The first examines the problems of Romanian children at risk in their natural families; the second analyses the conditions of abandoned children, children in institutions and other children in special circumstances of risk; and the third offers a summary of the present policy environment. Since many of the features of the situation of children today and of current child-protection policies are the product of a historical process, the paper also details the evolution under the former socialist government administrations of the approach towards children and towards social protection.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 56 | Thematic area: Countries in Transition | Tags: child care, children at risk, economic transition, institutionalized children, social policy | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
The Transition in Georgia:  From collapse to optimism
The Transition in Georgia: From collapse to optimism
This working paper documents the economic and social crises in Georgia during the 1990s, their structural causes and the survival strategies adopted by the Georgian population, the vast majority of whom became impoverished, with large families particularly vulnerable. It also examines the hopes for improvement that began to appear in 1995 with the stabilization of the political and criminal situation, the adoption of a new currency and constitution, and real rises in GDP, production and the value of wages across the economy.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 54 | Thematic area: Countries in Transition | Tags: economic transition, poverty, social development | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
Poverty, Children and Policy: Responses for a brighter future
Poverty, Children and Policy: Responses for a brighter future
Published: 1995 Regional Monitoring Report
Despite improved economic performance in Central and Eastern Europe in 1994 and 1995, there was still no clear and comprehensive evidence that the welfare crisis was ending. This third Regional Monitoring Report confirms the social trends observed since 1989, showing in particular that children have suffered disproportionately in the fields of child care, education, adolescent protection and poverty. The Report maintains that untimely, partial, or clearly erroneous policies have contributed to this deterioration in child welfare and proposes a series of policy guidelines for a "transition with a human face". These include the promotion of an employment and self-employment based anti-poverty strategy and some important measures in the fields of health, education and child care.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 156 | Thematic area: Countries in Transition | Tags: economic development, economic transition, poverty | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
Economic Reforms and Family Well-being in Belarus: Caught between legacies and prospects
Economic Reforms and Family Well-being in Belarus: Caught between legacies and prospects
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 50 | Thematic area: Countries in Transition | Tags: economic reform, economic transition, family policy, family welfare | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
Economic Transition in the Baltics: Independence, market reforms and child well-being in Lithuania
Economic Transition in the Baltics: Independence, market reforms and child well-being in Lithuania
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 50 | Thematic area: Countries in Transition | Tags: child welfare, economic reform, economic transition, market economy | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
Child Institutionalization and Child Protection in Central and Eastern Europe
Child Institutionalization and Child Protection in Central and Eastern Europe

AUTHOR(S)
Mary Anne Burke

This paper looks at how the transition from the planned to the free market economy has altered the nature of state protective child care provision in Central and Eastern Europe. The old systems were run according to an underlying state ideology that stressed an insensitive ‘medical model’ of care. This ‘treatment’ was often a worse fate than the deprived contexts from which the children had been removed. But matters have little improved since the collapse of the old regimes. The economic, political, moral and spiritual ramifications of the rapid transition have led to further social unravelling. And children have borne the brunt of its effects.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 58 | Thematic area: Countries in Transition | Tags: child care services, child protection, economic transition | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
The Winding Road to the Market Transition and the Situation of Children in Bulgaria
The Winding Road to the Market Transition and the Situation of Children in Bulgaria
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 40 | Thematic area: Countries in Transition | Tags: child welfare, economic transition | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
Market Reforms and Social Welfare in the Czech Republic: A true success story?
Market Reforms and Social Welfare in the Czech Republic: A true success story?
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 44 | Thematic area: Countries in Transition | Tags: economic policy, economic transition, social welfare | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
Demographic Impact of Sudden Impoverishment: Eastern Europe during the 1989-94 transition
Demographic Impact of Sudden Impoverishment: Eastern Europe during the 1989-94 transition
An alarming drop in population numbers has been observed in many of the transitional countries of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Bloc since the collapse of communism in the region. This paper documents the extent and causes of the crisis. The author finds wanting the currently fashionable explanation - that the observed trends are merely apparent; a phantom risen from the wreckage of the communist propaganda machine. But neither can traditional demographic modelling techniques adequately interpret the dramatic changes being felt in the region. The message is clear. These issues are due a revised approach, for only through a better understanding of the problem can the right solutions be found.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 48 | Thematic area: Countries in Transition | Tags: demography, economic transition, mortality rate, poverty | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
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Learning at a Distance: Children’s remote learning experiences in Italy during the COVID-19 pandemic
Publication Publication

Learning at a Distance: Children’s remote learning experiences in Italy during the COVID-19 pandemic

Italy was the first country in Europe to implement a nationwide lockdown. Children and their families lived in nearly complete isolation for almost two months. Students missed 65 days of school compared to an average of 27 missed days among high-income countries worldwide. This prolonged break is of concern, as even short breaks in schooling can cause significant loss of learning for children and lead to educational inequalities over time. At least 3 million Italian students may not have been reached by remote learning due to a lack of internet connectivity or devices at home. This report explores children’s and parents’ experiences of remote learning during the lockdown in Italy, drawing on data collected from 11 European countries (and coordinated by the European Commission’s Joint Research Center). It explores how children's access and use of digital technologies changed during the pandemic; highlights how existing inequalities might undermine remote learning opportunities, even among those with internet access; and provides insights on how to support children’s remote learning in the future. *** L'Italia e’ stata il primo paese in Europa ad aver applicato la misura del lockdown su tutto il territorio. I bambini e le loro famiglie hanno vissuto in quasi completo isolamento per circa due mesi. Gli studenti hanno perduto 65 giorni di scuola rispetto ad una media di 27 negli altri paesi ad alto reddito del mondo. Questa interruzione prolungata rappresenta motivo di preoccupazione, in quanto persino interruzioni piu’ brevi nella didattica possono causare significative perdite nel livello di istruzione dei ragazzi e portare col tempo a diseguaglianze educative. Almeno 3 milioni di studenti in Italia non sono stati coinvolti nella didattica a distanza a causa d una mancanza di connessione ad internet o di dispositivi adeguati a casa. Questo rapporto analizza l’esperienza della didattica a distanza di ragazzi e genitori in Italia durante il lockdown, sulla base dei dati raccolti in 11 paesi europei (e coordinati dal Centro comune di ricerca della Commissione Europea). Studia il cambiamento nell’accesso e nell’uso delle tecnologie digitali dei bambini e ragazzi durante la pandemia; mette in evidenza come le diseguaglianze esistenti possano diminuire le opportunità offerte dalla didattica a distanza, anche tra coloro che hanno accesso ad internet; e fornisce approfondimenti su come sostenere la didattica a distanza di bambini e ragazzi in futuro.
Vite a Colori: Esperienze, percezioni e opinioni di bambinə e ragazzə sulla pandemia di Covid-19 in Italia
Publication Publication

Vite a Colori: Esperienze, percezioni e opinioni di bambinə e ragazzə sulla pandemia di Covid-19 in Italia

Il rapporto Vite a Colori racconta le esperienze, percezioni ed opinioni di un gruppo di adolescenti sul primo anno di pandemia di Covid-19 in Italia cercando di comprendere le loro esperienze e punti di vista, attraverso le loro parole. La raccolta dati si è svolta tra febbraio e giugno 2021 con 114 partecipanti tra i 10 e i 19 anni, frequentanti le scuole superiori del primo e del secondo ciclo di 16 regioni italiane. Bambinɘ e ragazzɘ che si identificano come LGBTQI+, minori stranieri non accompagnati (MSNA) e adolescenti con background socioeconomico svantaggiato sono stati deliberatamente inclusi nel campione interessato dalla ricerca

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