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UNICEF Innocenti's complete catalogue of research and reports
Increasing Women’s Representation in School Leadership: A promising path towards improving learning
SPOTLIGHT

Increasing Women’s Representation in School Leadership: A promising path towards improving learning

Emerging evidence shows a positive association between women school leaders and student performance. Some studies suggest women school leaders are more likely than their male counterparts to adopt effective management practices that may contribute to improved outcomes. However, women remain largely underrepresented in school leadership positions, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. This brief presents emerging insights on the association between women school leaders and education outcomes and draws attention to women’s underrepresentation in school leadership roles. It highlights the need for further research on gender and school leadership to identify policies and practices that can be implemented to increase women’s representation and scale high-quality management practices adopted by women leaders to more schools to improve education outcomes for all children.
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Annual Report 2021
Publication

Annual Report 2021

The UNICEF Innocenti Annual Report 2021 highlights the key results achieved in research and evidence to inform policymaking and programming.
1 - 12 of 13
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Child Trafficking in Europe: A broad vision to put children first (summary)
Child Trafficking in Europe: A broad vision to put children first (summary)
Published: 2007 Innocenti Publications
Within and across borders in Europe, children are trafficked into a variety of exploitative situations, violating their human rights and threatening their survival and development. This report assesses the legal, policy and implementation frameworks in place to address child trafficking in the region. Covering more than 50 countries/entities, the report investigates the complexity of the trafficking phenomenon, and maps trafficking patterns and targeted legal and policy responses. Child trafficking is addressed in the framework of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, with a focus on prevention, protection and empowerment.
Child Trafficking in Europe: A broad vision to put children first
Child Trafficking in Europe: A broad vision to put children first
Published: 2007 Innocenti Insights
Within and across borders in Europe, children are trafficked into a variety of exploitative situations, violating their human rights and threatening their survival and development. This report assesses the legal, policy and implementation frameworks in place to address child trafficking in the region. Covering more than 50 countries/entities, the report investigates the complexity of the trafficking phenomenon, and maps trafficking patterns and targeted legal and policy responses. Child trafficking is addressed in the framework of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, with a focus on prevention, protection and empowerment.
La traite des êtres humaines en Afrique, en particulier des femmes et des enfants
La traite des êtres humaines en Afrique, en particulier des femmes et des enfants

AUTHOR(S)
Andrea Rossi

Published: 2004 Innocenti Insights
La traite des êtres humaines affecte presque toutes les nations d'Afrique pour lesquelles nous disposons de données, que ce soit les pays d'origine ou celles qui servent de destination. Le rapport étudie les informations recueillies dans 53 pays africains et procède à une analyse des schémas et des racines profondes de la traite, ainsi que des pratiques et mesures efficaces prises au niveau national et régional. On a pu observer les phénomènes suivants: la traite est facilitée par l'effondrement du milieu protecteur de l'enfant suite à un conflit armé, des difficultés économiques ou des pratiques discriminatoires. Les attitudes and pratiques traditionelles, le mariage précoce et le fait que les naissances ne soient pas enregistrées rendent estrêmement difficile l'identification des victimes.
Children in Institutions: The beginning of the end?
Children in Institutions: The beginning of the end?
Published: 2003 Innocenti Insights
There is a growing global consensus on the need to promote family-based alternatives to institutional care for children. No residential institution, no matter how well meaning, can replace the family environment so essential to every child. This Innocenti Insight examines efforts to prevent the institutionalization of children in Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, Italy and Spain, focusing on both public and private initiatives, as well as local and national policies. The study highlights the fact that policies to discourage institutionalization are not enough. The right climate is needed to create alternatives, including raising public awareness.
Child Trafficking in West Africa - Policy Responses
Child Trafficking in West Africa - Policy Responses
Published: 2002 Innocenti Insights
The trafficking of children is one of the gravest violations of human rights in the world today. Every year, hundreds of thousands of children are smuggled across borders and sold as mere commodities. Their survival and development are threatened, and their rights to education, to health, to grow up within a family, to protection from exploitation and abuse, are denied. The UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre has worked with the UNICEF Regional Office for West and Central Africa to identify effective policy solutions to this issue in eight countries: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Côte d’Ivoire, Gabon, Mali, Nigeria and Togo. This study focuses on a region that is badly affected by the phenomenon, aiming to increase understanding of this reality and maximize the effectiveness of measures to overcome it. It illustrates the importance of field-driven research and the essential role that research plays in policy formulation and the proper design of programmes.
La traite d'enfants en Afrique de l'ouest - réponses politiques
La traite d'enfants en Afrique de l'ouest - réponses politiques
Published: 2002 Innocenti Insights
La traite d’enfants est une des plus graves violations des droits humains dans le monde actuel. Chaque année, des centaines de milliers d’enfants sont transportés clandestinement au-delà des frontières et vendus comme de simples marchandises. Leur survie et leur développement sont menacés, et ils sont privés de leurs droits à l’éducation, à la santé, à grandir au sein d’une famille, à la protection contre l’exploitation et les abus.
Decentralization and Policies for the Protection of Children and Adolescents in Brazil
Decentralization and Policies for the Protection of Children and Adolescents in Brazil

AUTHOR(S)
Solon Magalhães Vianna; Iara Marques

Brazil has made concrete its commitment to the principles of the Convention on the Rights of the Child in the creation of a number of State Programmes of Action. This ‘decentralised’ strategy marks an unprecedented step in a country with a strong tradition of ‘top-down’ federal thinking and limited experience of participatory planning. This paper examines the impact this novel approach has had upon the situation of children and adolescents. Recent achievements include the eradication of polio, a significant reduction in the incidence of measles and neonatal tetanus and an improvement in the management of public schools.
Development and Decentralization of the National Programme of Action for Children in Namibia
Development and Decentralization of the National Programme of Action for Children in Namibia

AUTHOR(S)
Stephen Adkisson; Hugh Hogan

Cite this publication | No. of pages: 32 | Thematic area: National Development Programmes | Tags: child welfare, decentralization, national policies, National Programme of Action | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
The National Programme of Action for Children and Women in Egypt
The National Programme of Action for Children and Women in Egypt

AUTHOR(S)
Nicolas Luginbuhl

The Egyptian government’s approach to internal development issues had traditionally been very much the product of a ‘top-down’ way of thinking. It was widely assumed that local and regional authorities lacked the necessary technical and resource-allocation know-how. All this changed in 1994 with the drawing-up of policies that were to kick-start a drive toward ‘decentralisation’. This paper sought to anticipate the obstacles and opportunities that might emerge in the future of the process.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 44 | Thematic area: National Development Programmes | Tags: decentralization, national policies, National Programme of Action | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
The Vietnam National Programme of Action: A decentralization study
The Vietnam National Programme of Action: A decentralization study

AUTHOR(S)
Kiri Evans; Adam Rorris

The 1990 World Summit for Children set in motion the development of what were called ‘National Programmes of Action’ in a number of countries. The Vietnamese government has taken its programme a step further than most, having actively encouraged the growth of sub-programmes at the provincial level. This paper examines the then current stage in the country’s experience of this ‘decentralisation’ process; the opportunities it had created and the difficulties hindering its continued progress.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 28 | Thematic area: National Development Programmes | Tags: decentralization, national policies, National Programme of Action | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
Improving Nutrition in Tanzania in the 1980s: The Iringa experience
Improving Nutrition in Tanzania in the 1980s: The Iringa experience

AUTHOR(S)
Marcel Rudasingwa; Raphael Mlolwa

Cite this publication | No. of pages: 52 | Thematic area: National Development Programmes | Tags: iringa initiative, national policies, nutrition | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
Children in the Welfare State: Current problems and prospects in Sweden
Children in the Welfare State: Current problems and prospects in Sweden

AUTHOR(S)
Sven E. Olsson; Roland Spånt

Cite this publication | No. of pages: 68 | Thematic area: Industrialized Countries | Tags: child welfare, industrialized countries, national policies | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
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Responsible Innovation in Technology for Children: Digital technology, play and child well-being
Publication

Responsible Innovation in Technology for Children: Digital technology, play and child well-being

Digital experiences can have significant negative impact on children, exposing them to risks or failing to nurture them adequately. Nevertheless, digital experiences also potentially yield enormous benefits for children, enabling them to learn, to create, to develop friendships, and to build worlds. While global efforts to deepen our understanding of the prevalence and impact of digital risks of harm are burgeoning – a development that is both welcome and necessary – less attention has been paid to understanding and optimizing the benefits that digital technology can provide in supporting children’s rights and their well-being. Benefits here refer not only to the absence of harm, but also to creating additional positive value. How should we recognize the opportunities and benefits of digital technology for children’s well-being? What is the relationship between the design of digital experiences – in particular, play-centred design – and the well-being of children? What guidance and measures can we use to strengthen the design of digital environments to promote positive outcomes for children? And how can we make sure that children’s insights and needs form the foundation of our work in this space? These questions matter for all those who design and promote digital experiences, to keep children safe and happy, and enable positive development and learning. These questions are particularly relevant as the world shifts its attention to emerging digital technologies and experiences, from artificial intelligence (AI) to the metaverse, and seeks to understand their impact on people and society. To begin to tackle these questions, UNICEF and the LEGO Group initiated the Responsible Innovation in Technology for Children (RITEC) project in partnership with the Young and Resilient Research Centre at Western Sydney University; the CREATE Lab at New York University; the Graduate Center, City University of New York; the University of Sheffield; the Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for the Digital Child; and the Joan Ganz Cooney Center. The research is funded by the LEGO Foundation. The partnership is an international, multi-stakeholder and cross-sectoral collaboration between organizations that believe the design and development of digital technology should support the rights and well-being of children as a primary objective – and that children should have a prominent voice in making this a reality. This project’s primary objective is to develop, with children from around the world, a framework that maps how the design of children’s digital experiences affects their well-being, and to provide guidance as to how informed design choices can promote positive well-being outcomes.
Resources to Support Marginalized Caregivers of Children with Disabilities: Guidelines for Implementation
Publication

Resources to Support Marginalized Caregivers of Children with Disabilities: Guidelines for Implementation

Support from caregivers is critical for children’s learning both at home and at school. However, the COVID-19 pandemic and disruption of education systems globally created additional expectations for parents to support their children’s learning at home. This particularly affected the most marginalized children as the crises exacerbated already existing inequalities in education. This document introduces the approach and purpose of a set of resources to support the marginalized caregivers of children with disabilities with inclusive education. It presents lessons learned from proof-of-concept pilots in Armenia and Uzbekistan, followed by step-by-step guidelines on how to adopt and adapt the resources for education ministries and others who want to implement them in their education system.
Reopening with Resilience: Lessons from Remote Learning during COVID-19: Europe and Central Asia
Publication

Reopening with Resilience: Lessons from Remote Learning during COVID-19: Europe and Central Asia

When schools started closing their doors due to COVID-19, countries in Europe and Central Asia quickly provided alternative learning solutions for children to continue learning. More than 90 per cent of countries offered digital solutions to ensure that education activities could continue. However, lack of access to digital devices and a reliable internet connection excluded a significant amount of already marginalized children and threatened to widen the existing learning disparities. This report builds on existing evidence highlighting key lessons learned during the pandemic to promote learning for all during school closure and provides actionable policy recommendations on how to bridge the digital divide and build resilient education systems in Europe and Central Asia.

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