Tackling Gender Inequality from the Early Years: Strategies for building a gender-transformative pre-primary education system

Tackling Gender Inequality from the Early Years: Strategies for building a gender-transformative pre-primary education system

AUTHOR(S)
Dita Nugroho; Mayra Delgado; Bella Baghdasaryan; Stefania Vindrola; Divya Lata; Ghazala Mehmood Syed

Published: 2022 Innocenti Research Report
Access to early childhood education has increased over the last two decades, with global enrolment rates showing gender parity in access among boys and girls. Despite this gender parity in access, the pre-primary education system does not always deliver on its potential to tackle gender inequities and address harmful gender stereotypes while they are being absorbed by the youngest learners. As such, this research explores the ways in which pre-primary education can become more gender-transformative at a system level and presents 11 key strategies to support this goal. The strategies are organized around five interconnected action areas: planning and budgeting; curriculum; workforce development; family and community engagement; and quality assurance. These strategies can help governments and policymakers to proactively incorporate gender-responsiveness into the design and implementation of their pre-primary education policy and programming, following a system-wide perspective.
Gender-Transformative Pre-Primary Education: Supporting gender-transformative parenting through pre-primary education systems

Gender-Transformative Pre-Primary Education: Supporting gender-transformative parenting through pre-primary education systems

Published: 2022 Innocenti Research Briefs
Children begin learning about gender stereotypes as early as age two. The pre-primary education system does not always deliver on its potential to tackle and address harmful gender stereotypes while they are being absorbed by the youngest learners. All components of the pre-primary system have a role to play in breaking down these stereotypes. This includes parents, who are the primary agents of gender socialization for their children. As young children are in the process of forming their own gender identity, their primary caregivers can reinforce their behaviors and act as role models on how to behave and interact with others. This brief highlights key strategies and considerations to ensure family and community members are active agents of change for gender-transformative education and development.
Gender-Transformative Pre-Primary Education: Investing in pre-primary education workforce development for gender equality

Gender-Transformative Pre-Primary Education: Investing in pre-primary education workforce development for gender equality

Published: 2022 Innocenti Research Briefs
Children begin learning about gender stereotypes as early as age two. The pre-primary education system does not always deliver on its potential to tackle and address harmful gender stereotypes while they are being absorbed by the youngest learners. All components of the pre-primary system have a role to play in breaking down these stereotypes. This includes the teaching workforce, who play a crucial role in determining how the education system contributes to gender equality and whose actions can influence children’s learning experiences and their personal gendered views and behaviour. This brief highlights key strategies and considerations to ensure the pre-primary workforce can be prepared to stop gender stereotypes from being perpetuated, and ways they can create a learning environment that is gender-transformative.
On Call: Using Mobile Technologies to Measure Learning in Emergencies

On Call: Using Mobile Technologies to Measure Learning in Emergencies

Published: 2022 Innocenti Research Report

How can we harness the power of mobile technologies to track learning in emergencies? Identifying ways to improve assessments in emergencies is incredibly important as there remains large gaps in understanding how children are learning in crisis settings. This report aims to provide practitioners with practical guidance and resources on using mobile technology to conduct learning assessments in emergency settings. It is the second of a two-part series on uses of mobile phones for education in emergency programmes and draws from a review of the existing literature as well as feedback from education in emergencies practitioners.

On Call: Using Mobile Phones to Provide Learning in Emergencies

On Call: Using Mobile Phones to Provide Learning in Emergencies

Published: 2022 Innocenti Research Report

In 2021, an estimated 37 million children were forcibly displaced across the globe. Ensuring these children continue their education in times of crisis is a significant challenge. One tool that can help children stay in education is basic mobile phones. Basic mobile phones can provide learning through multiple channels, such as text messages, voice calls, nudges and lessons through radio broadcasts. This report outlines, in detail, how mobile phones can be applied as a learning tool in emergency settings. It also provides practical case studies and references for how mobile phones have been used to teach students, support parents and train teachers.

This report is also part of the On Call two-part series on the uses of mobile technologies for education in emergency settings, with the second report focusing on mobile technologies for learning assessments.

Libros de texto digitales accesibles: Creación de herramientas digitales que permitan el diseño universal para el aprendizaje y la educación inclusiva

Libros de texto digitales accesibles: Creación de herramientas digitales que permitan el diseño universal para el aprendizaje y la educación inclusiva

AUTHOR(S)
Marta Carnelli; Thomas Dreesen; Claudia Pacheco

Published: 2022 Innocenti Research Report

En América Latina y el Caribe, más de 19 millones de niñas, niños y adolescentes tienen una discapacidad. Aunque las tasas de asistencia y finalización de los estudios han aumentado de forma constante en los últimos 20 años, las barreras de acceso a una educación de calidad para las niñas, niños y adolescentes con discapacidad siguen siendo demasiado altas en la región.

En el Paraguay, la discapacidad es un factor importante asociado a la participación escolar y a los resultados de aprendizaje. La iniciativa Libros de Texto Digitales Accesibles para Todos y Todas implementa herramientas y contenidos digitales para que el aprendizaje sea accesible para todos los estudiantes —con y sin discapacidad— en la misma aula.

Este informe presenta los resultados del piloto realizado empleando un libro de texto digital accesible para niños, niñas y adolescentes con y sin discapacidad en el Paraguay. El informe ofrece resultados en tres áreas. En primer lugar, analiza la familiaridad y la capacidad de los docentes y los estudiantes de interactuar con la tecnología. En segundo lugar, investiga las prácticas pedagógicas utilizadas para la educación inclusiva y para integrar el libro de texto digital accesible como una herramienta en el aula para apoyar la inclusión. En tercer lugar, presenta recomendaciones para mejorar el contenido y la interfaz del libro de texto digital accesible.

Este estudio forma parte de una investigación multinacional a largo plazo que examina el desarrollo y uso de libros de texto digitales accesibles. Futuras investigaciones explorarán el impacto del uso, a mayor escala, de los libros de texto digitales accesibles sobre los logros de aprendizaje de los estudiantes.

Data Must Speak: Unpacking Factors Influencing School Performance in Nepal

Data Must Speak: Unpacking Factors Influencing School Performance in Nepal

Published: 2022 Innocenti Research Report

Joint efforts by the Government of Nepal, development partners and key stakeholders to achieve SDG 4 by 2030 have improved education access, participation and retention. However, learning outcomes in Nepal remain stagnant.

What resources and contextual factors are associated with good school performance in Nepal? By merging and analyzing existing administrative datasets in Nepal, this report helps to identify positive deviant schools – those that outperform other schools despite sharing similar contexts and resources.

Data Must Speak – a global initiative implemented since 2014 – aims to address the evidence gaps to mitigate the learning crisis using existing data. The DMS Positive Deviance Research is co-created and co-implemented with Ministries of Education and key partners. DMS research relies on mixed methods and innovative approaches (i.e., positive deviance approach, behavioural sciences, implementation research and scaling science) to generate knowledge and practical lessons about ‘what works’, ‘why’ and ‘how’ to scale grassroots solutions for national policymakers and the broader international community of education stakeholders.

DMS research is currently being implemented in 14 countries: Brazil, Burkina Faso, Chad, Cote d'Ivoire, Ethiopia, Ghana, the Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Madagascar, Mali, Nepal, Niger, the United Republic of Tanzania, Togo and Zambia.

Estimates of internet access for children in Ethiopia, Kenya, Namibia, Uganda and the United Republic of Tanzania

Estimates of internet access for children in Ethiopia, Kenya, Namibia, Uganda and the United Republic of Tanzania

Published: 2022 Innocenti Research Briefs

The COVID-19 pandemic transformed internet connectivity from an important asset to an essential piece of infrastructure. Yet two thirds of the world’s school-aged children still have no fixed internet connection at home. This lack of connectivity limits their ability to go online; prevents them from participating and competing in the modern economy; and risks isolating them from the world.

This research brief presents new data on children’s internet access in five countries in Eastern and Southern Africa. It provides estimates of the frequency with which children use the internet and assesses the most common barriers they face. Finally, it explores the potential consequences of leaving these bottlenecks unaddressed.

Time to Teach: Teacher attendance and time on task in West and Central Africa

Time to Teach: Teacher attendance and time on task in West and Central Africa

AUTHOR(S)
Ximena Jativa; Despina Karamperidou; Michelle Mills; Stefania Vindrola; Hanna Wedajo; Andrea Dsouza; Jessica Bergmann

Published: 2022 Innocenti Research Report
Teachers are the most important drivers of students’ academic achievement and they are at the heart of learning recovery efforts. Finding out the bottlenecks and necessary conditions for ensuring teachers’ presence at school and in the classroom is essential. Time to Teach is a mixed methods research initiative that aims to find out the contextual, working conditions and policy factors impeding primary school teacher attendance in 11 West and Central African countries: Côte d’Ivoire, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Liberia, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, The Gambia, and Togo. 

The study considers teacher attendance as multi-dimensional, in four distinct forms. Teachers were asked to about their attendance in relation to: (1) being school; (2) being punctual (arriving and leaving on time); (3) being the classroom; and (4) spending sufficient time on task. Evidence is drawn from national, system-wide qualitative data collection and school observations, and a quantitative survey of 1,673 teachers working in 234 purposively selected primary schools. While primary data were collected prior to the COVID-19 school closures (in the 2018/2019 school year), the study provides important insights on how the pandemic has exacerbated chronic challenges of education systems that impact teacher attendance and is therefore informative for policy, both in the current COVID-19 era and beyond.


Cite this publication | No. of pages: 68 | Thematic area: Education, WCARO | Tags: central africa, education, teachers, west africa
Hacia la reapertura de escuelas más resilientes: Lecciones extraídas del aprendizaje a distancia durante la COVID-19 en América Latina y el Caribe

Hacia la reapertura de escuelas más resilientes: Lecciones extraídas del aprendizaje a distancia durante la COVID-19 en América Latina y el Caribe

AUTHOR(S)
Javier Santiago Ortiz Correa; Marco Valenza; Vincenzo Placco; Thomas Dreesen

Published: 2022 Innocenti Research Report

La implementación de la educación a distancia en América Latina y el Caribe, producto del cierre de las escuelas debido a la COVID-19, confirmó que la brecha en el acceso a la electricidad y a la tecnología aún es un obstáculo importante para que los gobiernos de la región puedan atender a todos los niños, niñas y adolescentes. El cierre de las escuelas implica el riesgo de ampliar las brechas de aprendizaje existentes, pues las escuelas privadas estaban más preparadas en cuanto al uso de la tecnología para la educación a distancia. Adicionalmente, los niños, niñas y adolescentes de los hogares más favorecidos recibían más apoyo en casa mientras las escuelas estaban cerradas. Conforme los países de la región reabren las escuelas, es vital que los gobiernos incorporen las principales lecciones aprendidas para mejorar la resiliencia y la equidad de sus sistemas educativos. Este informe presenta evidencias sobre el aprendizaje a distancia durante el cierre de las escuelas debido a la COVID-19 en América Latina y el Caribe para orientar a los tomadores de decisiones en la construcción de sistemas educativos más eficaces, sostenibles y resilientes para las crisis actuales y futuras.

Accessible Digital Textbooks: Universal Design for Learning in Paraguay

Accessible Digital Textbooks: Universal Design for Learning in Paraguay

AUTHOR(S)
Marta Carnelli; Thomas Dreesen; Claudia Pacheco

Published: 2022 Innocenti Research Report

In the Latin America and Caribbean region, more than 19 million children have a disability. Although school attendance and completion rates have increased steadily over the last 20 years in the region, barriers to access quality education are still too high for children and adolescents with disabilities.

In Paraguay, disability is a major factor associated with school participation and learning levels. The Accessible Digital Textbooks for All (ADT) initiative, implements accessible digital tools and content to make learning accessible to all students - with and without disabilities - in the same classroom.

This report presents the research results of the piloting of an accessible digital textbook for children with and without disabilities in Paraguay. The report provides results across three areas. First, it analyses the familiarity with and ability of teachers and students to interact with technology. Second, it investigates the pedagogical practices used for inclusive education and to integrate the accessible digital textbook as a tool in the classroom by teachers to support inclusion. Third, it presents recommendations for improving the content and interface of the accessible digital textbook.

This study is part of longer-term multi-country research examining the implementation of accessible digital textbooks. Future research will explore the impact of the use of the ADT on student learning on a larger scale.

Drivers of Primary School Dropout in Mozambique: Longitudinal assessment of school dropout in 2019

Drivers of Primary School Dropout in Mozambique: Longitudinal assessment of school dropout in 2019

Published: 2022 Innocenti Research Report

The Avaliação Longitudinal da Desistência Escolar (ALDE, Longitudinal Assessment of School Dropout) is the first nationally representative mixed-method longitudinal survey in Mozambique. Since 2018, the ALDE survey has annually collected longitudinal, nationally representative data from around 5,400 primary school students (from grades 1 to 7) in 60 schools across all eleven provinces in the country.

This report presents the results of the quantitative data collected in 2019 and focuses on the determinants of school dropouts in the country. When children leave school prematurely, not only is their learning interrupted, but the trajectories of their future opportunities and lives are forever altered. This report explores the multidimensional process of school dropouts, investigating how individual, household, community and school-level factors interact to lead children in Mozambique to dropout of education. Through this analysis, the report provides important and actionable recommendations to improve education policy in Mozambique towards its journey to achieve learning for every child.

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