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Increasing Women’s Representation in School Leadership: A promising path towards improving learning
SPOTLIGHT

Increasing Women’s Representation in School Leadership: A promising path towards improving learning

Emerging evidence shows a positive association between women school leaders and student performance. Some studies suggest women school leaders are more likely than their male counterparts to adopt effective management practices that may contribute to improved outcomes. However, women remain largely underrepresented in school leadership positions, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. This brief presents emerging insights on the association between women school leaders and education outcomes and draws attention to women’s underrepresentation in school leadership roles. It highlights the need for further research on gender and school leadership to identify policies and practices that can be implemented to increase women’s representation and scale high-quality management practices adopted by women leaders to more schools to improve education outcomes for all children.
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Annual Report 2021
Publication

Annual Report 2021

The UNICEF Innocenti Annual Report 2021 highlights the key results achieved in research and evidence to inform policymaking and programming.
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Le dinamiche del cambiamento sociale: verso l'abbandono dell'escissione/mutilazione dei genitali femminili in cinque paesi africani
Le dinamiche del cambiamento sociale: verso l'abbandono dell'escissione/mutilazione dei genitali femminili in cinque paesi africani
Published: 2011 Innocenti Insights
La pratica dell'E/MGF è a tutti gli effetti un atto di violenza, anche quando non è intesa come tale; è una manifestazione di disuguaglianze di genere profondamente radicate e ha natura discriminatoria. Essa si fonda su concezioni culturali della differenza di genere, della sessualità, del matrimonio e della famiglia che influenzano il modo in cui viene percepita e tollerata in contesti diversi. Nonostante le notevoli differenze riscontrate tra i cinque paesi analizzati come pure al loro interno, le esperienze confermano che, nelle comunità in cui viene perpetrata, l’E/MGF è vista come un passo necessario per crescere e proteggere una bambina e, spesso, per renderla adatta al matrimonio. L’escissione/mutilazione genitale femminile opera come una convenzione e una norma sociale perpetuata dalle aspettative reciproche all’interno di queste comunità.
The Dynamics of Social Change: Towards the abandonment of FGM/C in five African countries
The Dynamics of Social Change: Towards the abandonment of FGM/C in five African countries
Published: 2010 Innocenti Insights
This Innocenti Insight examines the social dynamics of the abandonment of female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) in five countries - Egypt, Ethiopia, Kenya, Senegal and the Sudan - and seeks to inform policies and programmes aimed at ending the practice. The experiences from the five countries documented in this Innocenti Insight provide evidence that the abandonment of FGM/C is possible when programmes and policies address the complex social dynamics associated with the practice and challenge established gender relationships and existing assumptions and stereotypes. This publication concludes with reflections on the remaining challenges of FGM/C abandonment and offers recommendations for future research and programme interventions.
La dynamique du changement social: vers l'abandon de l'excision/mutilation génitale fémine dans cinq pays africains
La dynamique du changement social: vers l'abandon de l'excision/mutilation génitale fémine dans cinq pays africains
Published: 2010 Innocenti Insights
Après avoir procédé à l’analyse de la dynamique sociale qui sous-tend l’éradication de l’excision et mutilation génitale féminine (E/MGF) dans cinq pays - l’Égypte, l’Éthiopie, le Kenya, le Sénégal et le Soudan - cet Innocenti Insight se propose de promouvoir l’élaboration de mesures politiques et de programmes de lutte contre ces coutumes. Les expériences menées dans ces cinq pays et rapportées dans cet Innocenti Insight apportent la preuve qu’il est possible de mettre fin à l’E/MGF si les programmes et les politiques s’intéressent à la dynamique sociale complexe associée à ces pratiques et remettent en question les relations hommes/femmes, les stéréotypes et les préjugés existants. Dans ses conclusions, la publication propose des réflexions sur les derniers obstacles à l’abandon de l’E/MGF et formule des recommandations pour les futurs programmes de recherche et d’intervention.
Cambiar una Convención Social Perjudicial: La Ablación o Mutilación Genital Femenina
Cambiar una Convención Social Perjudicial: La Ablación o Mutilación Genital Femenina
Published: 2005 Innocenti Digest
Sólo en África y Oriente Medio, la práctica de la ablación / mutilación genital femenina (A/MGF) viola los derechos humanos de unos tres millones de niñas y mujeres cada año. Mientras tanto, el aumento de la emigración ha hecho recer la preocupación acerca de la A/MGF más allá de los países en los que se practicaba tradicionalmente. A pesar el trabajo de promoción coordinado durante las últimas décadas, las comunidades se han mostrado renuentes a abandonar la práctica, con algunas excepciones importantes. Este Innocenti Digest aborda la necesidad apremiante de valuar los progresos realizados hasta la fecha, identificar qué funciona y qué no funciona, y encaminar el trabajo futuro eniendo en cuenta las estrategias más exitosas para abandonar la práctica de la A/MGF. Al combinar experiencias concretas en el terreno con la teoría académica testada, este Digest proporciona una herramienta práctica para provocar un cambio positivo para las niñas y las mujeres.
Cambiare una convenzione sociale dannosa: la pratica della escissione/mutilazione genitale femminile
Cambiare una convenzione sociale dannosa: la pratica della escissione/mutilazione genitale femminile
Published: 2005 Innocenti Digest
Si stima che ogni anno solamente in Africa e in Medio Oriente, la pratica della escissione / mutilazione genitale femminile (E/MGF) violi i diritti umani di tre milioni di ragazze e di donne. Negli ultimi anni, l'aumento delle migrazioni ha reso la E/MGF un problema di crescenti dimensioni anche al di fuori dei confini dei paesi in cui è tradizionalmente praticata. Nonostante la coordinata opera di mobilitazione degli ultimi decenni, le comunità si sono mostrate riluttanti nell’abbandonare questa usanza tradizionale, con alcune significative eccezioni. Questo Innocenti Digest risponde alla pressante esigenza di fare un bilancio dei progressi realizzati fino ad oggi, identificare le soluzioni riuscite e quelle che non funzionano, e fornire indicazioni sulle migliori strategie per l’abbandono della E/MGF. Integrando concrete esperienze sul terreno con sperimentate teorie accademiche, il Digest si propone come strumento pratico a sostegno di un cambiamento positivo per le bambine e le donne.
Changer une convention sociale nefaste: la pratique de l'excision/mutilation genitale feminine
Changer une convention sociale nefaste: la pratique de l'excision/mutilation genitale feminine
Published: 2005 Innocenti Digest
La pratique de l’excision/mutilation génitale féminine (E/MGF) viole chaque année les droits humains d’environ trois millions de filles et de femmes rien qu’en Afrique et au Moyen-Orient. De plus, du fait des migrations croissantes, le problème est apparu de plus en plus au-delà des pays où l’E/MGF fait partie de la tradition. Malgré les efforts déployés au cours des dernières décennies pour lutter de façon concertée contre la pratique, les communautés sont réticentes à l’abandonner – avec quelques exceptions significatives. Ce Digest Innocenti répond à la pressante nécessité d’évaluer les progrès accomplis, de déterminer les mesures les plus efficaces, et de fournir des informations sur les meilleures stratégies pour mettre fin à l’E/MGF. Alliant les connaissances tirées de l’expérience de terrain à des théories scientifiques éprouvées, le Digest constitue un instrument pratique pour changer de façon positive la vie des filles et des femmes.
Changing a Harmful Social Convention: Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting
Changing a Harmful Social Convention: Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting
Published: 2005 Innocenti Digest
Every year, three million girls and women are subjected to genital mutilation/cutting, a dangerous and potentially life-threatening procedure that causes unspeakable pain and suffering. Not only is it practiced among communities in Africa and the Middle East, but also in immigrant communities throughout the world. Moreover, recent data reveal that it occurs on a much larger scale than previously thought. It continues to be one of the most persistent, pervasive and silently endured human rights violations. This Innocenti Digest examines the prevalence of FGM/C and its social dynamics. It provides an explanation as to why the practice persists and of the elements necessary for its abandonment. It also takes stock of progress to date, identifies what works and what does not, and provides direction regarding the most successful strategies to promote the abandonment of FGM/C. Combining concrete field experience with tested academic theory, the Digest provides a practical tool to bring about positive change for girls and women.
Changing a Harmful Social Convention: Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (Arabic version)
Changing a Harmful Social Convention: Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (Arabic version)
Published: 2005 Innocenti Digest
Every year, three million girls and women are subjected to genital mutilation/cutting, a dangerous and potentially life-threatening procedure that causes unspeakable pain and suffering. Not only is it practiced among communities in Africa and the Middle East, but also in immigrant communities throughout the world. Moreover, recent data reveal that it occurs on a much larger scale than previously thought. It continues to be one of the most persistent, pervasive and silently endured human rights violations. This Innocenti Digest examines the prevalence of FGM/C and its social dynamics. It provides an explanation as to why the practice persists and of the elements necessary for its abandonment. It also takes stock of progress to date, identifies what works and what does not, and provides direction regarding the most successful strategies to promote the abandonment of FGM/C. Combining concrete field experience with tested academic theory, the Digest provides a practical tool to bring about positive change for girls and women.
Early Marriage: Child Spouses
Early Marriage: Child Spouses
Published: 2001 Innocenti Digest
This Digest focuses on early marriage - the marriage of children and young people under the age of 18 - from a human rights perspective. Research into early marriage has tended to concentrate on its impact on reproductive health, school drop-out and rising population figures, and there has been little examination of the practice as a human rights violation in itself. The Digest examines the scale of early marriage, its context, causes and its impact on every aspect of the lives of those affected - particularly young girls - and on wider society. It outlines strategies to help those who have been married at an early age, and for the prevention of early marriage through education, advocacy and alliance-building. The Digest concludes with a call for more rights-based research on an issue that has far-reaching consequences.
Matrimonios prematuros
Matrimonios prematuros
Published: 2001 Innocenti Digest
Este número del Innocenti Digest se ocupa de los matrimonios prematuros, es decir de los matrimonios de niños y jóvenes menores de 18 años, desde un punto de vista que se basa en el respeto de los derechos humanos. Las investigaciones llevadas a cabo hasta el momento han tendido a concentrarse solamente en ciertos puntos específicos del impacto de los matrimonios prematuros, como los efectos que tienen en la salud reproductiva y en el abandono de la escuela. Se ha prestado poca atención al enfoque que considera dicha práctica de por sí como una violación de los derechos del niño. El presente Digest analiza las dimensiones del fenómeno, su contexto, sus causas y las consecuencias que tiene en todos los aspectos de la vida de las personas afectadas (especialmente en el caso de las niñas pequeñas) y en la sociedad en general. Traza un perfil de las estrategias a seguir para ayudar a quienes se han tenido que casar a edad temprana y para prevenir los matrimonios prematuros mediante la educación, la sensibilización y la construcción de alianzas. El Digest se concluye con una invitación a realizar, desde una perspectiva basada en el respeto de los derechos humanos, más investigaciones sobre la cuestión, que tiene consecuencias de vasta repercusión.
Il Matrimonio Precoce
Il Matrimonio Precoce
Published: 2001 Innocenti Digest
Questo numero di Innocenti Digest affronta il tema del matrimonio precoce, la pratica di far sposare bambini ed adolescenti al di sotto dei 18 anni d'età, e ne analizza gli aspetti relativi ai diritti umani. In genere, la ricerca sul matrimonio precoce ha concentrato l'attenzione sulla salute riproduttiva, sull'abbandono scolastico e sulla crescita demografica. La pratica non è stata sufficientemente presa in esame dal punto di vista delle violazioni dei diritti umani dei minori. Il Digest esamina la portata del problema, il contesto in cui si manifesta, le sue cause e le ripercussioni su tutti gli aspetti della vita di coloro che ne sono coinvolti, in particolare le ragazze adolescenti, nonché sull'intera società. Il Digest propone anche alcune strategie per aiutare coloro che sono stati fatti sposare ad un'età troppo giovane, e per prevenire il matrimonio precoce attraverso l'istruzione, la promozione di una cultura di rispetto dei diritti e la costituzione di alleanze. Il Digest si conclude con la raccomandazione di tenere maggiormente conto dell'aspetto dei diritti nella ricerca su di un problema con effetti tanto profondi.
Le mariage précoce
Le mariage précoce
Published: 2001 Innocenti Digest
Ce Digest se penche sur le mariage précoce - le mariage d’enfants et d’adolescents de moins de 18 ans - dans une perspective de droits humains. Les recherches sur le mariage précoce n’ont le plus souvent considéré que certains aspects spécifiques de l’impact du phénomène, comme ses répercussions sur la santé génésique ou l’abandon scolaire, et non sa portée en tant que violation des droits de l’enfant en soi. Le Digest examine l’étendue du mariage précoce, son contexte, ses causes, et ses conséquences sur tous les aspects de la vie de ceux qui le subissent - des filles en particulier - ainsi que sur la société dans son ensemble. Il définit des lignes de conduite pour aider ceux qui ont été mariés trop tôt, et pour prévenir le mariage précoce à travers l’éducation, l’engagement, et l’établissement d’alliances. Il conclut en appelant à une recherche qui tienne beaucoup plus compte de la perspective des droits sur une question qui a de vastes retombées.
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JOURNAL ARTICLES BLOGS
Responsible Innovation in Technology for Children: Digital technology, play and child well-being
Publication

Responsible Innovation in Technology for Children: Digital technology, play and child well-being

Digital experiences can have significant negative impact on children, exposing them to risks or failing to nurture them adequately. Nevertheless, digital experiences also potentially yield enormous benefits for children, enabling them to learn, to create, to develop friendships, and to build worlds. While global efforts to deepen our understanding of the prevalence and impact of digital risks of harm are burgeoning – a development that is both welcome and necessary – less attention has been paid to understanding and optimizing the benefits that digital technology can provide in supporting children’s rights and their well-being. Benefits here refer not only to the absence of harm, but also to creating additional positive value. How should we recognize the opportunities and benefits of digital technology for children’s well-being? What is the relationship between the design of digital experiences – in particular, play-centred design – and the well-being of children? What guidance and measures can we use to strengthen the design of digital environments to promote positive outcomes for children? And how can we make sure that children’s insights and needs form the foundation of our work in this space? These questions matter for all those who design and promote digital experiences, to keep children safe and happy, and enable positive development and learning. These questions are particularly relevant as the world shifts its attention to emerging digital technologies and experiences, from artificial intelligence (AI) to the metaverse, and seeks to understand their impact on people and society. To begin to tackle these questions, UNICEF and the LEGO Group initiated the Responsible Innovation in Technology for Children (RITEC) project in partnership with the Young and Resilient Research Centre at Western Sydney University; the CREATE Lab at New York University; the Graduate Center, City University of New York; the University of Sheffield; the Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for the Digital Child; and the Joan Ganz Cooney Center. The research is funded by the LEGO Foundation. The partnership is an international, multi-stakeholder and cross-sectoral collaboration between organizations that believe the design and development of digital technology should support the rights and well-being of children as a primary objective – and that children should have a prominent voice in making this a reality. This project’s primary objective is to develop, with children from around the world, a framework that maps how the design of children’s digital experiences affects their well-being, and to provide guidance as to how informed design choices can promote positive well-being outcomes.
Resources to Support Marginalized Caregivers of Children with Disabilities: Guidelines for Implementation
Publication

Resources to Support Marginalized Caregivers of Children with Disabilities: Guidelines for Implementation

Support from caregivers is critical for children’s learning both at home and at school. However, the COVID-19 pandemic and disruption of education systems globally created additional expectations for parents to support their children’s learning at home. This particularly affected the most marginalized children as the crises exacerbated already existing inequalities in education. This document introduces the approach and purpose of a set of resources to support the marginalized caregivers of children with disabilities with inclusive education. It presents lessons learned from proof-of-concept pilots in Armenia and Uzbekistan, followed by step-by-step guidelines on how to adopt and adapt the resources for education ministries and others who want to implement them in their education system.
Reopening with Resilience: Lessons from Remote Learning during COVID-19: Europe and Central Asia
Publication

Reopening with Resilience: Lessons from Remote Learning during COVID-19: Europe and Central Asia

When schools started closing their doors due to COVID-19, countries in Europe and Central Asia quickly provided alternative learning solutions for children to continue learning. More than 90 per cent of countries offered digital solutions to ensure that education activities could continue. However, lack of access to digital devices and a reliable internet connection excluded a significant amount of already marginalized children and threatened to widen the existing learning disparities. This report builds on existing evidence highlighting key lessons learned during the pandemic to promote learning for all during school closure and provides actionable policy recommendations on how to bridge the digital divide and build resilient education systems in Europe and Central Asia.

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