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Places and Spaces: Environments and children’s well-being
SPOTLIGHT

Places and Spaces: Environments and children’s well-being

Report Card 17 explores how 43 OECD/EU countries are faring in providing healthy environments for children. Do children have clean water to drink? Do they have good-quality air to breathe? Are their homes free of lead and mould? How many children live in overcrowded homes? How many have access to green play spaces, safe from road traffic? Data show that a nation’s wealth does not guarantee a healthy environment. Far too many children are deprived of a healthy home, irreversibly damaging their current and future well-being. Beyond children’s immediate environments, over-consumption in some of the world’s richest countries is destroying children’s environments globally. This threatens both children worldwide and future generations. To provide all children with safe and healthy environments, governments, policymakers, businesses and all stakeholders are called to act on a set of policy recommendations.
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The Measurement of Food Insecurity among Children: Review of literature and concept note
The Measurement of Food Insecurity among Children: Review of literature and concept note

AUTHOR(S)
Maryah S. Fram; Jennifer Bernal; Edward A. Frongillo

Published: 2015 Innocenti Working Papers
Child food insecurity is associated with a range of negative developmental consequences, including behaviour problems. While research shows that the phenomenon is both common and consequential, there is a lack of consistency in what is being measured and how. This results in incomplete information affecting our ability to effectively address child food insecurity, its causes and consequences. We present a review of the literature, and advocate for a global system to measure and monitor individual children’s experiences of food insecurity. The conceptual and practical challenges for developing an effective, efficient, and feasible system for global monitoring of child food insecurity are discussed and alternatives are suggested.
Best of UNICEF Research 2014
Best of UNICEF Research 2014
Published: 2014 Innocenti Publications
Each year the Office of Research-Innocenti reviews submissions for the best research being published across all UNICEF offices: country programmes, National Committees, Regional Offices and headquarters divisions. The purpose of this activity is to showcase and recognize high-quality, high-impact research being done in the organization. At the end of the process each year the Office of Research-Innocenti issues a publication containing summaries of the papers considered to be of particular merit. In 2014, the summaries cover issues concerning child protection, cash transfers, ECD, maternal health, inclusive education, and WASH.
The Impact of Social Protection on Children: A review of the literature
The Impact of Social Protection on Children: A review of the literature

AUTHOR(S)
Marco Sanfilippo; Bruno Martorano; Chris De Neubourg

Published: 2012 Innocenti Working Papers
Social protection is particularly important for children, in view of their higher levels of vulnerability compared to adults, and the role that social protection can play in ensuring adequate nutrition, access to and utilization of social services. While existing evidence shows that social protection programmes successfully address several dimensions of child well-being -often in an indirect way - a move towards a more "child sensitive" approach to social protection has recently been advocated at the highest level in the international development community.
Comparing Inequality in the Well-being of Children in Economically Advanced Countries: A methodology
Comparing Inequality in the Well-being of Children in Economically Advanced Countries: A methodology

AUTHOR(S)
Candace Currie; Dorothy Currie; Leonardo Menchini; Chris Roberts; Dominic Richardson

Published: 2011 Innocenti Working Papers
Socio-economic research on child well-being and the debate around child indicators has evolved quite rapidly in recent decades. An important contribution to this trend is represented by international comparative research based on multi-dimensional child well-being frameworks: most of this research is based on the comparison of average levels of well-being across countries. This paper tries to respond to the complex challenge of going beyond an approach based on averages and proposes a complementary approach to compare inequality in child well-being in economically advanced countries. In particular, it focuses on the disparities at the bottom-end of the child well-being distribution, by comparing the situation of the ‘median’ child and the situation of the children at the bottom of the well-being scale for nine indicators of material conditions, education and health.
As crianças que ficam para trás: Uma tabela classificativa da desigualdade no bem-estar das crianças nos países ricos
As crianças que ficam para trás: Uma tabela classificativa da desigualdade no bem-estar das crianças nos países ricos

AUTHOR(S)
Peter Adamson

Published: 2010 Innocenti Report Card
O presente Report Card apresenta uma primeira visão global das desigualdades no bem-estar das crianças em 24 dos países mais ricos do mundo. São examinadas três dimensões da desigualdade: bem-estar material, educação e saúde. Em cada um dos casos e para cada país, a questão que se coloca é "até que ponto estão as crianças a ser deixadas para trás?" O presente relatório defende a ideia de que as crianças merecem ter o melhor começo possível, que as primeiras experiências podem lançar uma longa sombra sobre as suas vidas e que as crianças não podem ser responsabilizadas pelas circunstâncias em que nascem. Neste sentido, o parâmetro utilizado - o grau de desigualdade na base da pirâmide ao nível do bem-estar das crianças - mede os progressos que estão a ser feitos no sentido de uma sociedade mais justa. Reunindo dados relativos à maioria dos países da OCDE, o relatório tenta demonstrar quais destes países estão a deixar que as crianças fiquem para trás mais do que o necessário na educação, saúde e bem-estar material (utilizando os países com melhores desempenhos como padrão mínimo para o que pode ser alcançado). Chamando a atenção para a profundidade das disparidades reveladas, e resumindo o que se sabe sobre as suas consequências, defende-se que o "ficar para trás" é uma questão fundamental, não só para milhões de crianças na actualidade, mas também para o futuro económico e social dos seus países.
The Children Left Behind: A league table of inequality in child well-being in the world's rich countries
The Children Left Behind: A league table of inequality in child well-being in the world's rich countries

AUTHOR(S)
Peter Adamson

Published: 2010 Innocenti Report Card
This Report Card presents a first overview of inequalities in child well-being for 24 of the world’s richest countries. Three dimensions of inequality are examined: material well-being, education, and health. In each case and for each country, the question asked is ‘how far behind are children being allowed to fall?’ The report argues that children deserve the best possible start, that early experience can cast a long shadow, and that children are not to be held responsible for the circumstances into which they are born. In this sense the metric used - the degree of bottom-end inequality in child well-being - is a measure of the progress being made towards a fairer society. Bringing in data from the majority of OECD countries, the report attempts to show which of them are allowing children to fall behind by more than is necessary in education, health and material well-being (using the best performing countries as a minimum standard for what can be achieved). In drawing attention to the depth of disparities revealed, and in summarizing what is known about the consequences, it argues that ‘falling behind’ is a critical issue not only for millions of individual children today but for the economic and social future of their nations tomorrow.
Bambini e adolescenti ai margini. Un quadro comparativo sulla disuguaglianza nel benessere dei bambini nei paesi ricchi
Bambini e adolescenti ai margini. Un quadro comparativo sulla disuguaglianza nel benessere dei bambini nei paesi ricchi

AUTHOR(S)
Peter Adamson

Published: 2010 Innocenti Report Card
Questa Report Card presenta una prima panoramica sulle disuguaglianze nel benessere dei bambini in 24 dei paesi più ricchi del mondo. Vi si prendono in esame tre dimensioni di disuguaglianza: il benessere materiale, l'istruzione e la salute. In ciascun caso e per ogni paese, la domanda posta è: "fino a che punto si permette che i bambini più svantaggiati rimangano indietro?" Il rapporto sostiene l’argomento che i bambini meritano il miglior inizio possibile nella loro esistenza, che le prime esperienze possono gettare una lunga ombra sul loro futuro, e che i bambini non devono essere ritenuti responsabili per le circostanze in cui nascono. In questo senso, il metro utilizzato in questo studio, ossia il grado di disuguaglianza nella parte inferiore della distribuzione del benessere dei bambini, è una misura dei progressi compiuti verso una società più giusta.
Les enfants laissés pour compte : tableau de classement des inégalités de bien-être entre les enfants des pays riches
Les enfants laissés pour compte : tableau de classement des inégalités de bien-être entre les enfants des pays riches

AUTHOR(S)
Peter Adamson

Published: 2010 Innocenti Report Card
Le présent Bilan présente un premier aperçu des inégalités en termes de bien-être infantile dans vingt-quatre des pays les plus riches du monde. Trois dimensions de l’inégalité sont examinées : le bien-être matériel, l’éducation et la santé. Dans chaque cas et pour chaque pays, la question posée est la suivante : ‘Dans quelle mesure les pays autorisent-ils que le bien-être infantile soit mis à mal ?’ Le rapport souligne que les enfants méritent le meilleur départ possible, qu’une expérience à un jeune âge peut avoir des répercussions durables et que les enfants ne doivent pas être tenus pour responsables des conditions de leur naissance. En ce sens, les paramètres utilisés - le niveau d’inégalité criant en termes de bien-être infantile - sont une mesure des progrès enregistrés vers une société plus juste. Ce rapport, qui collationne des données de la majorité des pays de l’OCDE, tente de stigmatiser les pays qui autorisent une dégradation inacceptable du bien-être des enfants en termes d’éducation, de santé et de bien-être matériel (les pays les plus en pointe servant d’étalon pour l’établissement d’une norme minimale quant aux résultats à atteindre). En attirant l’attention sur l’ampleur des disparités mises en exergue et en faisant la synthèse des conséquences connues, ce rapport souligne que cette ‘mise au ban’ est une question critique non seulement pour des millions d’enfants aujourd'hui, mais aussi pour l’avenir socio-économique de leurs pays.
Los niños dejados atrás: una tabla clasificatoria de la desigualdad respecto al bienestar infantil en las naciones ricas del mundo
Los niños dejados atrás: una tabla clasificatoria de la desigualdad respecto al bienestar infantil en las naciones ricas del mundo

AUTHOR(S)
Peter Adamson

Published: 2010 Innocenti Report Card
Esta Report Card presenta un primer panorama general de las desigualdades respecto al bienestar infantil en 24 de los países más ricos del mundo. Se examinan tres dimensiones de la desigualdad: el bienestar material, la educación y la salud. En cada uno de los casos y para cada uno de los países, el interrogante planteado es "¿hasta qué punto se deja que los niños se queden atrás?" El informe sostiene que la infancia se merece el mejor comienzo posible, que la experiencia temprana puede proyectar una larga sombra en la vida y que los niños no pueden considerarse responsables de las circunstancias en que han nacido. En este sentido, el parámetro utilizado -el grado de desigualdad en el extremo inferior de la escala respecto al bienestar infantil- es una medida del progreso que se está haciendo hacia una sociedad más justa. Al aportar datos sobre la mayoría de los países de la OCDE, el informe ha tratado de mostrar cuáles de ellos están permitiendo que los niños se queden atrás más de lo necesario en lo que respecta a la educación, la salud y el bienestar infantil (utilizando los países con mejor desempeño como nivel mínimo de lo que puede lograrse). Al llamar la atención sobre la profundidad de las disparidades reveladas y al resumir lo que sabemos acerca de las consecuencias, el informe sostiene que el fenómeno de "quedarse atrás" es una cuestión decisiva no sólo para los millones de niños de hoy sino también para el futuro económico y social de sus países el día de mañana.
Simulation of the Effects of the Economic Crisis and Response Policies on Children in West and Central Africa: The Case of Burkina Faso
Simulation of the Effects of the Economic Crisis and Response Policies on Children in West and Central Africa: The Case of Burkina Faso

AUTHOR(S)
Lacina Balma; John Cockburn; Ismaël Fofana; Samuel Kaboré; Luca Tiberti

Published: 2010 Innocenti Working Papers
Burkina Faso’s hard earned economic gains in recent years have been eroded by the 2008-09 world financial and economic crisis. The country will particularly feel the effects of the world economic crisis due to its close links with the world economy. Most of the adverse effects are transmitted to households then passed onto children. The situation of children principally depends on the monetary and non-monetary wellbeing of their household. This, together with their greater vulnerability, means that children are at risk of suffering more, and for longer, from the impacts of the crisis. It is therefore crucial to understand and anticipate the effects that the crisis may have on children in Burkina Faso and to propose options for social protection to counter these effects. To this end, we propose a macro-micro economic approach. Macro-micro economic analysis uses a general calculable equilibrium (CGE) model to simulate the impacts of various transmission channels of the crisis to the Burkinabe economy. The results of these simulations are then used for the micro-econometric analysis, which integrates individual and household economic behaviour to evaluate the impact of the crisis on child welfare. A monetary transfer policy targeting poor children appears to be the most effective at reversing the negative effects of the crisis and returning to the trend that would have existed without the crisis. Such a policy, financed by external aid and with a budget of 1% of GDP, re-establishes the trend that monetary poverty would have followed in the absence of a crisis and even leads to a reduction in hunger. It also limits the crisis’ adverse effects on school enrolment, child labour and sick children’s access to modern health care services. A universal (non-targeted) variant of this transfer policy for 0-5 year-olds has similar results and is easier to enact. Policies which subsidize food and cereals, as well as monetary transfer policies for the Centre and Mouhoun regions (the areas most affected by the August-September 2009 floods) were also analyzed.
Review of the Circumstances among Children in Iimmigrant Families in Australia
Review of the Circumstances among Children in Iimmigrant Families in Australia

AUTHOR(S)
Gerry Redmond; Ilan Katz

Published: 2009 Innocenti Working Papers
Special Series on the Situation of Children in Immigrant Families in Affluent Societies

There were about 1.5 million children 0 to 17 years of age in immigrant families in Australia in 2001. This represented almost 33 per cent of all children. More than a quarter of these children were in families from the most consistent countries of immigrant origin, Ireland and the United Kingdom. Another 17 per cent were in families from other parts of Europe, while 10 per cent were in families from New Zealand, and 3 per cent were in families from other countries in Oceania.
The Children of Immigrants in France: The emergence of a second generation
The Children of Immigrants in France: The emergence of a second generation

AUTHOR(S)
Thomas Kirszbaum; Yael Brinbaum; Patrick Simon; Esin Gezer

Published: 2009 Innocenti Working Papers
Special Series on the Situation of Children in Immigrant Families in Affluent Societies

In 2005, 4.9 million immigrants were residing in metropolitan France. This was 8.1 per cent of the population. Children of immigrants represent close to one fifth of all children. Children with at least one parent from Algeria, Morocco, or Tunisia make up almost 40 per cent of these children, and children of sub-Saharan African origin make up one eighth. Of the 3.5 million foreigners living in France in 2004, 450,000 were children aged 0-17 whose parents were foreign born.
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JOURNAL ARTICLES BLOGS
Return on Knowledge: How international development agencies are collaborating to deliver impact through knowledge, learning, research and evidence
Publication

Return on Knowledge: How international development agencies are collaborating to deliver impact through knowledge, learning, research and evidence

Effective collaboration around knowledge management and organizational learning is a key contributor to improving the impact of international development work for the world’s most vulnerable people. But how can it be proven? With only 10 years from the target date for the Sustainable Development Goals, nine of the world’s most influential agencies set out to show to the connection between the use of evidence, knowledge and learning and a better quality of human life. This book – a synthesis of stories, examples and insights that demonstrate where and how these practices have made a positive impact on development programming – is the result of the Multi-Donor Learning Partnership (MDLP), a collective effort to record the ways each of these organizations have leveraged intentional, systematic and resourced approaches to knowledge management and organizational learning in their work.
Gender Solutions: Capturing the impact of UNICEF’s gender equality evidence investments (2014–2021)
Publication

Gender Solutions: Capturing the impact of UNICEF’s gender equality evidence investments (2014–2021)

UNICEF has undertaken hundreds of gender evidence generation activities, supporting programmatic action, advocacy work and policymaking. The Gender Solutions project aims to draw together the knowledge, innovations and impacts of gender evidence work conducted by UNICEF offices since the first UNICEF Gender Action Plan was launched in 2014. A desk review identified over 700 gender-related UNICEF research, evaluation and data evidence generation activities since 2014. Twenty-five outputs were shortlisted because of their high quality and (potential for) impact and three were selected as Gender Evidence Award winners by an external review panel. By capturing the impact of this broad body of work, Gender Solutions aims to showcase UNICEF’s evidence investments, reward excellence and inform the rollout of the UNICEF Gender Policy 2021–2030 and Action Plan 2022–2025.
Annual Report 2021
Publication

Annual Report 2021

The UNICEF Innocenti Annual Report 2021 highlights the key results achieved in research and evidence to inform policymaking and programming.
Responsible Innovation in Technology for Children: Digital technology, play and child well-being
Publication

Responsible Innovation in Technology for Children: Digital technology, play and child well-being

Digital experiences can have significant negative impact on children, exposing them to risks or failing to nurture them adequately. Nevertheless, digital experiences also potentially yield enormous benefits for children, enabling them to learn, to create, to develop friendships, and to build worlds. While global efforts to deepen our understanding of the prevalence and impact of digital risks of harm are burgeoning – a development that is both welcome and necessary – less attention has been paid to understanding and optimizing the benefits that digital technology can provide in supporting children’s rights and their well-being. Benefits here refer not only to the absence of harm, but also to creating additional positive value. How should we recognize the opportunities and benefits of digital technology for children’s well-being? What is the relationship between the design of digital experiences – in particular, play-centred design – and the well-being of children? What guidance and measures can we use to strengthen the design of digital environments to promote positive outcomes for children? And how can we make sure that children’s insights and needs form the foundation of our work in this space? These questions matter for all those who design and promote digital experiences, to keep children safe and happy, and enable positive development and learning. These questions are particularly relevant as the world shifts its attention to emerging digital technologies and experiences, from artificial intelligence (AI) to the metaverse, and seeks to understand their impact on people and society. To begin to tackle these questions, UNICEF and the LEGO Group initiated the Responsible Innovation in Technology for Children (RITEC) project in partnership with the Young and Resilient Research Centre at Western Sydney University; the CREATE Lab at New York University; the Graduate Center, City University of New York; the University of Sheffield; the Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for the Digital Child; and the Joan Ganz Cooney Center. The research is funded by the LEGO Foundation. The partnership is an international, multi-stakeholder and cross-sectoral collaboration between organizations that believe the design and development of digital technology should support the rights and well-being of children as a primary objective – and that children should have a prominent voice in making this a reality. This project’s primary objective is to develop, with children from around the world, a framework that maps how the design of children’s digital experiences affects their well-being, and to provide guidance as to how informed design choices can promote positive well-being outcomes.

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