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Increasing Women’s Representation in School Leadership: A promising path towards improving learning
SPOTLIGHT

Increasing Women’s Representation in School Leadership: A promising path towards improving learning

Emerging evidence shows a positive association between women school leaders and student performance. Some studies suggest women school leaders are more likely than their male counterparts to adopt effective management practices that may contribute to improved outcomes. However, women remain largely underrepresented in school leadership positions, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. This brief presents emerging insights on the association between women school leaders and education outcomes and draws attention to women’s underrepresentation in school leadership roles. It highlights the need for further research on gender and school leadership to identify policies and practices that can be implemented to increase women’s representation and scale high-quality management practices adopted by women leaders to more schools to improve education outcomes for all children.
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Annual Report 2021
Publication

Annual Report 2021

The UNICEF Innocenti Annual Report 2021 highlights the key results achieved in research and evidence to inform policymaking and programming.
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Piattaforma d'azione. Verso l'abbandono della escissione/mutilazione genitale femminile (E/MGF)
Piattaforma d'azione. Verso l'abbandono della escissione/mutilazione genitale femminile (E/MGF)
Published: 2010 Innocenti Publications
L’UNICEF ha stimato che, in un arco temporale di 10 anni, con un costo annuale di circa 24 milioni di dollari, i programmi rivolti alle comunità locali potranno portare a riduzioni sostanziali nella pratica della E/MGF in 16 paesi dell’Africa subsahariana, dove la prevalenza attuale raggiunge livelli elevati o medi. La Piattaforma d’azione sintetizza gli elementi principali di un approccio programmatico comune per promuovere l’abbandono di tale pratica e per suscitare un drastico cambiamento nella vita di donne e bambine in tutto il mondo.
Plate-forme d'action pour l'abandon de l'excision/mutilation génitale féminine (E/MGF)
Plate-forme d'action pour l'abandon de l'excision/mutilation génitale féminine (E/MGF)
Published: 2009 Innocenti Publications
L’UNICEF a estimé que des programmes visant à sensibiliser les communautés, pour un coût de 24 millions de dollars des États-Unis par an sur une période de 10 ans, peuvent conduire à une réduction importante de la prévalence de l’E/MGF dans 16 pays d’Afrique subsaharienne à taux de prévalence moyen ou élevé. Cette plate-forme d’action en résume les éléments constitutifs un consensus sur une approche programmatique commune pour appuyer l’abandon de cette pratique et changer substantiellement la vie des filles et des femmes à travers le monde.
Ethiopia: Social dynamics of abandonment of harmful practices. Experiences in four locations
Ethiopia: Social dynamics of abandonment of harmful practices. Experiences in four locations

AUTHOR(S)
Haile Gabriel Dagne

Published: 2009 Innocenti Working Papers
Special Series on Social Norms and Harmful Practices

Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C) is still a widespread practice in Ethiopia, although important declines in prevalence rates can be observed in some areas of the country. Attitudes towards the practice have drastically changed, evidenced by the fact that overall support for FGM/C has declined and younger mothers are less likely than older mothers to have their daughters cut. This paper provides an analysis of the social dynamics of change in four geographic locations with different ethnic populations in Ethiopia, where interventions were undertaken to support the abandonment of FGM/C and other harmful practices. Each experience used community conversation and dialogue as a tool to promote the abandonment process, although their overall strategies and impact differed. The four experiences together provide a greater understanding of the process of change within communities and the role played by key actors within and outside the community. The study demonstrates that by addressing FGM/C within a human rights context, community members are able to consider not cutting as a possible alternative to the existing convention of cutting. The human rights perspective also encourages reflection on gender roles, generating interest and dialogue about other social practices that harm women and girls, such as marriage by abduction and early marriage.
Sudan: An in-depth analysis of the social dynamics of abandonment of FGM/C
Sudan: An in-depth analysis of the social dynamics of abandonment of FGM/C

AUTHOR(S)
Samira Ahmed; S. Al Hebshi; B. V. Nylund

Published: 2009 Innocenti Working Papers
Special Series on Social Norms and Harmful Practices

This paper examines the experience of Sudan by analysing the factors that promote and support the abandonment of female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) and other harmful social practices. FGM/C is still widely practiced in all regions of northern Sudan but today actors are mobilizing across the country to end the practice. This paper analyses programmes that support ending FGM/C in Sudan and highlights the key factors that promote collective abandonment of the practice, including the roles of community dialogue, human rights deliberation, community-led activities, and the powerful force of local rewards and punishment. The Sudan experience demonstrates that social norms can change when a new understanding and appreciation of communities’ traditions and values is introduced. At policy level, the paper describes the adoption of laws and policies that prohibit or criminalize all forms of FGM/C and the introduction of integrated communication campaigns that have mobilized multiple actors to adopt and voice a consistent and clear stance against FGM/C.
Social Dynamics of Abandonment of Harmful Practices: A new look at the theory
Social Dynamics of Abandonment of Harmful Practices: A new look at the theory

AUTHOR(S)
Gerry Mackie

Published: 2009 Innocenti Working Papers
Special Series on Social Norms and Harmful Practices

The essay refines the application of the social convention theory to the practice of female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C). The theory compares footbinding in China to FGM/C in Africa, explains each practice in terms of simple game theory, and recommends that the methods used to end footbinding be adapted to end FGM/C. It hypothesizes that each practice originated in highly stratified ancient empires, and became an ongoing requirement of marriageability, general and persistent within the intramarrying community because no one family can give it up on its own.
A Study on Violence against Girls: Report on the International Girl Child Conference March 9-10, The Hague
A Study on Violence against Girls: Report on the International Girl Child Conference March 9-10, The Hague
Published: 2009 Innocenti Publications
This publication was jointly developed by the UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre (IRC) and the Government of the Netherlands. It includes a background document prepared by IRC and summarizes the discussions and outcomes of the International Conference on Violence against the Girl Child held in The Hague from 9-10 March 2009. The conference addressed gaps in knowledge, research and responses to violence against girls in the home and family, and was a follow-up to the United Nations Secretary-General’s Study on Violence against Children.
Platform for Action. Towards the abandonment of Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C)
Platform for Action. Towards the abandonment of Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C)
Published: 2008 Innocenti Publications
UNICEF has estimated that community oriented programmes costing about US$24 million each year over the next 10 years can lead to major reductions in the prevalence of FGM/C in 16 sub-Saharan African countries with high or medium prevalence. This Platform for Action summarizes the elements of a a common programmatic approach to support the abandonment of the practice and make a major difference for girls and women worldwide.
Platform for Action. Towards the abandonment of Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C) (Arabic)
Platform for Action. Towards the abandonment of Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C) (Arabic)
Published: 2008 Innocenti Publications
UNICEF has estimated that community oriented programmes costing about US$24 million each year over the next 10 years can lead to major reductions in the prevalence of FGM/C in 16 sub-Saharan African countries with high or medium prevalence. This Platform for Action summarizes the elements of a a common programmatic approach to support the abandonment of the practice and make a major difference for girls and women worldwide.
Toward a Common Framework for the Abandonment of FGM/C
Toward a Common Framework for the Abandonment of FGM/C
Published: 2007 Innocenti Publications
UNICEF has estimated that community-oriented programmes costing about US$24 million each year over the next 10 years can lead to major reductions in the prevalence of FGM/C in 126 sub-Saharan African countries with high or medium prevalence. This 'Platform for Action' summarizes the elements of a common programmatic approach to support the abandonment of the practice and make a difference for girls and women worldwide. The Donors Working Group on FGM/C has, since 2001, brought together key governmental and intergovernmental organizations and foundations committed to supporting the abandonment of FGM/C.
Verso un quadro programmatico comune per l'abbandono delle MGF/E
Verso un quadro programmatico comune per l'abbandono delle MGF/E
Published: 2007 Innocenti Publications
Gli impegni degli Stati per proteggere le bambine dalle mutilazioni/escissione dei genitali mettono in risalto che le MGF/E sono una violazione dei diritti umani delle bambine e delle donne e che hanno gravi conseguenze su di loro. Questo quadro programmatico comune riunisce esperienze di programmi sostenuti con successo da ONG nazionali che lavorano sul territorio, sperimentate teorie accademiche e un’impostazione basata sui diritti umani. Si tratta di un approccio sistemico che stimola e sostiene una trasformazione sociale su vasta scala a vantaggio dell’infanzia e delle donne. È basato essenzialmente su una formazione emancipativa e su una comunicazione partecipativa.
Vers un cadre commun pour l'abandon de l'E/MGF
Vers un cadre commun pour l'abandon de l'E/MGF
Published: 2007 Innocenti Publications
Les engagements des États pour protéger les filles contre l’excision/mutilation génitale féminine mettent en évidence que l’E/MGF représente une violation des droits humains des filles et des femmes et qu’elle est source de conséquences néfastes pour celles-ci. Dans le cadre commun sont rassemblées des expériences de programme menées avec succès grâce à l’appui d’ONG nationales opérant sur le terrain, des théories scientifiques éprouvées et une perspective en termes de droits humains. Il s’agit d’une approche systématique visant à stimuler et à soutenir une transformation sociale à grande échelle au profit des enfants et des femmes. Le renforcement de l’éducation et de la communication participative en constitue le coeur.
نحو إطار مشترك للتخ ّ لي عن ختان الإناث
نحو إطار مشترك للتخ ّ لي عن ختان الإناث
Published: 2007 Innocenti Publications
أعدَّت هذه الوثيقة مجموعة عمل آلية التنسيق الفني الدولية للمانحين المعروفة باسم ”مجموعة عمل المانحين المعنية بختان الإناث (بتر/قطع الأعضاء التناسلية الظاهرة)“. وتضم المجموعة في عضويتها في المرحلة الراهنة UNFIP ، وصندوق الأمم المتحدة للسكان، ومنظمة الأمم المتحدة للطفولة (يونيسف)، ومنظمة الصحة العالمية، والمفوضية الأوروبية، والبنك الدولي، ووكالة التعاون التنموي الألمانية ( GTZ )، وفنلندا، وإيطاليا، والسويد (الوكالة السويدية للإنماء الدولي)، والوكالة البريطانية للإنماء الدولي، والوكالة الأمريكية للإنماء الدولي، ومؤسسة فورد، ومؤسسة الرفاه العام، وصندوق والاس Wallace العالمي، وهي تتوسع سريعاً. والشكر الخالص موصول أيضاً إلى عدد كبير ومتنوع من المنظمات الحكومية، والمنظمات غير الحكومية الأهلية والدولية، وإلى الأكاديميين الذين قدموا المشورة، والمدخلات (الآراء وغيرها) والدعم لإعداد النهج المشترك، وعلى ما قاموا به جميعهم من عمل في جميع أرجاء العالم. وقد أنتجت اليونيسف هذه الوثيقةَ، وهي تعمل بمثابة السكرتارية (أمانة السر) لمجموعة عمل المانحين المعنية بختان الإناث.
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JOURNAL ARTICLES BLOGS
Responsible Innovation in Technology for Children: Digital technology, play and child well-being
Publication

Responsible Innovation in Technology for Children: Digital technology, play and child well-being

Digital experiences can have significant negative impact on children, exposing them to risks or failing to nurture them adequately. Nevertheless, digital experiences also potentially yield enormous benefits for children, enabling them to learn, to create, to develop friendships, and to build worlds. While global efforts to deepen our understanding of the prevalence and impact of digital risks of harm are burgeoning – a development that is both welcome and necessary – less attention has been paid to understanding and optimizing the benefits that digital technology can provide in supporting children’s rights and their well-being. Benefits here refer not only to the absence of harm, but also to creating additional positive value. How should we recognize the opportunities and benefits of digital technology for children’s well-being? What is the relationship between the design of digital experiences – in particular, play-centred design – and the well-being of children? What guidance and measures can we use to strengthen the design of digital environments to promote positive outcomes for children? And how can we make sure that children’s insights and needs form the foundation of our work in this space? These questions matter for all those who design and promote digital experiences, to keep children safe and happy, and enable positive development and learning. These questions are particularly relevant as the world shifts its attention to emerging digital technologies and experiences, from artificial intelligence (AI) to the metaverse, and seeks to understand their impact on people and society. To begin to tackle these questions, UNICEF and the LEGO Group initiated the Responsible Innovation in Technology for Children (RITEC) project in partnership with the Young and Resilient Research Centre at Western Sydney University; the CREATE Lab at New York University; the Graduate Center, City University of New York; the University of Sheffield; the Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for the Digital Child; and the Joan Ganz Cooney Center. The research is funded by the LEGO Foundation. The partnership is an international, multi-stakeholder and cross-sectoral collaboration between organizations that believe the design and development of digital technology should support the rights and well-being of children as a primary objective – and that children should have a prominent voice in making this a reality. This project’s primary objective is to develop, with children from around the world, a framework that maps how the design of children’s digital experiences affects their well-being, and to provide guidance as to how informed design choices can promote positive well-being outcomes.
Resources to Support Marginalized Caregivers of Children with Disabilities: Guidelines for Implementation
Publication

Resources to Support Marginalized Caregivers of Children with Disabilities: Guidelines for Implementation

Support from caregivers is critical for children’s learning both at home and at school. However, the COVID-19 pandemic and disruption of education systems globally created additional expectations for parents to support their children’s learning at home. This particularly affected the most marginalized children as the crises exacerbated already existing inequalities in education. This document introduces the approach and purpose of a set of resources to support the marginalized caregivers of children with disabilities with inclusive education. It presents lessons learned from proof-of-concept pilots in Armenia and Uzbekistan, followed by step-by-step guidelines on how to adopt and adapt the resources for education ministries and others who want to implement them in their education system.
Reopening with Resilience: Lessons from Remote Learning during COVID-19: Europe and Central Asia
Publication

Reopening with Resilience: Lessons from Remote Learning during COVID-19: Europe and Central Asia

When schools started closing their doors due to COVID-19, countries in Europe and Central Asia quickly provided alternative learning solutions for children to continue learning. More than 90 per cent of countries offered digital solutions to ensure that education activities could continue. However, lack of access to digital devices and a reliable internet connection excluded a significant amount of already marginalized children and threatened to widen the existing learning disparities. This report builds on existing evidence highlighting key lessons learned during the pandemic to promote learning for all during school closure and provides actionable policy recommendations on how to bridge the digital divide and build resilient education systems in Europe and Central Asia.

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