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UNICEF Innocenti's complete catalogue of research and reports
Life in Lockdown: Child and adolescent mental health and well-being in the time of COVID-19
SPOTLIGHT

Life in Lockdown: Child and adolescent mental health and well-being in the time of COVID-19

COVID-19 lockdowns have significantly disrupted the daily lives of children and adolescents, with increased time at home, online learning and limited physical social interaction. This report seeks to understand the immediate effects on their mental health. Covering more than 130,000 children and adolescents across 22 countries, the evidence shows increased stress, anxiety and depressive symptoms, as well as increased alcohol and substance use, and  externalizing behavioural problems. Children and adolescents also reported positive coping strategies, resilience, social connectedness through digital media, more family time, and relief from academic stress. Factors such as demographics, relationships and pre-existing conditions are critical. To ensure children and adolescents are supported, the report recommends building the evidence on the longer-term impact of the pandemic on child and adolescent mental health in low- and middle-income countries, including vulnerable populations. To ensure children and adolescents are supported, the report recommends building the evidence on the longer-term impact of the pandemic on child and adolescent mental health in low- and middle-income countries, including vulnerable populations.
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COVID-19: Missing More Than a Classroom. The impact of school closures on children’s nutrition
Blog Blog

COVID-19: Missing More Than a Classroom. The impact of school closures on children’s nutrition

In 2019, 135 million people in 55 countries were in food crises or worse, and 2 billion people did not have regular access to safe, nutritious and sufficient food. COVID-19 has exacerbated these hardships and may result in an additional 121 million people facing acute food insecurity by the end of 2020. Further, since the beginning of the pandemic, an estimated 1.6 billion learners in 199 countries worldwide were affected by school closures, with nearly 370 million children not receiving a school meal in 150 countries. The paper presents the evidence on the potential negative short-term and long-term effects of school meal scheme disruption during Covid-19 globally. It shows how vulnerable the children participating in these schemes are, how coping and mitigation measures are often only short-term solutions, and how prioritizing school re-opening is critical. For instance, it highlights how girls are at greater risk of not being in school or of being taken out of school early, which may lead to poor nutrition and health for themselves and their children. However, well-designed school feeding programmes have been shown to enable catch-up from early growth failure and other negative shocks. As such, once schools re-open, school meal schemes can help address the deprivation that children have experienced during the closures and provide an incentive for parents to send and keep their children, especially girls, in school.
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Intersectional Discrimination against Children: Discrimination against Romani children and anti-discrimination measures to address child trafficking
Intersectional Discrimination against Children: Discrimination against Romani children and anti-discrimination measures to address child trafficking
Published: 2009 Innocenti Working Papers
This paper adds a perspective to existing research on child protection by engaging in a debate on intersectional discrimination and its relationship to child protection. The paper has a two-fold objective: (1) to further establish intersectionality as a concept to address discrimination against children; and (2) to illustrate the importance of addressing intersectionality within rights-based programmes of child protection.
Children and Families of Ethnic Minorities, Immigrants and Indigenous Peoples: Global Seminar Report, 1995
Children and Families of Ethnic Minorities, Immigrants and Indigenous Peoples: Global Seminar Report, 1995

AUTHOR(S)
Maggie Black

Published: 1997 Innocenti Global Seminar
The seventh Innocenti Global Seminar, held in Florence in October 1996, brought together participants with a wide range of experiences and perspectives to discuss discrimination against ethnic minorities, immigrants and indigenous peoples and to suggest how their needs can be better accommodated in programming and advocacy. The Report emphasizes participation, education and empowerment and calls for systematic attention to be paid to minority populations in all situation analyses. While it recognizes that the political climate in many countries can make advocacy on behalf of minority groups difficult, it also stresses that the near-universal ratification of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child brings with it an obligation to speak out for the rights of all children, and particularly the most disadvantaged.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 56 | Thematic area: Minorities | Tags: children in especially difficult circumstances, minority children, rights of minority children | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
Bambini e famiglie appartenenti a minoranze etniche, gruppi immigrati e popolazioni indigene: sintesi dei lavori
Bambini e famiglie appartenenti a minoranze etniche, gruppi immigrati e popolazioni indigene: sintesi dei lavori

AUTHOR(S)
Maggie Black

Published: 1997 Innocenti Global Seminar
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 64 | Thematic area: Minorities | Tags: children in especially difficult circumstances, minority children | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
Deprivation and Discrimination
Deprivation and Discrimination

AUTHOR(S)
Paolo Basurto

Published: 1995 Innocenti Insights
The children of an ethnic group, race or religious denomination represent its continuity - they embody a potential for future diversity. This has resulted throughout history in their extreme vulnerability in times of conflict among or involving such groups: they are perceived as the enemies of the future and made prime targets of genocide. Children are also the main victims of less obvious manifestations of ‘everyday’, peacetime discrimination, as infant mortality, infant morbidity and educational attainment data from every part of the world has shown. To investigate ways in which to address these issues, the UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre organised a meeting on ‘Discrimination Against Children of Minority Groups and Indigenous Peoples’ in 1994. This publication brings together abridged versions of its main discussion papers.
Double Jeopardy: The children of ethnic minorities
Double Jeopardy: The children of ethnic minorities
Though the relationships between ethnic minorities and dominant societies are multi-faceted and complex, the interrelated but distinct dimensions of marginalization and discrimination provide a useful framework for studying minority groups. Poor children the world over are vulnerable to abuses and violence, exploitation and human rights violations. When, in addition, they belong to disadvantaged minorities, their plight warrants special attention and requires special policies. The paper concludes by exploring several areas relating to minority children which call for further research, not only with the aim of developing the most effective policies for improving the situtation of minority children but also in order to contribute to the creation of a world in which cultural diversity can lead to more, rather than less, tolerance and to the equal enjoyment of human rights by all.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 32 | Thematic area: Minorities | Tags: children's rights, discrimination, minority children, minority groups, rights of minority children | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
Education Rights and Minorities
Education Rights and Minorities
Published: 1994 Innocenti Publications
Educational rights for minority groups may be included in states' education systems and also enshrined intheir statutes. However, states' laws, their declarations and their educational systems are largely normative statements. For many minority groups, the key issue is whether educational practice actually recognises those legal obligations and aspirations and provides a full, effective and fulfiling education for their young people.
Children of Minorities: Gypsies
Children of Minorities: Gypsies

AUTHOR(S)
Sandro Costarelli

Published: 1993 Innocenti Insights
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 76 | Thematic area: Minorities | Tags: children's rights, minority children, minority groups, rights of minority children, roma, roma children | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
Crescere zingaro
Crescere zingaro

AUTHOR(S)
Sandro Costarelli

Published: 1993 Innocenti Insights
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 80 | Thematic area: Minorities | Tags: children's rights, minority children, minority groups, rights of minority children, roma, roma children | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
Enfants des minorités : le tsiganes
Enfants des minorités : le tsiganes

AUTHOR(S)
Sandro Costarelli

Published: 1993 Innocenti Insights
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 80 | Thematic area: Minorities | Tags: children's rights, minority children, rights of minority children, roma, roma children | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
Children of Migrants and Ethnic Minorities: An overview and conceptual framework
Children of Migrants and Ethnic Minorities: An overview and conceptual framework
Following the Second World War and particularly after the 1960s, many Western European countries experienced positive immigration. Migrations to each specific country differed in origin and were influenced by the historical ties between the sending and receiving countries, particularly in the case of migrations from ex-colonies. However, international economic conditions and political situations also caused similar migration trends across countries, in particular the "contract work" migrations of the 1960s and the new waves of immigrants from developing countries of the 1970s and 1980s.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 76 | Thematic area: Minorities | Tags: migrant children, minority children | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
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Learning at a Distance: Children’s remote learning experiences in Italy during the COVID-19 pandemic
Publication Publication

Learning at a Distance: Children’s remote learning experiences in Italy during the COVID-19 pandemic

Italy was the first country in Europe to implement a nationwide lockdown. Children and their families lived in nearly complete isolation for almost two months. Students missed 65 days of school compared to an average of 27 missed days among high-income countries worldwide. This prolonged break is of concern, as even short breaks in schooling can cause significant loss of learning for children and lead to educational inequalities over time. At least 3 million Italian students may not have been reached by remote learning due to a lack of internet connectivity or devices at home. This report explores children’s and parents’ experiences of remote learning during the lockdown in Italy, drawing on data collected from 11 European countries (and coordinated by the European Commission’s Joint Research Center). It explores how children's access and use of digital technologies changed during the pandemic; highlights how existing inequalities might undermine remote learning opportunities, even among those with internet access; and provides insights on how to support children’s remote learning in the future. *** L'Italia e’ stata il primo paese in Europa ad aver applicato la misura del lockdown su tutto il territorio. I bambini e le loro famiglie hanno vissuto in quasi completo isolamento per circa due mesi. Gli studenti hanno perduto 65 giorni di scuola rispetto ad una media di 27 negli altri paesi ad alto reddito del mondo. Questa interruzione prolungata rappresenta motivo di preoccupazione, in quanto persino interruzioni piu’ brevi nella didattica possono causare significative perdite nel livello di istruzione dei ragazzi e portare col tempo a diseguaglianze educative. Almeno 3 milioni di studenti in Italia non sono stati coinvolti nella didattica a distanza a causa d una mancanza di connessione ad internet o di dispositivi adeguati a casa. Questo rapporto analizza l’esperienza della didattica a distanza di ragazzi e genitori in Italia durante il lockdown, sulla base dei dati raccolti in 11 paesi europei (e coordinati dal Centro comune di ricerca della Commissione Europea). Studia il cambiamento nell’accesso e nell’uso delle tecnologie digitali dei bambini e ragazzi durante la pandemia; mette in evidenza come le diseguaglianze esistenti possano diminuire le opportunità offerte dalla didattica a distanza, anche tra coloro che hanno accesso ad internet; e fornisce approfondimenti su come sostenere la didattica a distanza di bambini e ragazzi in futuro.
Time to Teach: Teacher attendance and time on task in Eastern and Southern Africa
Publication Publication

Time to Teach: Teacher attendance and time on task in Eastern and Southern Africa

There is a learning crisis. Fifty-three per cent of children in low- and middle-income countries are in ‘learning poverty’, i.e. they cannot read and understand a simple text by the end of primary school age. In sub- Saharan Africa, the learning poverty rate is 87 per cent overall, and ranges from 40 per cent to as high as 99 per cent in the 21 countries with available data. Teachers attending lessons and spending quality time on task is a critical prerequisite to learning. However, in sub-Saharan Africa, teacher absenteeism ranges from 15 to 45 per cent. Teacher absenteeism and reduced time on task wastes valuable financial resources, short-changes students and is one of the most cumbersome obstacles on the path toward the education Sustainable Development Goal and to the related vision of the new UNICEF education strategy: Every Child Learns. Whilst the stark numbers are available to study, and despite teacher absenteeism being a foremost challenge for education systems in Africa, the evidence base on how policies and practices can influence teacher attendance remains scant. Time to Teach (TTT) is a research initiative that looks at primary school teacher attendance in eight countries and territories in the Eastern and Southern Africa (ESA) region: the Comoros; Kenya; Rwanda, Puntland, State of Somalia; South Sudan; the United Republic of Tanzania, mainland; the United Republic of Tanzania, Zanzibar; and Uganda. Its primary objective is to identify factors affecting the various forms of teacher attendance, which include being at school, being punctual, being in the classroom, and teaching when in the classroom, and use this evidence to inform the design and implementation of teacher policies.

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