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UNICEF Innocenti's complete catalogue of research and reports
Increasing Women’s Representation in School Leadership: A promising path towards improving learning
SPOTLIGHT

Increasing Women’s Representation in School Leadership: A promising path towards improving learning

Emerging evidence shows a positive association between women school leaders and student performance. Some studies suggest women school leaders are more likely than their male counterparts to adopt effective management practices that may contribute to improved outcomes. However, women remain largely underrepresented in school leadership positions, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. This brief presents emerging insights on the association between women school leaders and education outcomes and draws attention to women’s underrepresentation in school leadership roles. It highlights the need for further research on gender and school leadership to identify policies and practices that can be implemented to increase women’s representation and scale high-quality management practices adopted by women leaders to more schools to improve education outcomes for all children.
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Annual Report 2021
Publication

Annual Report 2021

The UNICEF Innocenti Annual Report 2021 highlights the key results achieved in research and evidence to inform policymaking and programming.
1 - 12 of 18
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Attitudes to Inequality after Ten Years of Transition
Attitudes to Inequality after Ten Years of Transition

AUTHOR(S)
Gerry Redmond; Sylke Schnepf; Marc Suhrcke

Published: 2002 Innocenti Working Papers
This paper compares people’s attitudes to inequality at the end of the 1990s the qualities they perceive are needed to get ahead, the role of government and rewards for employment in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and Western countries. Data (from the 1999 International Social Survey Programme) suggest that overall, people in CEE express substantially more ‘egalitarian’ attitudes than those in the West, even after 10 years of economic adjustment to the market economy. The research produces important messages for policymakers, underlining the degree of support for public action concerning redistribution and warning them of the extent to which inequalities are felt in society, especially those that are perceived to be generated by ‘unfair’ means.
From Adjustment to Development in Africa: Conflict, controversy, convergence, consensus?

AUTHOR(S)
Giovanni Andrea Cornia; Gerald K. Helleiner

Published: 1994 Innocenti Publications
The economic crisis in sub-Saharan Africa in the 1980s and 1990s generated fierce debate among analysts and policy-makers concerning its causes and appropriate ways out of it. This volume addresses the key policy issues in structural adjustment in Africa. Among the policies addressed are those in the spheres of agriculture, trade, exchange rates, privatization, investment, social sectors, external relations and democratization.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 420 | Thematic area: Economic Development | Tags: adjustment policies, agricultural development, democratization, economic development, exchange rate, privatization, trade | Publisher: Publisher MacMillan UK ; UNICEF ICDC, Florence
Africa's Recovery in the 1990s: From stagnation and adjustment to human development. Summary
Africa's Recovery in the 1990s: From stagnation and adjustment to human development. Summary

AUTHOR(S)
John de St. Jorre; Giovanni Andrea Cornia; Rolf van der Hoeven

Published: 1992 Innocenti Publications
This study begins with an overview of the unique set of factors which paved the way towards Africa's economic, social and political crisis of unprecedented and paralysing proportions. A review of the programmes implemented - with little or no success - during the 1980s, mostly with International Moonetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank assistance, to lift Africa out of the stranglehold of poverty points to the urgent need for an alternative development strategy. The last part of this publication examines the components of such a strategy.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 64 | Thematic area: Economic Development | Tags: adjustment policies, economic recovery | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
Africa's Recovery in the 1990s: From stagnation and adjustment to human development

AUTHOR(S)
John de St. Jorre; Giovanni Andrea Cornia; Rolf van der Hoeven

Published: 1992 Innocenti Publications
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 375 | Thematic area: Economic Development | Tags: adjustment policies, economic recovery | Publisher: Macmillan, UK; UNICEF ICDC, Florence
L'Afrique vers la reprise économique - Résumé
L'Afrique vers la reprise économique - Résumé

AUTHOR(S)
John de St. Jorre; Giovanni Andrea Cornia; Rolf van der Hoeven

Published: 1992 Innocenti Publications
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 68 | Thematic area: Economic Development | Tags: adjustment policies, economic development | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
External Debt, Fiscal Drainage and Child Welfare: Trends and policy proposals
External Debt, Fiscal Drainage and Child Welfare: Trends and policy proposals

AUTHOR(S)
Stephany Griffith-Jones

Cite this publication | No. of pages: 40 | Thematic area: Economic Development | Tags: adjustment policies, child welfare, economic aid, external debt, fiscal policy | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
Is Adjustment Conducive to Long-Term Development? The case of Africa in the 1980s
Is Adjustment Conducive to Long-Term Development? The case of Africa in the 1980s

AUTHOR(S)
Giovanni Andrea Cornia

Cite this publication | No. of pages: 40 | Thematic area: Economic Development | Tags: adjustment policies, economic development, human development | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
Liberalisation for Development: Zimbabwe's adjustment without the fund
Liberalisation for Development: Zimbabwe's adjustment without the fund

AUTHOR(S)
Robert Davies; David Sanders; Timothy Shaw

Cite this publication | No. of pages: 60 | Thematic area: Economic Development | Tags: adjustment policies, economic development | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
The Impact of Self-imposed Adjustment: The Case of Burkina Faso, 1983-1989
The Impact of Self-imposed Adjustment: The Case of Burkina Faso, 1983-1989

AUTHOR(S)
Kimseyinga Savadogo; Claude Wetta

Cite this publication | No. of pages: 52 | Thematic area: Economic Development | Tags: adjustment policies, economic implications | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
Structural Adjustment, Growth and Human Welfare: The case of Niger, 1982-1989
Structural Adjustment, Growth and Human Welfare: The case of Niger, 1982-1989

AUTHOR(S)
Kiari Liman-Tinguiri

Cite this publication | No. of pages: 44 | Thematic area: Economic Development | Tags: adjustment policies, human development, structural adjustment | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
Ecuador: Crisis, adjustment and social policy in the 1980s
Ecuador: Crisis, adjustment and social policy in the 1980s
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 48 | Thematic area: Economic Development | Tags: adjustment policies, economic crisis, social policy | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
Fiscal Shock, Wage Compression and Structural Reform: Mexican adjustment and educational policy in the 1980s
Fiscal Shock, Wage Compression and Structural Reform: Mexican adjustment and educational policy in the 1980s

AUTHOR(S)
Fernando Valerio

Cite this publication | No. of pages: 48 | Thematic area: Economic Development | Tags: adjustment policies, economic policy, educational policy, fiscal policy | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
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Responsible Innovation in Technology for Children: Digital technology, play and child well-being
Publication

Responsible Innovation in Technology for Children: Digital technology, play and child well-being

Digital experiences can have significant negative impact on children, exposing them to risks or failing to nurture them adequately. Nevertheless, digital experiences also potentially yield enormous benefits for children, enabling them to learn, to create, to develop friendships, and to build worlds. While global efforts to deepen our understanding of the prevalence and impact of digital risks of harm are burgeoning – a development that is both welcome and necessary – less attention has been paid to understanding and optimizing the benefits that digital technology can provide in supporting children’s rights and their well-being. Benefits here refer not only to the absence of harm, but also to creating additional positive value. How should we recognize the opportunities and benefits of digital technology for children’s well-being? What is the relationship between the design of digital experiences – in particular, play-centred design – and the well-being of children? What guidance and measures can we use to strengthen the design of digital environments to promote positive outcomes for children? And how can we make sure that children’s insights and needs form the foundation of our work in this space? These questions matter for all those who design and promote digital experiences, to keep children safe and happy, and enable positive development and learning. These questions are particularly relevant as the world shifts its attention to emerging digital technologies and experiences, from artificial intelligence (AI) to the metaverse, and seeks to understand their impact on people and society. To begin to tackle these questions, UNICEF and the LEGO Group initiated the Responsible Innovation in Technology for Children (RITEC) project in partnership with the Young and Resilient Research Centre at Western Sydney University; the CREATE Lab at New York University; the Graduate Center, City University of New York; the University of Sheffield; the Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for the Digital Child; and the Joan Ganz Cooney Center. The research is funded by the LEGO Foundation. The partnership is an international, multi-stakeholder and cross-sectoral collaboration between organizations that believe the design and development of digital technology should support the rights and well-being of children as a primary objective – and that children should have a prominent voice in making this a reality. This project’s primary objective is to develop, with children from around the world, a framework that maps how the design of children’s digital experiences affects their well-being, and to provide guidance as to how informed design choices can promote positive well-being outcomes.
Resources to Support Marginalized Caregivers of Children with Disabilities: Guidelines for Implementation
Publication

Resources to Support Marginalized Caregivers of Children with Disabilities: Guidelines for Implementation

Support from caregivers is critical for children’s learning both at home and at school. However, the COVID-19 pandemic and disruption of education systems globally created additional expectations for parents to support their children’s learning at home. This particularly affected the most marginalized children as the crises exacerbated already existing inequalities in education. This document introduces the approach and purpose of a set of resources to support the marginalized caregivers of children with disabilities with inclusive education. It presents lessons learned from proof-of-concept pilots in Armenia and Uzbekistan, followed by step-by-step guidelines on how to adopt and adapt the resources for education ministries and others who want to implement them in their education system.
Reopening with Resilience: Lessons from Remote Learning during COVID-19: Europe and Central Asia
Publication

Reopening with Resilience: Lessons from Remote Learning during COVID-19: Europe and Central Asia

When schools started closing their doors due to COVID-19, countries in Europe and Central Asia quickly provided alternative learning solutions for children to continue learning. More than 90 per cent of countries offered digital solutions to ensure that education activities could continue. However, lack of access to digital devices and a reliable internet connection excluded a significant amount of already marginalized children and threatened to widen the existing learning disparities. This report builds on existing evidence highlighting key lessons learned during the pandemic to promote learning for all during school closure and provides actionable policy recommendations on how to bridge the digital divide and build resilient education systems in Europe and Central Asia.

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