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UNICEF Innocenti's complete catalogue of research and reports
Increasing Women’s Representation in School Leadership: A promising path towards improving learning
SPOTLIGHT

Increasing Women’s Representation in School Leadership: A promising path towards improving learning

Emerging evidence shows a positive association between women school leaders and student performance. Some studies suggest women school leaders are more likely than their male counterparts to adopt effective management practices that may contribute to improved outcomes. However, women remain largely underrepresented in school leadership positions, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. This brief presents emerging insights on the association between women school leaders and education outcomes and draws attention to women’s underrepresentation in school leadership roles. It highlights the need for further research on gender and school leadership to identify policies and practices that can be implemented to increase women’s representation and scale high-quality management practices adopted by women leaders to more schools to improve education outcomes for all children.
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Annual Report 2021
Publication

Annual Report 2021

The UNICEF Innocenti Annual Report 2021 highlights the key results achieved in research and evidence to inform policymaking and programming.
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Intersectional Discrimination against Children: Discrimination against Romani children and anti-discrimination measures to address child trafficking
Intersectional Discrimination against Children: Discrimination against Romani children and anti-discrimination measures to address child trafficking

AUTHOR(S)
Camilla Ida Ravnbøl

Published: 2009 Innocenti Working Papers
This paper adds a perspective to existing research on child protection by engaging in a debate on intersectional discrimination and its relationship to child protection. The paper has a two-fold objective: (1) to further establish intersectionality as a concept to address discrimination against children; and (2) to illustrate the importance of addressing intersectionality within rights-based programmes of child protection.
Children and Families of Ethnic Minorities, Immigrants and Indigenous Peoples: Global Seminar Report, 1995
Children and Families of Ethnic Minorities, Immigrants and Indigenous Peoples: Global Seminar Report, 1995

AUTHOR(S)
Maggie Black

Published: 1997 Innocenti Global Seminar
The seventh Innocenti Global Seminar, held in Florence in October 1996, brought together participants with a wide range of experiences and perspectives to discuss discrimination against ethnic minorities, immigrants and indigenous peoples and to suggest how their needs can be better accommodated in programming and advocacy. The Report emphasizes participation, education and empowerment and calls for systematic attention to be paid to minority populations in all situation analyses. While it recognizes that the political climate in many countries can make advocacy on behalf of minority groups difficult, it also stresses that the near-universal ratification of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child brings with it an obligation to speak out for the rights of all children, and particularly the most disadvantaged.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 56 | Thematic area: Minorities | Tags: children in especially difficult circumstances, minority children, rights of minority children | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
Bambini e famiglie appartenenti a minoranze etniche, gruppi immigrati e popolazioni indigene: sintesi dei lavori
Bambini e famiglie appartenenti a minoranze etniche, gruppi immigrati e popolazioni indigene: sintesi dei lavori

AUTHOR(S)
Maggie Black

Published: 1997 Innocenti Global Seminar
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 64 | Thematic area: Minorities | Tags: children in especially difficult circumstances, minority children | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
Deprivation and Discrimination
Deprivation and Discrimination

AUTHOR(S)
Paolo Basurto

Published: 1995 Innocenti Insights
The children of an ethnic group, race or religious denomination represent its continuity - they embody a potential for future diversity. This has resulted throughout history in their extreme vulnerability in times of conflict among or involving such groups: they are perceived as the enemies of the future and made prime targets of genocide. Children are also the main victims of less obvious manifestations of ‘everyday’, peacetime discrimination, as infant mortality, infant morbidity and educational attainment data from every part of the world has shown. To investigate ways in which to address these issues, the UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre organised a meeting on ‘Discrimination Against Children of Minority Groups and Indigenous Peoples’ in 1994. This publication brings together abridged versions of its main discussion papers.
Double Jeopardy: The children of ethnic minorities
Double Jeopardy: The children of ethnic minorities

AUTHOR(S)
Rodolfo Stavenhagen

Though the relationships between ethnic minorities and dominant societies are multi-faceted and complex, the interrelated but distinct dimensions of marginalization and discrimination provide a useful framework for studying minority groups. Poor children the world over are vulnerable to abuses and violence, exploitation and human rights violations. When, in addition, they belong to disadvantaged minorities, their plight warrants special attention and requires special policies. The paper concludes by exploring several areas relating to minority children which call for further research, not only with the aim of developing the most effective policies for improving the situtation of minority children but also in order to contribute to the creation of a world in which cultural diversity can lead to more, rather than less, tolerance and to the equal enjoyment of human rights by all.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 32 | Thematic area: Minorities | Tags: children's rights, discrimination, minority children, minority groups, rights of minority children | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
Education Rights and Minorities
Education Rights and Minorities
Published: 1994 Innocenti Publications
Educational rights for minority groups may be included in states' education systems and also enshrined intheir statutes. However, states' laws, their declarations and their educational systems are largely normative statements. For many minority groups, the key issue is whether educational practice actually recognises those legal obligations and aspirations and provides a full, effective and fulfiling education for their young people.
Children of Minorities: Gypsies
Children of Minorities: Gypsies

AUTHOR(S)
Sandro Costarelli

Published: 1993 Innocenti Insights
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 76 | Thematic area: Minorities | Tags: children's rights, minority children, minority groups, rights of minority children, roma, roma children | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
Crescere zingaro
Crescere zingaro

AUTHOR(S)
Sandro Costarelli

Published: 1993 Innocenti Insights
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 80 | Thematic area: Minorities | Tags: children's rights, minority children, minority groups, rights of minority children, roma, roma children | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
Enfants des minorités : le tsiganes
Enfants des minorités : le tsiganes

AUTHOR(S)
Sandro Costarelli

Published: 1993 Innocenti Insights
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 80 | Thematic area: Minorities | Tags: children's rights, minority children, rights of minority children, roma, roma children | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
Children of Migrants and Ethnic Minorities: An overview and conceptual framework
Children of Migrants and Ethnic Minorities: An overview and conceptual framework

AUTHOR(S)
Cristina S. Blanc; Paolo Chiozzi

Following the Second World War and particularly after the 1960s, many Western European countries experienced positive immigration. Migrations to each specific country differed in origin and were influenced by the historical ties between the sending and receiving countries, particularly in the case of migrations from ex-colonies. However, international economic conditions and political situations also caused similar migration trends across countries, in particular the "contract work" migrations of the 1960s and the new waves of immigrants from developing countries of the 1970s and 1980s.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 76 | Thematic area: Minorities | Tags: migrant children, minority children | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
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Responsible Innovation in Technology for Children: Digital technology, play and child well-being
Publication

Responsible Innovation in Technology for Children: Digital technology, play and child well-being

Digital experiences can have significant negative impact on children, exposing them to risks or failing to nurture them adequately. Nevertheless, digital experiences also potentially yield enormous benefits for children, enabling them to learn, to create, to develop friendships, and to build worlds. While global efforts to deepen our understanding of the prevalence and impact of digital risks of harm are burgeoning – a development that is both welcome and necessary – less attention has been paid to understanding and optimizing the benefits that digital technology can provide in supporting children’s rights and their well-being. Benefits here refer not only to the absence of harm, but also to creating additional positive value. How should we recognize the opportunities and benefits of digital technology for children’s well-being? What is the relationship between the design of digital experiences – in particular, play-centred design – and the well-being of children? What guidance and measures can we use to strengthen the design of digital environments to promote positive outcomes for children? And how can we make sure that children’s insights and needs form the foundation of our work in this space? These questions matter for all those who design and promote digital experiences, to keep children safe and happy, and enable positive development and learning. These questions are particularly relevant as the world shifts its attention to emerging digital technologies and experiences, from artificial intelligence (AI) to the metaverse, and seeks to understand their impact on people and society. To begin to tackle these questions, UNICEF and the LEGO Group initiated the Responsible Innovation in Technology for Children (RITEC) project in partnership with the Young and Resilient Research Centre at Western Sydney University; the CREATE Lab at New York University; the Graduate Center, City University of New York; the University of Sheffield; the Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for the Digital Child; and the Joan Ganz Cooney Center. The research is funded by the LEGO Foundation. The partnership is an international, multi-stakeholder and cross-sectoral collaboration between organizations that believe the design and development of digital technology should support the rights and well-being of children as a primary objective – and that children should have a prominent voice in making this a reality. This project’s primary objective is to develop, with children from around the world, a framework that maps how the design of children’s digital experiences affects their well-being, and to provide guidance as to how informed design choices can promote positive well-being outcomes.
Resources to Support Marginalized Caregivers of Children with Disabilities: Guidelines for Implementation
Publication

Resources to Support Marginalized Caregivers of Children with Disabilities: Guidelines for Implementation

Support from caregivers is critical for children’s learning both at home and at school. However, the COVID-19 pandemic and disruption of education systems globally created additional expectations for parents to support their children’s learning at home. This particularly affected the most marginalized children as the crises exacerbated already existing inequalities in education. This document introduces the approach and purpose of a set of resources to support the marginalized caregivers of children with disabilities with inclusive education. It presents lessons learned from proof-of-concept pilots in Armenia and Uzbekistan, followed by step-by-step guidelines on how to adopt and adapt the resources for education ministries and others who want to implement them in their education system.
Reopening with Resilience: Lessons from Remote Learning during COVID-19: Europe and Central Asia
Publication

Reopening with Resilience: Lessons from Remote Learning during COVID-19: Europe and Central Asia

When schools started closing their doors due to COVID-19, countries in Europe and Central Asia quickly provided alternative learning solutions for children to continue learning. More than 90 per cent of countries offered digital solutions to ensure that education activities could continue. However, lack of access to digital devices and a reliable internet connection excluded a significant amount of already marginalized children and threatened to widen the existing learning disparities. This report builds on existing evidence highlighting key lessons learned during the pandemic to promote learning for all during school closure and provides actionable policy recommendations on how to bridge the digital divide and build resilient education systems in Europe and Central Asia.

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