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Learning at a Distance: Children’s remote learning experiences in Italy during the COVID-19 pandemic
SPOTLIGHT

Learning at a Distance: Children’s remote learning experiences in Italy during the COVID-19 pandemic

Italy was the first country in Europe to implement a nationwide lockdown. Children and their families lived in nearly complete isolation for almost two months. Students missed 65 days of school compared to an average of 27 missed days among high-income countries worldwide. This prolonged break is of concern, as even short breaks in schooling can cause significant loss of learning for children and lead to educational inequalities over time. At least 3 million Italian students may not have been reached by remote learning due to a lack of internet connectivity or devices at home. This report explores children’s and parents’ experiences of remote learning during the lockdown in Italy, drawing on data collected from 11 European countries (and coordinated by the European Commission’s Joint Research Center). It explores how children's access and use of digital technologies changed during the pandemic; highlights how existing inequalities might undermine remote learning opportunities, even among those with internet access; and provides insights on how to support children’s remote learning in the future. *** L'Italia e’ stata il primo paese in Europa ad aver applicato la misura del lockdown su tutto il territorio. I bambini e le loro famiglie hanno vissuto in quasi completo isolamento per circa due mesi. Gli studenti hanno perduto 65 giorni di scuola rispetto ad una media di 27 negli altri paesi ad alto reddito del mondo. Questa interruzione prolungata rappresenta motivo di preoccupazione, in quanto persino interruzioni piu’ brevi nella didattica possono causare significative perdite nel livello di istruzione dei ragazzi e portare col tempo a diseguaglianze educative. Almeno 3 milioni di studenti in Italia non sono stati coinvolti nella didattica a distanza a causa d una mancanza di connessione ad internet o di dispositivi adeguati a casa. Questo rapporto analizza l’esperienza della didattica a distanza di ragazzi e genitori in Italia durante il lockdown, sulla base dei dati raccolti in 11 paesi europei (e coordinati dal Centro comune di ricerca della Commissione Europea). Studia il cambiamento nell’accesso e nell’uso delle tecnologie digitali dei bambini e ragazzi durante la pandemia; mette in evidenza come le diseguaglianze esistenti possano diminuire le opportunità offerte dalla didattica a distanza, anche tra coloro che hanno accesso ad internet; e fornisce approfondimenti su come sostenere la didattica a distanza di bambini e ragazzi in futuro.
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COVID-19: Missing More Than a Classroom. The impact of school closures on children’s nutrition
Blog Blog

COVID-19: Missing More Than a Classroom. The impact of school closures on children’s nutrition

In 2019, 135 million people in 55 countries were in food crises or worse, and 2 billion people did not have regular access to safe, nutritious and sufficient food. COVID-19 has exacerbated these hardships and may result in an additional 121 million people facing acute food insecurity by the end of 2020. Further, since the beginning of the pandemic, an estimated 1.6 billion learners in 199 countries worldwide were affected by school closures, with nearly 370 million children not receiving a school meal in 150 countries. The paper presents the evidence on the potential negative short-term and long-term effects of school meal scheme disruption during Covid-19 globally. It shows how vulnerable the children participating in these schemes are, how coping and mitigation measures are often only short-term solutions, and how prioritizing school re-opening is critical. For instance, it highlights how girls are at greater risk of not being in school or of being taken out of school early, which may lead to poor nutrition and health for themselves and their children. However, well-designed school feeding programmes have been shown to enable catch-up from early growth failure and other negative shocks. As such, once schools re-open, school meal schemes can help address the deprivation that children have experienced during the closures and provide an incentive for parents to send and keep their children, especially girls, in school.
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Le dinamiche del cambiamento sociale: verso l'abbandono dell'escissione/mutilazione dei genitali femminili in cinque paesi africani
Le dinamiche del cambiamento sociale: verso l'abbandono dell'escissione/mutilazione dei genitali femminili in cinque paesi africani
Published: 2011 Innocenti Insights
La pratica dell'E/MGF è a tutti gli effetti un atto di violenza, anche quando non è intesa come tale; è una manifestazione di disuguaglianze di genere profondamente radicate e ha natura discriminatoria. Essa si fonda su concezioni culturali della differenza di genere, della sessualità, del matrimonio e della famiglia che influenzano il modo in cui viene percepita e tollerata in contesti diversi. Nonostante le notevoli differenze riscontrate tra i cinque paesi analizzati come pure al loro interno, le esperienze confermano che, nelle comunità in cui viene perpetrata, l’E/MGF è vista come un passo necessario per crescere e proteggere una bambina e, spesso, per renderla adatta al matrimonio. L’escissione/mutilazione genitale femminile opera come una convenzione e una norma sociale perpetuata dalle aspettative reciproche all’interno di queste comunità.
The Dynamics of Social Change: Towards the abandonment of FGM/C in five African countries
The Dynamics of Social Change: Towards the abandonment of FGM/C in five African countries
Published: 2010 Innocenti Insights
This Innocenti Insight examines the social dynamics of the abandonment of female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) in five countries - Egypt, Ethiopia, Kenya, Senegal and the Sudan - and seeks to inform policies and programmes aimed at ending the practice. The experiences from the five countries documented in this Innocenti Insight provide evidence that the abandonment of FGM/C is possible when programmes and policies address the complex social dynamics associated with the practice and challenge established gender relationships and existing assumptions and stereotypes. This publication concludes with reflections on the remaining challenges of FGM/C abandonment and offers recommendations for future research and programme interventions.
La dynamique du changement social: vers l'abandon de l'excision/mutilation génitale fémine dans cinq pays africains
La dynamique du changement social: vers l'abandon de l'excision/mutilation génitale fémine dans cinq pays africains
Published: 2010 Innocenti Insights
Après avoir procédé à l’analyse de la dynamique sociale qui sous-tend l’éradication de l’excision et mutilation génitale féminine (E/MGF) dans cinq pays - l’Égypte, l’Éthiopie, le Kenya, le Sénégal et le Soudan - cet Innocenti Insight se propose de promouvoir l’élaboration de mesures politiques et de programmes de lutte contre ces coutumes. Les expériences menées dans ces cinq pays et rapportées dans cet Innocenti Insight apportent la preuve qu’il est possible de mettre fin à l’E/MGF si les programmes et les politiques s’intéressent à la dynamique sociale complexe associée à ces pratiques et remettent en question les relations hommes/femmes, les stéréotypes et les préjugés existants. Dans ses conclusions, la publication propose des réflexions sur les derniers obstacles à l’abandon de l’E/MGF et formule des recommandations pour les futurs programmes de recherche et d’intervention.
Cambiar una Convención Social Perjudicial: La Ablación o Mutilación Genital Femenina
Cambiar una Convención Social Perjudicial: La Ablación o Mutilación Genital Femenina
Published: 2005 Innocenti Digest
Sólo en África y Oriente Medio, la práctica de la ablación / mutilación genital femenina (A/MGF) viola los derechos humanos de unos tres millones de niñas y mujeres cada año. Mientras tanto, el aumento de la emigración ha hecho recer la preocupación acerca de la A/MGF más allá de los países en los que se practicaba tradicionalmente. A pesar el trabajo de promoción coordinado durante las últimas décadas, las comunidades se han mostrado renuentes a abandonar la práctica, con algunas excepciones importantes. Este Innocenti Digest aborda la necesidad apremiante de valuar los progresos realizados hasta la fecha, identificar qué funciona y qué no funciona, y encaminar el trabajo futuro eniendo en cuenta las estrategias más exitosas para abandonar la práctica de la A/MGF. Al combinar experiencias concretas en el terreno con la teoría académica testada, este Digest proporciona una herramienta práctica para provocar un cambio positivo para las niñas y las mujeres.
Cambiare una convenzione sociale dannosa: la pratica della escissione/mutilazione genitale femminile
Cambiare una convenzione sociale dannosa: la pratica della escissione/mutilazione genitale femminile
Published: 2005 Innocenti Digest
Si stima che ogni anno solamente in Africa e in Medio Oriente, la pratica della escissione / mutilazione genitale femminile (E/MGF) violi i diritti umani di tre milioni di ragazze e di donne. Negli ultimi anni, l'aumento delle migrazioni ha reso la E/MGF un problema di crescenti dimensioni anche al di fuori dei confini dei paesi in cui è tradizionalmente praticata. Nonostante la coordinata opera di mobilitazione degli ultimi decenni, le comunità si sono mostrate riluttanti nell’abbandonare questa usanza tradizionale, con alcune significative eccezioni. Questo Innocenti Digest risponde alla pressante esigenza di fare un bilancio dei progressi realizzati fino ad oggi, identificare le soluzioni riuscite e quelle che non funzionano, e fornire indicazioni sulle migliori strategie per l’abbandono della E/MGF. Integrando concrete esperienze sul terreno con sperimentate teorie accademiche, il Digest si propone come strumento pratico a sostegno di un cambiamento positivo per le bambine e le donne.
Changer une convention sociale nefaste: la pratique de l'excision/mutilation genitale feminine
Changer une convention sociale nefaste: la pratique de l'excision/mutilation genitale feminine
Published: 2005 Innocenti Digest
La pratique de l’excision/mutilation génitale féminine (E/MGF) viole chaque année les droits humains d’environ trois millions de filles et de femmes rien qu’en Afrique et au Moyen-Orient. De plus, du fait des migrations croissantes, le problème est apparu de plus en plus au-delà des pays où l’E/MGF fait partie de la tradition. Malgré les efforts déployés au cours des dernières décennies pour lutter de façon concertée contre la pratique, les communautés sont réticentes à l’abandonner – avec quelques exceptions significatives. Ce Digest Innocenti répond à la pressante nécessité d’évaluer les progrès accomplis, de déterminer les mesures les plus efficaces, et de fournir des informations sur les meilleures stratégies pour mettre fin à l’E/MGF. Alliant les connaissances tirées de l’expérience de terrain à des théories scientifiques éprouvées, le Digest constitue un instrument pratique pour changer de façon positive la vie des filles et des femmes.
Changing a Harmful Social Convention: Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting
Changing a Harmful Social Convention: Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting
Published: 2005 Innocenti Digest
Every year, three million girls and women are subjected to genital mutilation/cutting, a dangerous and potentially life-threatening procedure that causes unspeakable pain and suffering. Not only is it practiced among communities in Africa and the Middle East, but also in immigrant communities throughout the world. Moreover, recent data reveal that it occurs on a much larger scale than previously thought. It continues to be one of the most persistent, pervasive and silently endured human rights violations. This Innocenti Digest examines the prevalence of FGM/C and its social dynamics. It provides an explanation as to why the practice persists and of the elements necessary for its abandonment. It also takes stock of progress to date, identifies what works and what does not, and provides direction regarding the most successful strategies to promote the abandonment of FGM/C. Combining concrete field experience with tested academic theory, the Digest provides a practical tool to bring about positive change for girls and women.
Changing a Harmful Social Convention: Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (Arabic version)
Changing a Harmful Social Convention: Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (Arabic version)
Published: 2005 Innocenti Digest
Every year, three million girls and women are subjected to genital mutilation/cutting, a dangerous and potentially life-threatening procedure that causes unspeakable pain and suffering. Not only is it practiced among communities in Africa and the Middle East, but also in immigrant communities throughout the world. Moreover, recent data reveal that it occurs on a much larger scale than previously thought. It continues to be one of the most persistent, pervasive and silently endured human rights violations. This Innocenti Digest examines the prevalence of FGM/C and its social dynamics. It provides an explanation as to why the practice persists and of the elements necessary for its abandonment. It also takes stock of progress to date, identifies what works and what does not, and provides direction regarding the most successful strategies to promote the abandonment of FGM/C. Combining concrete field experience with tested academic theory, the Digest provides a practical tool to bring about positive change for girls and women.
Early Marriage: Child Spouses
Early Marriage: Child Spouses
Published: 2001 Innocenti Digest
This Digest focuses on early marriage - the marriage of children and young people under the age of 18 - from a human rights perspective. Research into early marriage has tended to concentrate on its impact on reproductive health, school drop-out and rising population figures, and there has been little examination of the practice as a human rights violation in itself. The Digest examines the scale of early marriage, its context, causes and its impact on every aspect of the lives of those affected - particularly young girls - and on wider society. It outlines strategies to help those who have been married at an early age, and for the prevention of early marriage through education, advocacy and alliance-building. The Digest concludes with a call for more rights-based research on an issue that has far-reaching consequences.
Matrimonios prematuros
Matrimonios prematuros
Published: 2001 Innocenti Digest
Este número del Innocenti Digest se ocupa de los matrimonios prematuros, es decir de los matrimonios de niños y jóvenes menores de 18 años, desde un punto de vista que se basa en el respeto de los derechos humanos. Las investigaciones llevadas a cabo hasta el momento han tendido a concentrarse solamente en ciertos puntos específicos del impacto de los matrimonios prematuros, como los efectos que tienen en la salud reproductiva y en el abandono de la escuela. Se ha prestado poca atención al enfoque que considera dicha práctica de por sí como una violación de los derechos del niño. El presente Digest analiza las dimensiones del fenómeno, su contexto, sus causas y las consecuencias que tiene en todos los aspectos de la vida de las personas afectadas (especialmente en el caso de las niñas pequeñas) y en la sociedad en general. Traza un perfil de las estrategias a seguir para ayudar a quienes se han tenido que casar a edad temprana y para prevenir los matrimonios prematuros mediante la educación, la sensibilización y la construcción de alianzas. El Digest se concluye con una invitación a realizar, desde una perspectiva basada en el respeto de los derechos humanos, más investigaciones sobre la cuestión, que tiene consecuencias de vasta repercusión.
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Time to Teach: Teacher attendance and time on task in Eastern and Southern Africa
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Time to Teach: Teacher attendance and time on task in Eastern and Southern Africa

There is a learning crisis. Fifty-three per cent of children in low- and middle-income countries are in ‘learning poverty’, i.e. they cannot read and understand a simple text by the end of primary school age. In sub- Saharan Africa, the learning poverty rate is 87 per cent overall, and ranges from 40 per cent to as high as 99 per cent in the 21 countries with available data. Teachers attending lessons and spending quality time on task is a critical prerequisite to learning. However, in sub-Saharan Africa, teacher absenteeism ranges from 15 to 45 per cent. Teacher absenteeism and reduced time on task wastes valuable financial resources, short-changes students and is one of the most cumbersome obstacles on the path toward the education Sustainable Development Goal and to the related vision of the new UNICEF education strategy: Every Child Learns. Whilst the stark numbers are available to study, and despite teacher absenteeism being a foremost challenge for education systems in Africa, the evidence base on how policies and practices can influence teacher attendance remains scant. Time to Teach (TTT) is a research initiative that looks at primary school teacher attendance in eight countries and territories in the Eastern and Southern Africa (ESA) region: the Comoros; Kenya; Rwanda, Puntland, State of Somalia; South Sudan; the United Republic of Tanzania, mainland; the United Republic of Tanzania, Zanzibar; and Uganda. Its primary objective is to identify factors affecting the various forms of teacher attendance, which include being at school, being punctual, being in the classroom, and teaching when in the classroom, and use this evidence to inform the design and implementation of teacher policies.

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