The Difference a Dollar a Day Makes: A Study of UNICEF Jordan’s Hajati Programme

The Difference a Dollar a Day Makes: A Study of UNICEF Jordan’s Hajati Programme

Published: 2021 Innocenti Research Report
What difference does a dollar a day make? For the poorest households in Jordan, many of whom escaped conflict in the Syrian Arab Republic, UNICEF Jordan’s Hajati humanitarian cash transfer programme helps them keep their children in school, fed and clothed – all for less than one dollar per day. In fact, cash transfers have the potential to touch on myriad of child and household well-being outcomes beyond food security and schooling.
Digital Learning for Every Child: Closing the Gaps for an Inclusive and Prosperous Future

Digital Learning for Every Child: Closing the Gaps for an Inclusive and Prosperous Future

Published: 2021 Innocenti Working Papers
Pre-Covid-19, half of the world’s children were already unable to read a simple text by the age of 10. School closures have deepened pre-existing learning disparities, within and among countries, due to inequities in access to technology. This brief summarises research
findings and provides actionable recommendations for how to equitably scale up digital learning and provide children and young people with the skills to improve their prospects and safeguard their well-being. It pinpoints solutions for education systems’ use of digital
and blended learning anchored in a sound pedagogical approach and urges the G20 and other countries to overcome the barriers that limit the potential benefits of digital learning.
 What's next? Lessons on education recovery: Findings from a survey of Ministries of Education amid the COVID-19 pandemic

What's next? Lessons on education recovery: Findings from a survey of Ministries of Education amid the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Mathieu Brossard; Thomas Dreesen; Radhika Nagesh; Dita Nugroho; Rafael Pontuschka

Published: 2021 Innocenti Research Report
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), the World Bank and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) have collaborated in the third round of the Survey on National Education Responses to COVID-19 School Closures, administered by the UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS) and OECD to Ministry of Education officials. The questions covered four levels of education: preprimary, primary, lower secondary and upper secondary. While the first two rounds of the survey were implemented during the periods May–June and July–October 2020, respectively, the third round was implemented during the period February–June 2021. In total, 143 countries responded to the questionnaire. Thirty-one countries submitted responses to the OECD (“OECD survey”) and 112 countries responded to the UIS (“UIS survey”). Seven countries responded to both surveys. In these instances, the more complete set responses were used in analysis.
Continuing learning for the most vulnerable during COVID-19: Lessons from Let Us Learn in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Liberia, Madagascar and Nepal

Continuing learning for the most vulnerable during COVID-19: Lessons from Let Us Learn in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Liberia, Madagascar and Nepal

AUTHOR(S)
Cirenia Chávez; Marco Valenza; Annika Rigole; Thomas Dreesen

Published: 2021 Innocenti Research Briefs

The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted every aspect of society. In mid-April 2020, 192 countries had closed their schools, putting 9 out of 10 enrolled children out of school.

These closures disproportionately affected marginalized children, worsening existing inequities across education systems worldwide.

This brief draws on the experience of five UNICEF education country programmes supported by the Let Us Learn (LUL) initiative, to document tangible lessons in adapting education programmes to support the most marginalized children during school and learning centre closures.

The evidence in this brief stems from a series of semi-structured interviews with Education and Child Protection specialists, as well as a document review of available COVID-19 response studies, in the five LUL-supported UNICEF Country Offices.

Cite this publication | No. of pages: 12 | Thematic area: Education | Tags: COVID-19, education, educational programmes
Time to Teach: Teacher attendance and time on task in primary schools in Mozambique

Time to Teach: Teacher attendance and time on task in primary schools in Mozambique

AUTHOR(S)
Dita Nugroho; Despina Karamperidou

Published: 2021 Innocenti Research Report

Teacher attendance is one of the prerequisites on the path toward universal learning in developing countries. Over the past decades, however, studies from across the developing world have found national rates of teacher absenteeism that range from 3 to 27 per cent. Therefore, enhancing teachers’ presence in the classroom and ensuring that class time is spent teaching, can contribute significantly to the productivity and inclusive prosperity of a country.

This Time to Teach study collates and strengthens the evidence base on primary school teacher absenteeism in Mozambique. The study uses a mix of qualitative and quantitative research methods to provide critical insights into the factors that underpin the multiple forms of teacher absenteeism and time on task. It also examines how factors vary across countries, school types, gender of teacher and other teacher characteristics. Despite high levels of teacher absenteeism, the study shows that teachers are generally committed and that what is needed is education system strengthening. It is hoped that findings will inform workable solutions and policies that will ensure a motivated teaching force, increase opportunities for children to learn at school and, ultimately, improve their life and work opportunities.

Hora de ensinar: Assiduidade dos Professores e Tempo de Trabalho nas Escolas Primárias de Moçambique

Hora de ensinar: Assiduidade dos Professores e Tempo de Trabalho nas Escolas Primárias de Moçambique

AUTHOR(S)
Despina Karamperidou; Dita Nugroho

Published: 2021 Innocenti Research Report

Este estudo “Hora de Ensinar” combina e reforça a base de evidências sobre o absentismo dos professores do ensino primário em Moçambique.

A assiduidade dos professores é um dos pré-requisitos indispensáveis à aprendizagem universal nos países em desenvolvimento. Nas últimas décadas, contudo, estudos realizados em todo o mundo em desenvolvimento constataram taxas nacionais de absentismo dos professores que variam entre 3 e 27%. Por conseguinte, reforçar a presença dos professores na sala de aula e assegurar que o tempo de aula é dedicado ao ensino, pode contribuir significativamente para a produtividade e prosperidade inclusiva de um país.  

O estudo utiliza uma mistura de métodos de pesquisa qualitativa e quantitativa para fornecer uma visão crítica dos factores que sustentam as várias formas de absentismo dos professores e o tempo de trabalho. Também examina como os factores variam entre países, tipos de escolas, género do professor e outras características do professor. Apesar dos elevados níveis de absentismo dos professores, o estudo mostra que estes estão geralmente empenhados e que o que é necessário é o reforço do sistema educativo. Espera-se que os resultados informem soluções e políticas viáveis que assegurem uma mão-de-obra docente motivada, aumentem as oportunidades para as crianças aprenderem na escola e, em última análise, melhorem as suas vidas e oportunidades de trabalho.

Time to Teach: Teacher attendance and time on task in primary schools South Sudan

Time to Teach: Teacher attendance and time on task in primary schools South Sudan

AUTHOR(S)
Silvana Târlea; Christine Han Yue; Dita Nugroho; Despina Karamperidou

Published: 2021 Innocenti Research Report

The Government of South Sudan, through the Ministry of General Education and Instruction (MoGEI) and its development partners, has made efforts over the past decade to rebuild South Sudan’s primary education system. Challenges to the delivery of education have persisted, both within the education system and external to it.

The Time to Teach study focuses specifically on the issue of teacher attendance. It distinguishes between four types of interruptions to teacher attendance: absence from school; lack of punctuality; absence from class; and loss of teaching time in class.

The study aims to identify the specific determinants at each level of the education system of South Sudan. In doing so, it highlights the role of various education stakeholders, from the central and decentralized levels, to the community level and as school level actors in monitoring and addressing the challenges to teacher attendance. 

The study seeks to contribute a better understanding of the various challenges faced by teachers and especially, the system deficits that affect teachers’ attendance and motivation, with a view to providing evidence-based policy recommendations to relevant education stakeholders in the country.

Time to Teach: Assiduité des enseignants et temps d’enseignement dans les écoles primaires aux Comores

Time to Teach: Assiduité des enseignants et temps d’enseignement dans les écoles primaires aux Comores

AUTHOR(S)
Despina Karamperidou; Brianna Guidorzi

Published: 2021 Innocenti Research Report

L’absentéisme des enseignants constitue un obstacle important à la réalisation d’une éducation universelle de qualité. Il est de plus en plus évident que l’absentéisme des enseignants constitue un problème particulier dans les pays à faible et moyen revenu du monde entier, les taux d’absentéisme scolaire des enseignants variant entre 15 et 45 % en Afrique subsaharienne.

Aux Comores, les études existantes suggèrent que l’absentéisme des enseignants est une préoccupation latente depuis des années. Cependant, la recherchesur les facteurs, les politiques et les pratiques qui affectent la présence des enseignants restent rares. L’étude « Time to Teach » (TTT) vise à combler ce fossé de connaissance. 

Leading Minds Online Yearbook 2020

Leading Minds Online Yearbook 2020

Published: 2021 Miscellanea
Leading Minds Online, like many good things, was born out of necessity. After a successful inaugural Leading Minds Conference at UNICEF Office of Research – Innocenti in Florence, Italy in November 2019, the office’s convening team began 2020 gearing up for the second annual conference. 

The COVID pandemic that began in late 2019 put a stop to that. So we took our convening online, convinced that the philosophy that underpinned the Leading Minds convening in 2019 - to bring experts from all walks of life – young people, academics, practitioners, policymakers, businesses, the media, civil society and UNICEF’s own expert staff – around the current and next-generation challenges and opportunities for children could be just as relevant online as it is in person. Hence Leading Minds Online was born on 6 May 2020, with our first webcast series focused on experts' opinions on the implications of COVID-19 on children’s lives and futures. This yearbook summarizes their contributions to each of the webcasts and highlights the recommendations of each virtual event.


Education sector analysis methodological guidelines Volume 3

Education sector analysis methodological guidelines Volume 3

AUTHOR(S)
Mathieu Brossard

Published: 2021 Innocenti Research Report
This present volume is the third in a series of education sector analysis (ESA) guidelines following two volumes published in 2014. The series provides methodologies and applied examples for diagnosing education systems and informing national education policies and plans. This volume proposes guidelines to strengthen national capacities in analyzing education systems in four areas: inclusive education system for children with disabilities, risk analysis for resilient education systems, functioning and effectiveness of the educational administration, and stakeholder mapping and problem-driven analysis (governance and political economy). The present volume was prepared by experts from various backgrounds (including education, economics, sociology, political science and other social sciences) from UNESCO‘s International Institute for Educational Planning, UNICEF, the United Kingdom’s Foreign, Commonwealth & Development Office and the Global Partnership for Education.
COVID-19 and the Looming Debt Crisis: Protecting and Transforming Social Spending for Inclusive Recoveries

COVID-19 and the Looming Debt Crisis: Protecting and Transforming Social Spending for Inclusive Recoveries

Published: 2021 Innocenti Research Report

Compounding the COVID-19 pandemic is a looming debt crisis for low- and middle-income countries where a growing debt burden threatens to crowd out social spending for children.

This policy brief explores whether the current support from the international community is enough to maintain spending on basic services during COVID-19. It highlights countries that are most at risk due to high levels of poverty, as well as those less likely to benefit from the G20 Debt Standstill (DSSI). It concludes that a new international debt restructuring architecture, which encompasses the needs of poorer countries, is crucial to protecting children’s rights in the wake of COVID-19. 

La didattica a distanza durante l’emergenza COVID-19: l’esperienza italiana

La didattica a distanza durante l’emergenza COVID-19: l’esperienza italiana

AUTHOR(S)
Giovanna Mascheroni; Daniel Kardefelt Winther; Marium Saeed; Lorenzo Giuseppe Zaffaroni; Davide Cino; Thomas Dreesen; Marco Valenza

Published: 2021 Innocenti Research Report

L'Italia e’ stata il primo paese in Europa ad aver applicato la misura del lockdown su tutto il territorio. I bambini e le loro famiglie hanno vissuto in quasi completo isolamento per circa due mesi. Gli studenti hanno perduto 65 giorni di scuola rispetto ad una media di 27 negli altri paesi ad alto reddito del mondo. Questa interruzione prolungata rappresenta motivo di preoccupazione, in quanto persino interruzioni piu’ brevi nella didattica possono causare significative perdite nel livello di istruzione dei ragazzi e portare  col tempo a diseguaglianze educative. Almeno 3 milioni di studenti in Italia non sono stati coinvolti nella didattica a distanza a causa d una mancanza di connessione ad internet o di dispositivi adeguati a casa.

Questo rapporto analizza l’esperienza della didattica a distanza di ragazzi e genitori in Italia durante il lockdown, sulla base dei dati raccolti in 11 paesi europei (e coordinati dal Centro comune di ricerca della Commissione Europea). Studia il cambiamento nell’accesso e nell’uso delle tecnologie digitali dei bambini e ragazzi durante la pandemia; mette in evidenza come le diseguaglianze esistenti possano diminuire le opportunità offerte dalla didattica a distanza, anche tra coloro che hanno accesso ad internet; e fornisce approfondimenti su come sostenere la didattica a distanza di bambini e ragazzi in futuro.

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