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UNICEF Innocenti's complete catalogue of research and reports
Reimagining Migration Responses: Learning from children and young people who move in the Horn of Africa
SPOTLIGHT

Reimagining Migration Responses: Learning from children and young people who move in the Horn of Africa

The number of international migrants under 18 is rising, accelerated by complex and fast-evolving economic, demographic, security and environmental drivers. Based on interviews carried out with 1,290 migrant children and young people in Ethiopia, Somalia and Sudan, this report helps address the evidence gap on children and young people migrating in the Horn of Africa by providing a better understanding of their protective environments; their access to services and resources; and their perceptions of safety, well-being and trust in authorities and other providers. It concludes by offering policy and programme recommendations to rethink child protection approaches for migrants in the region.
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COVID-19: Missing More Than a Classroom. The impact of school closures on children’s nutrition
Blog Blog

COVID-19: Missing More Than a Classroom. The impact of school closures on children’s nutrition

In 2019, 135 million people in 55 countries were in food crises or worse, and 2 billion people did not have regular access to safe, nutritious and sufficient food. COVID-19 has exacerbated these hardships and may result in an additional 121 million people facing acute food insecurity by the end of 2020. Further, since the beginning of the pandemic, an estimated 1.6 billion learners in 199 countries worldwide were affected by school closures, with nearly 370 million children not receiving a school meal in 150 countries. The paper presents the evidence on the potential negative short-term and long-term effects of school meal scheme disruption during Covid-19 globally. It shows how vulnerable the children participating in these schemes are, how coping and mitigation measures are often only short-term solutions, and how prioritizing school re-opening is critical. For instance, it highlights how girls are at greater risk of not being in school or of being taken out of school early, which may lead to poor nutrition and health for themselves and their children. However, well-designed school feeding programmes have been shown to enable catch-up from early growth failure and other negative shocks. As such, once schools re-open, school meal schemes can help address the deprivation that children have experienced during the closures and provide an incentive for parents to send and keep their children, especially girls, in school.
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Innocenti Social Monitor 2004 (Italian)
Innocenti Social Monitor 2004 (Italian)
Published: 2004 Innocenti Social Monitor
L’Innocenti Social Monitor 2004 prende in esame la povertà dei bambini in un mondo sempre più integrato, affrontando il problema da quattro diversi punti di vista: 'Crescita economica e povertà dei bambini' fa un esame della situazione dei bambini che subiscono la povertà legata al reddito familiare e registra che dalla fine degli anni novanta una costante crescita economica ha ridotto la proporzione di persone che vivono in famiglie con reddito inferiore al minimo nazionale di sussistenza. Questo significa che una quota crescente della popolazione di bambini in tutta la regione corre il rischio di crescere nella povertà. 'Integrazione economica, mercato del lavoro e bambini' si occupa del processo d’integrazione nell’economia globale, misurata sulla base del commercio e del volume di investimenti esteri diretti. L’integrazione economica è aumentata in tutta la regione, ma è particolarmente concentrata nei paesi dell’Europa centrale e del Baltico che sono diventati membri dell’UE. L’analisi mostra perciò che i convenzionali meccanismi di adeguamento del mercato hanno impoverito i bambini nelle aree svantaggiate di molti paesi. 'Tendenze dei movimenti migratori e implicazioni per le politiche pubbliche' rileva che dagli anni ottanta in poi le migrazioni sono notevolmente aumentate in tutta la regione. Tra le ragioni di ciò vi sono la frammentazione delle nazioni, con il passaggio da 8 a 27 paesi all’inizio degli anni novanta, il che ha spinto molti ad emigrare, in molti casi per fuggire da conflitti o persecuzioni. L’articolo sottolinea l’esigenza che i governi dei paesi sia di origine sia di destinazione gestiscano meglio il fenomeno e rafforzino i canali legali di emigrazione nella regione. 'I giovani e le droghe: aumentano i rischi per la salute' indaga le conseguenze sulla salute dell’uso del tabacco, dell’alcol e degli stupefacenti illegali sui giovani, in particolare il legame tra consumo di stupefacenti e decessi di giovani nella regione.
Innocenti Social Monitor 2004 (Russian)
Innocenti Social Monitor 2004 (Russian)
Published: 2004 Innocenti Social Monitor
Процесс международной интеграции ярче высветил многие проблемы, и не в последнюю очередь рост масштабов бедности и неравенства между странами и внутри стран. Это относится как к странам Центральной и Восточной Европы и Содружества Независимых Государств, так и к другим регионам мира. После краха коммунистических режимов вместо 8 стран, существовавших в 1989 году, к середине 1990-х годов образовалось 27. Рыночные реформы не только принесли ногочисленные выгоды и преимущества, но и породили нестабильность. Сегодня жизнь детей в этом регионе совсем не такая, как у их родителей, – шире перспективы, больше свободы и возможностей выбора, но при этом и больше бедности, неравенства и риска.
Changing Minds, Policies and Lives: Improving protection of children in Eastern Europe and Central Asia. Gatekeeping services for vulnerable children and families
Changing Minds, Policies and Lives: Improving protection of children in Eastern Europe and Central Asia. Gatekeeping services for vulnerable children and families
Published: 2003 Innocenti Publications
After more than a decade of coping with transition challenges in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, the need for the reform of family and child welfare systems has been widely acknowledged. The mindset is changing, policies are increasingly embracing new directions, reform efforts are underway, but the lives of hundreds of thousands of poor families with children have yet to improve. Every year a large number of children are still at risk of being separated from their families and being placed in institutional care. Through 'Changing Minds, Policies and Lives', UNICEF and the World Bank have teamed up in an effort to increase the understanding of the essential challenges of the system changes, and to propose strategies to advance the reform of child and family services. The results of the joint work are the concept papers and corresponding tools that suggest how to change three important system regulators, decision making, standards and financing.
Changing Minds, Policies and Lives: Improving protection of children in Eastern Europe and Central Asia. Improving standards of child protection services
Changing Minds, Policies and Lives: Improving protection of children in Eastern Europe and Central Asia. Improving standards of child protection services
Published: 2003 Innocenti Publications
The quality of care children receive, their learning experiences and relationships, are critical in shaping their future. This is particularly true in their first years of life. Quality child protection services play an important role in enhancing learning and achievement throughout children’s lives, in providing more positive lifelong opportunities and outcomes, and in reducing poor health in adult life. The key to a high-quality child protection system is to have clear, agreed standards based on evidence of best practice and effective systems to implement and monitor them. Given the importance of promoting quality, this paper provides a framework for designing tools to specify and use standards as part of the reform of the child protection system. This is to ensure that, wherever possible, families are supported to care for their children themselves.
Changing Minds, Policies and Lives: Improving protection of children in Eastern Europe and Central Asia. Redirecting resources to community-based services
Changing Minds, Policies and Lives: Improving protection of children in Eastern Europe and Central Asia. Redirecting resources to community-based services
Published: 2003 Innocenti Publications
One of the legacies of the command economy in Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union has been a system of social protection for vulnerable individuals which focuses on institutional care.This paper provides a framework to help countries re-orient their financing systems for social care, so that they can implement a change programme for the social care system. The ultimate objective is for countries to use more family-based and inclusive care programmes, and use institutional care as a last resort, thus supporting families to care for their vulnerable members rather than place them in residential care. Family-based and inclusive care are generally more effective in meeting social needs and are, at least on a unit cost basis, less expensive. Changing the financing system will not automatically reduce institutionalization.
Poverty in the Transition: Social expenditures and the working-age poor
Poverty in the Transition: Social expenditures and the working-age poor
Published: 2002 Innocenti Working Papers
A combination of economic growth and committed revenue-raising should give most governments in Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union considerable scope to devote increased resources to tackling poverty. We review the extent and nature of poverty across the transition countries, emphasising the phenomenon of the working-age poor. We consider governments' fiscal positions and revenue raising tools, including the issue of whether some countries now have levels of external debt servicing that are so high as to hamper social sector expenditures. We analyse whether the introduction of credible unemployment benefit schemes in the CIS would aid labour market reform and hence help solve the problem there of in-work poverty (we first review experience in Central and Eastern Europe). We focus on the case of Russia, and simulate a simple scheme with 2000 household survey data. The paper concludes by considering the role of improved wages for public service workers and the targeting of categorical benefits.
Innocenti Social Monitor 2002
Innocenti Social Monitor 2002
Published: 2002 Innocenti Social Monitor
Social Monitor 2002 reviews recent socio-economic developments in the 27 countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States. It contains three articles: Social trends in transition: an update on trends in a range of topics including income and poverty, fertility, infant and adult mortality, enrolment in education and care of children at risk. HIV/AIDS and young people: awareness, behaviour and policy: focuses on the spread of HIV, and young people’s knowledge about HIV prevention. Quality of learning: towards "unilateral educational disarmament"?: examines new information to compare learning outcomes in transition countries and in the West. In addition, the Statistical Annex covers a range of indicators for the years 1989 to 2000-2001, as well as comprehensive statistical profiles on each country in the region. Social Monitor 2002 builds on the eight Regional Monitoring Reports produced by the MONEE Project at the UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre between 1993 and 2001.
Attitudes to Inequality after Ten Years of Transition
Attitudes to Inequality after Ten Years of Transition
Published: 2002 Innocenti Working Papers
This paper compares people’s attitudes to inequality at the end of the 1990s the qualities they perceive are needed to get ahead, the role of government and rewards for employment in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and Western countries. Data (from the 1999 International Social Survey Programme) suggest that overall, people in CEE express substantially more ‘egalitarian’ attitudes than those in the West, even after 10 years of economic adjustment to the market economy. The research produces important messages for policymakers, underlining the degree of support for public action concerning redistribution and warning them of the extent to which inequalities are felt in society, especially those that are perceived to be generated by ‘unfair’ means.
Innocenti Social Monitor 2002 (Russian version)
Innocenti Social Monitor 2002 (Russian version)
Published: 2002 Innocenti Social Monitor
Социальный мониторинг, 2002 год содержит обзор социально экономических тенденций в 27 странах Центральной и Восточной Европы, а также Содружества Независимых Государств. Доклад состоит из трех статей: "Социальные тенденции в переходный период” – дается обнов ленный анализ положения в ряде областей, включая доходы и бед ность, рождаемость и смертность (в том числе младенческую), охват образованием и попечение о детях, относящихся к группе риска. “ВИЧ/СПИД и молодежь: осведомленность, поведение и поли тика” – анализируются характер распространения ВИЧ и осве домленность молодежи о предохранении от ВИЧ*инфекции. «Качество обучения – к “одностороннему разоружению в обла сти образования”?» – рассматриваются новые данные о качест ве обучения и усвоения знаний в странах переходного периода в сравнении со странами Запада.
Children in Bulgaria: Growing impoverishment and unequal opportunities
Children in Bulgaria: Growing impoverishment and unequal opportunities

AUTHOR(S)
Roumiana Gantcheva

Published: 2001 Innocenti Working Papers
The social and economic changes in Bulgaria since the beginning of transition naturally raise concern about their impact on child well-being. This paper investigates the changes that occurred over the last decade in three dimensions of child welfare recognised as fundamental child rights economic well-being, health and education. Then it concentrates on particularly vulnerable groups of children those born of teenage and single mothers and those living in institutions. The data show that the human cost of economic transition has been high and children have been among the most vulnerable groups of the society.
Preferences for Inequality: East vs. West
Preferences for Inequality: East vs. West

AUTHOR(S)
Marc Suhrcke

Published: 2001 Innocenti Working Papers
Do preferences for income inequality differ systematically between the post-socialist countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the Western established market economies? This paper analyses 1999 data from a large international survey to address this question. In particular, we examine whether attitudes to inequality differ between East and West even after the 'conventional' determinants of attitudes are controlled for. Results suggest that this is indeed the case. A decade after the breakdown of communism, people in transition countries are indeed significantly more 'egalitarian' than those living in the West, in the sense that they are less willing to tolerate existing income inequalities, even after the actual level of income inequality and other determinants of attitudes are taken into account.
A Decade of Transition
A Decade of Transition
Published: 2001 Regional Monitoring Report
The MONEE project Regional Monitoring Report of the UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre is a unique source of information on the social side of the transition taking place in the 27 countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States. Each year’s Report contains an update on the social and economic changes affecting people in the region and includes a wealth of data in a detailed Statistical Annex. The present Report provides a review of the first 10 years of transition, exploiting the fact that data are now available on many issues that cover the entire 1990s. The core chapters examine the record of the decade in four key areas affecting human welfare: income inequality and child poverty, health, education, and child protection. An introductory chapter analyses key economic and demographic trends. In each case, the Report summarizes developments to the end of the decade, discussing both the outcomes measured with statistical data and the policy options.
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INNOCENTI DISCUSSION PAPERS INNOCENTI REPORT CARD INNOCENTI RESEARCH BRIEFS INNOCENTI WORKING PAPERS MISCELLANEA INNOCENTI RESEARCH REPORT BEST OF UNICEF RESEARCH
JOURNAL ARTICLES BLOGS
Learning at a Distance: Children’s remote learning experiences in Italy during the COVID-19 pandemic
Publication Publication

Learning at a Distance: Children’s remote learning experiences in Italy during the COVID-19 pandemic

Italy was the first country in Europe to implement a nationwide lockdown. Children and their families lived in nearly complete isolation for almost two months. Students missed 65 days of school compared to an average of 27 missed days among high-income countries worldwide. This prolonged break is of concern, as even short breaks in schooling can cause significant loss of learning for children and lead to educational inequalities over time. At least 3 million Italian students may not have been reached by remote learning due to a lack of internet connectivity or devices at home. This report explores children’s and parents’ experiences of remote learning during the lockdown in Italy, drawing on data collected from 11 European countries (and coordinated by the European Commission’s Joint Research Center). It explores how children's access and use of digital technologies changed during the pandemic; highlights how existing inequalities might undermine remote learning opportunities, even among those with internet access; and provides insights on how to support children’s remote learning in the future. *** L'Italia e’ stata il primo paese in Europa ad aver applicato la misura del lockdown su tutto il territorio. I bambini e le loro famiglie hanno vissuto in quasi completo isolamento per circa due mesi. Gli studenti hanno perduto 65 giorni di scuola rispetto ad una media di 27 negli altri paesi ad alto reddito del mondo. Questa interruzione prolungata rappresenta motivo di preoccupazione, in quanto persino interruzioni piu’ brevi nella didattica possono causare significative perdite nel livello di istruzione dei ragazzi e portare col tempo a diseguaglianze educative. Almeno 3 milioni di studenti in Italia non sono stati coinvolti nella didattica a distanza a causa d una mancanza di connessione ad internet o di dispositivi adeguati a casa. Questo rapporto analizza l’esperienza della didattica a distanza di ragazzi e genitori in Italia durante il lockdown, sulla base dei dati raccolti in 11 paesi europei (e coordinati dal Centro comune di ricerca della Commissione Europea). Studia il cambiamento nell’accesso e nell’uso delle tecnologie digitali dei bambini e ragazzi durante la pandemia; mette in evidenza come le diseguaglianze esistenti possano diminuire le opportunità offerte dalla didattica a distanza, anche tra coloro che hanno accesso ad internet; e fornisce approfondimenti su come sostenere la didattica a distanza di bambini e ragazzi in futuro.
Time to Teach: Teacher attendance and time on task in Eastern and Southern Africa
Publication Publication

Time to Teach: Teacher attendance and time on task in Eastern and Southern Africa

There is a learning crisis. Fifty-three per cent of children in low- and middle-income countries are in ‘learning poverty’, i.e. they cannot read and understand a simple text by the end of primary school age. In sub- Saharan Africa, the learning poverty rate is 87 per cent overall, and ranges from 40 per cent to as high as 99 per cent in the 21 countries with available data. Teachers attending lessons and spending quality time on task is a critical prerequisite to learning. However, in sub-Saharan Africa, teacher absenteeism ranges from 15 to 45 per cent. Teacher absenteeism and reduced time on task wastes valuable financial resources, short-changes students and is one of the most cumbersome obstacles on the path toward the education Sustainable Development Goal and to the related vision of the new UNICEF education strategy: Every Child Learns. Whilst the stark numbers are available to study, and despite teacher absenteeism being a foremost challenge for education systems in Africa, the evidence base on how policies and practices can influence teacher attendance remains scant. Time to Teach (TTT) is a research initiative that looks at primary school teacher attendance in eight countries and territories in the Eastern and Southern Africa (ESA) region: the Comoros; Kenya; Rwanda, Puntland, State of Somalia; South Sudan; the United Republic of Tanzania, mainland; the United Republic of Tanzania, Zanzibar; and Uganda. Its primary objective is to identify factors affecting the various forms of teacher attendance, which include being at school, being punctual, being in the classroom, and teaching when in the classroom, and use this evidence to inform the design and implementation of teacher policies.

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