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Time to Teach: Teacher attendance and time on task in Eastern and Southern Africa
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Time to Teach: Teacher attendance and time on task in Eastern and Southern Africa

There is a learning crisis. Fifty-three per cent of children in low- and middle-income countries are in ‘learning poverty’, i.e. they cannot read and understand a simple text by the end of primary school age. In sub- Saharan Africa, the learning poverty rate is 87 per cent overall, and ranges from 40 per cent to as high as 99 per cent in the 21 countries with available data. Teachers attending lessons and spending quality time on task is a critical prerequisite to learning. However, in sub-Saharan Africa, teacher absenteeism ranges from 15 to 45 per cent. Teacher absenteeism and reduced time on task wastes valuable financial resources, short-changes students and is one of the most cumbersome obstacles on the path toward the education Sustainable Development Goal and to the related vision of the new UNICEF education strategy: Every Child Learns. Whilst the stark numbers are available to study, and despite teacher absenteeism being a foremost challenge for education systems in Africa, the evidence base on how policies and practices can influence teacher attendance remains scant. Time to Teach (TTT) is a research initiative that looks at primary school teacher attendance in eight countries and territories in the Eastern and Southern Africa (ESA) region: the Comoros; Kenya; Rwanda, Puntland, State of Somalia; South Sudan; the United Republic of Tanzania, mainland; the United Republic of Tanzania, Zanzibar; and Uganda. Its primary objective is to identify factors affecting the various forms of teacher attendance, which include being at school, being punctual, being in the classroom, and teaching when in the classroom, and use this evidence to inform the design and implementation of teacher policies.
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Beyond Masks: A Policy Panel Discussion
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Beyond Masks: A Policy Panel Discussion

UNICEF Innocenti’s new report – Beyond Masks: Societal impacts of COVID-19 and accelerated solutions for children and adolescents – offers a comprehensive picture of the health, economic, and social impacts of the pandemic, and its implications for children and adolescents. The report examines evidence from the current crisis, examines past health crises such as HIV/AIDS, SARS and Ebola to provide insights into the current one, and proposes proven and promising solutions.
Protecting children from harm during COVID-19 needs evidence
Blog Blog

Protecting children from harm during COVID-19 needs evidence

Although much of the world is focused on the “silver lining” that COVID-19 does not appear to severely impact children’s health, UNICEF is raising the alarm about the potential damage of the hidden impacts on children’s health as well as the indirect socio-economic effects of the fallout from the pandemic. In response, UNICEF Innocenti is generating evidence to assist and inform UNICEF’s COVID-19 work. This blog is about a research conducted by UNICEF on the impacts of pandemics and epidemics on child protection, including topics such as violence against children, child labour and child marriage.
COVID-19 & Children
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COVID-19 & Children

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Encryption, Privacy and Children’s Right to Protection from Harm
Encryption, Privacy and Children’s Right to Protection from Harm
Published: 2020 Innocenti Working Papers

This working paper provides a short overview of the challenges and opportunities related to child protection and the use of encryption technology. While it does not constitute the UNICEF organizational position on the topic, it is meant to inform UNICEF on the issue and to reach and engage professionals, including nonexperts, within and between the child rights and privacy rights sectors.

This paper will provide an overview of the debate around encryption and its possible impact on children’s right to protection from harm. It also reflects on the pros and cons of some proposed solutions.

What is encryption and why does it matter for children?
What is encryption and why does it matter for children?
Published: 2020 Innocenti Research Briefs

Encryption encodes information so that it can only be read by certain people. ‘End-to-end’ is a robust form of encryption where only the users communicating can read the information. In other words, third parties – such as service providers – cannot decrypt the information.

It matters for children because while it protects their data and right to privacy and freedom of expression, it also impedes efforts to monitor and remove child sexual abuse materials and to identify offenders attempting to exploit children online.

South Asia in Action: Preventing and responding to child trafficking. Analysis of anti-trafficking initiatives in the region
South Asia in Action: Preventing and responding to child trafficking. Analysis of anti-trafficking initiatives in the region
Published: 2009 Innocenti Insights
This publication provides a regional analysis of anti-trafficking measures relevant to children in the countries of South Asia. It assesses national legal and policy frameworks and provides a list of recommended actions for the application of a rights-based approach to child trafficking. Emphasis is placed on the indivisibility of human rights and the influence that trafficking, exploitation and abuse have on children’s enjoyment of rights and fundamental freedoms.The study is based on the understanding that in order to ensure a comprehensive approach to child trafficking, exploitation and abuse, measures must be developed and implemented in full conformity with the 1989 Convention on the Rights of the Child and the broader framework of human rights.
Reformas legislativas e a implementação  da Convenção sobre os dereitos da criança
Reformas legislativas e a implementação da Convenção sobre os dereitos da criança
Published: 2009 Innocenti Publications
Este estudo passa em revista a legislação relativa aos direitos da criança em 52 Estados Partes desde a adopção da Convenção sobre os Direitos da Criança (CDC ou 'a Convenção'), bem como questões, tais como as reservas ou o estatuto da CDC no direito interno. Os Estados cobertos pelo estudo incluem 9 países da Ásia e Pacífico, 8 da Europa Central e Oriental, 11 países islâmicos, 6 da África subsahariana, 14 do continente americano e 4 da Europa Ocidental. Uma vez que a maior fonte de informação utilizada para o estudo consistiu documentação gerada pelo processo de presentação de relatórios ao Comité dos Direitos da Criança, o principal critério para seleccionar os Estados cobertos, residiu no facto de os mesmos já terem apresentado o seu segundo relatório no momento em que o estudo teve início. Nesta base, esperava- se que o 'processo' de implementação da CDC fosse visível no diálogo com o Comité.
Riforma legislativa e attuazione della Convenzione sui diritti dell'infanzia
Riforma legislativa e attuazione della Convenzione sui diritti dell'infanzia
Published: 2009 Innocenti Publications
Questo studio esamina le leggi sui diritti dell’infanzia adottate da 52 Stati parti dal momento dell’adozione della Convenzione sui diritti dell’infanzia (CRC o "la Convenzione"), oltre a questioni come le riserve e lo stato della Convenzione nelle varie leggi nazionali. Tra gli Stati presi in esame dallo studio ne figurano 9 di Asia e Pacifico, 8 dell’Europa centrale e orientale, 11 islamici, 6 dell’Africa sub-sahariana, 14 delle Americhe e 4 dell’Europa occidentale. Tranne che per le sezioni introduttive, questo studio prende in esame, in modo tematico, le leggi adottate dal 1989 a oggi. Considerati i limiti di uno studio del genere, non è stato possibile prendere in esame tutti i diritti e i principi generali contenuti nella Convenzione. Vengono coperti diciotto ambiti, che vanno dai principi generali, come l’interesse superiore del bambino e la non discriminazione, ai diritti civili, e dal diritto alla salute, e all’istruzione ai diritti dei minorenni colpiti dai conflitti armati, dei bambini rifugiati e di quelli appartenenti a minoranze. L’obiettivo principale è stato quello di offrire una panoramica della portata e del contenuto delle nuove leggi che sono state adottate. Questo studio si conclude poi con alcune osservazioni su tre argomenti che meritano indagini più approfondite: il processo di riforma legislativa, il ruolo della riforma legislativa all’interno di un’ampia strategia per i diritti dell’infanzia, e l’effettivo impatto delle leggi di questo tipo sui bambini.
South Asia in Action: Preventing and responding to child trafficking. Child rights-based programme practices
South Asia in Action: Preventing and responding to child trafficking. Child rights-based programme practices
Published: 2008 Innocenti Insights
This publication acknowledges the adoption of many international standards and the promotion of regional agreements. At the same time, legislation against trafficking is often considered within the broader context of criminalizing prostitution, addressing organized crime and controlling migration. Although these are important issues, a focus only on these perspectives fails to adequately address the full complexity and dynamics of human trafficking, and fails to give distinct consideration to child trafficking. Existing laws therefore need to be amended and new laws enacted to fully conform with international standards.
South Asia in Action: Preventing and responding to child trafficking. Summary report
South Asia in Action: Preventing and responding to child trafficking. Summary report
Published: 2008 Innocenti Insights
This publication acknowledges the adoption of many international standards and the promotion of regional agreements. At the same time, legislation against trafficking is often considered within the broader context of criminalizing prostitution, addressing organized crime and controlling migration. Although these are important issues, a focus only on these perspectives fails to adequately address the full complexity and dynamics of human trafficking, and fails to give distinct consideration to child trafficking. Existing laws therefore need to be amended and new laws enacted to fully conform with international standards.
Law Reform and the Implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child
Law Reform and the Implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child
Published: 2008 Innocenti Publications
The study reviews the legislation concerning the rights of children adopted by 52 States Parties since the adoption of the Convention on the Rights of the Child. With the goal of providing an overview of the scope and content of new legislation adopted since 1989, the report covers 18 of the general principles and rights contained in the Convention. Three subjects that deserve further investigation are identified: the process of law reform, its place as part of a broad child rights strategy, and the actual impact of legislation of this kind on children.
Réforme législative et application de la Convention relative aux droits de l'enfant
Réforme législative et application de la Convention relative aux droits de l'enfant
Published: 2008 Innocenti Publications
Cette étude sur la réforme législative en matière de droits des enfants fait partie d’une plus ample initiative commencée par le Centre de recherche Innocenti en 2004 sur les Mesures d'application générales de la Convention relative aux droits de l'enfant. L'étude est conçue pour fournir une vue d’ensemble de l'action accomplie par chaque Etat partie à la Convention pour promouvoir l’application des 'mesures générales' don’t l'importance a été soulignée par le Comité des droits de l’enfant.
Las reformas legales y la implementación de la Convención sobre los derechos del niño
Las reformas legales y la implementación de la Convención sobre los derechos del niño
Published: 2008 Innocenti Publications
El presente estudio sobre la reforma legal en relación con los derechos del niño forma parte de una iniciativa de mayor envergadura, iniciada por el Centro de Investigaciones Innocenti de UNICEF en 2004, centrada en las Medidas Generales de Aplicación de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño. El propósito del estudio es brindar un panorama de la medida en que los Estados Partes de la Convención han facilitado la implementación de las "medidas generales", cuya importancia ha sido señalada por el Comité sobre los Derechos del Niño en la Observación General N° 5, aprobada en 2005.
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Time to Teach: Combating Teacher Absenteeism in Rwanda
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Time to Teach: Combating Teacher Absenteeism in Rwanda

The evolving picture of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 in children: critical knowledge gaps
Journal Article Journal Article

The evolving picture of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 in children: critical knowledge gaps

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