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UNICEF Innocenti's complete catalogue of research and reports
Reimagining Migration Responses: Learning from children and young people who move in the Horn of Africa
SPOTLIGHT

Reimagining Migration Responses: Learning from children and young people who move in the Horn of Africa

The number of international migrants under 18 is rising, accelerated by complex and fast-evolving economic, demographic, security and environmental drivers. Based on interviews carried out with 1,290 migrant children and young people in Ethiopia, Somalia and Sudan, this report helps address the evidence gap on children and young people migrating in the Horn of Africa by providing a better understanding of their protective environments; their access to services and resources; and their perceptions of safety, well-being and trust in authorities and other providers. It concludes by offering policy and programme recommendations to rethink child protection approaches for migrants in the region.
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COVID-19: Missing More Than a Classroom. The impact of school closures on children’s nutrition
Blog Blog

COVID-19: Missing More Than a Classroom. The impact of school closures on children’s nutrition

In 2019, 135 million people in 55 countries were in food crises or worse, and 2 billion people did not have regular access to safe, nutritious and sufficient food. COVID-19 has exacerbated these hardships and may result in an additional 121 million people facing acute food insecurity by the end of 2020. Further, since the beginning of the pandemic, an estimated 1.6 billion learners in 199 countries worldwide were affected by school closures, with nearly 370 million children not receiving a school meal in 150 countries. The paper presents the evidence on the potential negative short-term and long-term effects of school meal scheme disruption during Covid-19 globally. It shows how vulnerable the children participating in these schemes are, how coping and mitigation measures are often only short-term solutions, and how prioritizing school re-opening is critical. For instance, it highlights how girls are at greater risk of not being in school or of being taken out of school early, which may lead to poor nutrition and health for themselves and their children. However, well-designed school feeding programmes have been shown to enable catch-up from early growth failure and other negative shocks. As such, once schools re-open, school meal schemes can help address the deprivation that children have experienced during the closures and provide an incentive for parents to send and keep their children, especially girls, in school.
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Piattaforma d'azione. Verso l'abbandono della escissione/mutilazione genitale femminile (E/MGF)
Piattaforma d'azione. Verso l'abbandono della escissione/mutilazione genitale femminile (E/MGF)
Published: 2010 Innocenti Publications
L’UNICEF ha stimato che, in un arco temporale di 10 anni, con un costo annuale di circa 24 milioni di dollari, i programmi rivolti alle comunità locali potranno portare a riduzioni sostanziali nella pratica della E/MGF in 16 paesi dell’Africa subsahariana, dove la prevalenza attuale raggiunge livelli elevati o medi. La Piattaforma d’azione sintetizza gli elementi principali di un approccio programmatico comune per promuovere l’abbandono di tale pratica e per suscitare un drastico cambiamento nella vita di donne e bambine in tutto il mondo.
Plate-forme d'action pour l'abandon de l'excision/mutilation génitale féminine (E/MGF)
Plate-forme d'action pour l'abandon de l'excision/mutilation génitale féminine (E/MGF)
Published: 2009 Innocenti Publications
L’UNICEF a estimé que des programmes visant à sensibiliser les communautés, pour un coût de 24 millions de dollars des États-Unis par an sur une période de 10 ans, peuvent conduire à une réduction importante de la prévalence de l’E/MGF dans 16 pays d’Afrique subsaharienne à taux de prévalence moyen ou élevé. Cette plate-forme d’action en résume les éléments constitutifs un consensus sur une approche programmatique commune pour appuyer l’abandon de cette pratique et changer substantiellement la vie des filles et des femmes à travers le monde.
Ethiopia: Social dynamics of abandonment of harmful practices. Experiences in four locations
Ethiopia: Social dynamics of abandonment of harmful practices. Experiences in four locations
Published: 2009 Innocenti Working Papers
Special Series on Social Norms and Harmful Practices

Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C) is still a widespread practice in Ethiopia, although important declines in prevalence rates can be observed in some areas of the country. Attitudes towards the practice have drastically changed, evidenced by the fact that overall support for FGM/C has declined and younger mothers are less likely than older mothers to have their daughters cut. This paper provides an analysis of the social dynamics of change in four geographic locations with different ethnic populations in Ethiopia, where interventions were undertaken to support the abandonment of FGM/C and other harmful practices. Each experience used community conversation and dialogue as a tool to promote the abandonment process, although their overall strategies and impact differed. The four experiences together provide a greater understanding of the process of change within communities and the role played by key actors within and outside the community. The study demonstrates that by addressing FGM/C within a human rights context, community members are able to consider not cutting as a possible alternative to the existing convention of cutting. The human rights perspective also encourages reflection on gender roles, generating interest and dialogue about other social practices that harm women and girls, such as marriage by abduction and early marriage.
Sudan: An in-depth analysis of the social dynamics of abandonment of FGM/C
Sudan: An in-depth analysis of the social dynamics of abandonment of FGM/C
Published: 2009 Innocenti Working Papers
Special Series on Social Norms and Harmful Practices

This paper examines the experience of Sudan by analysing the factors that promote and support the abandonment of female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) and other harmful social practices. FGM/C is still widely practiced in all regions of northern Sudan but today actors are mobilizing across the country to end the practice. This paper analyses programmes that support ending FGM/C in Sudan and highlights the key factors that promote collective abandonment of the practice, including the roles of community dialogue, human rights deliberation, community-led activities, and the powerful force of local rewards and punishment. The Sudan experience demonstrates that social norms can change when a new understanding and appreciation of communities’ traditions and values is introduced. At policy level, the paper describes the adoption of laws and policies that prohibit or criminalize all forms of FGM/C and the introduction of integrated communication campaigns that have mobilized multiple actors to adopt and voice a consistent and clear stance against FGM/C.
Social Dynamics of Abandonment of Harmful Practices: A new look at the theory
Social Dynamics of Abandonment of Harmful Practices: A new look at the theory

AUTHOR(S)
Gerry Mackie

Published: 2009 Innocenti Working Papers
Special Series on Social Norms and Harmful Practices

The essay refines the application of the social convention theory to the practice of female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C). The theory compares footbinding in China to FGM/C in Africa, explains each practice in terms of simple game theory, and recommends that the methods used to end footbinding be adapted to end FGM/C. It hypothesizes that each practice originated in highly stratified ancient empires, and became an ongoing requirement of marriageability, general and persistent within the intramarrying community because no one family can give it up on its own.
A Study on Violence against Girls: Report on the International Girl Child Conference March 9-10, The Hague
A Study on Violence against Girls: Report on the International Girl Child Conference March 9-10, The Hague
Published: 2009 Innocenti Publications
This publication was jointly developed by the UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre (IRC) and the Government of the Netherlands. It includes a background document prepared by IRC and summarizes the discussions and outcomes of the International Conference on Violence against the Girl Child held in The Hague from 9-10 March 2009. The conference addressed gaps in knowledge, research and responses to violence against girls in the home and family, and was a follow-up to the United Nations Secretary-General’s Study on Violence against Children.
Platform for Action. Towards the abandonment of Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C)
Platform for Action. Towards the abandonment of Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C)
Published: 2008 Innocenti Publications
UNICEF has estimated that community oriented programmes costing about US$24 million each year over the next 10 years can lead to major reductions in the prevalence of FGM/C in 16 sub-Saharan African countries with high or medium prevalence. This Platform for Action summarizes the elements of a a common programmatic approach to support the abandonment of the practice and make a major difference for girls and women worldwide.
Platform for Action. Towards the abandonment of Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C) (Arabic)
Platform for Action. Towards the abandonment of Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C) (Arabic)
Published: 2008 Innocenti Publications
UNICEF has estimated that community oriented programmes costing about US$24 million each year over the next 10 years can lead to major reductions in the prevalence of FGM/C in 16 sub-Saharan African countries with high or medium prevalence. This Platform for Action summarizes the elements of a a common programmatic approach to support the abandonment of the practice and make a major difference for girls and women worldwide.
Toward a Common Framework for the Abandonment of FGM/C
Toward a Common Framework for the Abandonment of FGM/C
Published: 2007 Innocenti Publications
UNICEF has estimated that community-oriented programmes costing about US$24 million each year over the next 10 years can lead to major reductions in the prevalence of FGM/C in 126 sub-Saharan African countries with high or medium prevalence. This 'Platform for Action' summarizes the elements of a common programmatic approach to support the abandonment of the practice and make a difference for girls and women worldwide. The Donors Working Group on FGM/C has, since 2001, brought together key governmental and intergovernmental organizations and foundations committed to supporting the abandonment of FGM/C.
Verso un quadro programmatico comune per l'abbandono delle MGF/E
Verso un quadro programmatico comune per l'abbandono delle MGF/E
Published: 2007 Innocenti Publications
Gli impegni degli Stati per proteggere le bambine dalle mutilazioni/escissione dei genitali mettono in risalto che le MGF/E sono una violazione dei diritti umani delle bambine e delle donne e che hanno gravi conseguenze su di loro. Questo quadro programmatico comune riunisce esperienze di programmi sostenuti con successo da ONG nazionali che lavorano sul territorio, sperimentate teorie accademiche e un’impostazione basata sui diritti umani. Si tratta di un approccio sistemico che stimola e sostiene una trasformazione sociale su vasta scala a vantaggio dell’infanzia e delle donne. È basato essenzialmente su una formazione emancipativa e su una comunicazione partecipativa.
Vers un cadre commun pour l'abandon de l'E/MGF
Vers un cadre commun pour l'abandon de l'E/MGF
Published: 2007 Innocenti Publications
Les engagements des États pour protéger les filles contre l’excision/mutilation génitale féminine mettent en évidence que l’E/MGF représente une violation des droits humains des filles et des femmes et qu’elle est source de conséquences néfastes pour celles-ci. Dans le cadre commun sont rassemblées des expériences de programme menées avec succès grâce à l’appui d’ONG nationales opérant sur le terrain, des théories scientifiques éprouvées et une perspective en termes de droits humains. Il s’agit d’une approche systématique visant à stimuler et à soutenir une transformation sociale à grande échelle au profit des enfants et des femmes. Le renforcement de l’éducation et de la communication participative en constitue le coeur.
نحو إطار مشترك للتخ ّ لي عن ختان الإناث
نحو إطار مشترك للتخ ّ لي عن ختان الإناث
Published: 2007 Innocenti Publications
أعدَّت هذه الوثيقة مجموعة عمل آلية التنسيق الفني الدولية للمانحين المعروفة باسم ”مجموعة عمل المانحين المعنية بختان الإناث (بتر/قطع الأعضاء التناسلية الظاهرة)“. وتضم المجموعة في عضويتها في المرحلة الراهنة UNFIP ، وصندوق الأمم المتحدة للسكان، ومنظمة الأمم المتحدة للطفولة (يونيسف)، ومنظمة الصحة العالمية، والمفوضية الأوروبية، والبنك الدولي، ووكالة التعاون التنموي الألمانية ( GTZ )، وفنلندا، وإيطاليا، والسويد (الوكالة السويدية للإنماء الدولي)، والوكالة البريطانية للإنماء الدولي، والوكالة الأمريكية للإنماء الدولي، ومؤسسة فورد، ومؤسسة الرفاه العام، وصندوق والاس Wallace العالمي، وهي تتوسع سريعاً. والشكر الخالص موصول أيضاً إلى عدد كبير ومتنوع من المنظمات الحكومية، والمنظمات غير الحكومية الأهلية والدولية، وإلى الأكاديميين الذين قدموا المشورة، والمدخلات (الآراء وغيرها) والدعم لإعداد النهج المشترك، وعلى ما قاموا به جميعهم من عمل في جميع أرجاء العالم. وقد أنتجت اليونيسف هذه الوثيقةَ، وهي تعمل بمثابة السكرتارية (أمانة السر) لمجموعة عمل المانحين المعنية بختان الإناث.
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Learning at a Distance: Children’s remote learning experiences in Italy during the COVID-19 pandemic
Publication Publication

Learning at a Distance: Children’s remote learning experiences in Italy during the COVID-19 pandemic

Italy was the first country in Europe to implement a nationwide lockdown. Children and their families lived in nearly complete isolation for almost two months. Students missed 65 days of school compared to an average of 27 missed days among high-income countries worldwide. This prolonged break is of concern, as even short breaks in schooling can cause significant loss of learning for children and lead to educational inequalities over time. At least 3 million Italian students may not have been reached by remote learning due to a lack of internet connectivity or devices at home. This report explores children’s and parents’ experiences of remote learning during the lockdown in Italy, drawing on data collected from 11 European countries (and coordinated by the European Commission’s Joint Research Center). It explores how children's access and use of digital technologies changed during the pandemic; highlights how existing inequalities might undermine remote learning opportunities, even among those with internet access; and provides insights on how to support children’s remote learning in the future. *** L'Italia e’ stata il primo paese in Europa ad aver applicato la misura del lockdown su tutto il territorio. I bambini e le loro famiglie hanno vissuto in quasi completo isolamento per circa due mesi. Gli studenti hanno perduto 65 giorni di scuola rispetto ad una media di 27 negli altri paesi ad alto reddito del mondo. Questa interruzione prolungata rappresenta motivo di preoccupazione, in quanto persino interruzioni piu’ brevi nella didattica possono causare significative perdite nel livello di istruzione dei ragazzi e portare col tempo a diseguaglianze educative. Almeno 3 milioni di studenti in Italia non sono stati coinvolti nella didattica a distanza a causa d una mancanza di connessione ad internet o di dispositivi adeguati a casa. Questo rapporto analizza l’esperienza della didattica a distanza di ragazzi e genitori in Italia durante il lockdown, sulla base dei dati raccolti in 11 paesi europei (e coordinati dal Centro comune di ricerca della Commissione Europea). Studia il cambiamento nell’accesso e nell’uso delle tecnologie digitali dei bambini e ragazzi durante la pandemia; mette in evidenza come le diseguaglianze esistenti possano diminuire le opportunità offerte dalla didattica a distanza, anche tra coloro che hanno accesso ad internet; e fornisce approfondimenti su come sostenere la didattica a distanza di bambini e ragazzi in futuro.
Time to Teach: Teacher attendance and time on task in Eastern and Southern Africa
Publication Publication

Time to Teach: Teacher attendance and time on task in Eastern and Southern Africa

There is a learning crisis. Fifty-three per cent of children in low- and middle-income countries are in ‘learning poverty’, i.e. they cannot read and understand a simple text by the end of primary school age. In sub- Saharan Africa, the learning poverty rate is 87 per cent overall, and ranges from 40 per cent to as high as 99 per cent in the 21 countries with available data. Teachers attending lessons and spending quality time on task is a critical prerequisite to learning. However, in sub-Saharan Africa, teacher absenteeism ranges from 15 to 45 per cent. Teacher absenteeism and reduced time on task wastes valuable financial resources, short-changes students and is one of the most cumbersome obstacles on the path toward the education Sustainable Development Goal and to the related vision of the new UNICEF education strategy: Every Child Learns. Whilst the stark numbers are available to study, and despite teacher absenteeism being a foremost challenge for education systems in Africa, the evidence base on how policies and practices can influence teacher attendance remains scant. Time to Teach (TTT) is a research initiative that looks at primary school teacher attendance in eight countries and territories in the Eastern and Southern Africa (ESA) region: the Comoros; Kenya; Rwanda, Puntland, State of Somalia; South Sudan; the United Republic of Tanzania, mainland; the United Republic of Tanzania, Zanzibar; and Uganda. Its primary objective is to identify factors affecting the various forms of teacher attendance, which include being at school, being punctual, being in the classroom, and teaching when in the classroom, and use this evidence to inform the design and implementation of teacher policies.

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