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Reimagining Migration Responses: Learning from children and young people who move in the Horn of Africa
SPOTLIGHT

Reimagining Migration Responses: Learning from children and young people who move in the Horn of Africa

The number of international migrants under 18 is rising, accelerated by complex and fast-evolving economic, demographic, security and environmental drivers. Based on interviews carried out with 1,290 migrant children and young people in Ethiopia, Somalia and Sudan, this report helps address the evidence gap on children and young people migrating in the Horn of Africa by providing a better understanding of their protective environments; their access to services and resources; and their perceptions of safety, well-being and trust in authorities and other providers. It concludes by offering policy and programme recommendations to rethink child protection approaches for migrants in the region.
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COVID-19: Missing More Than a Classroom. The impact of school closures on children’s nutrition
Blog Blog

COVID-19: Missing More Than a Classroom. The impact of school closures on children’s nutrition

In 2019, 135 million people in 55 countries were in food crises or worse, and 2 billion people did not have regular access to safe, nutritious and sufficient food. COVID-19 has exacerbated these hardships and may result in an additional 121 million people facing acute food insecurity by the end of 2020. Further, since the beginning of the pandemic, an estimated 1.6 billion learners in 199 countries worldwide were affected by school closures, with nearly 370 million children not receiving a school meal in 150 countries. The paper presents the evidence on the potential negative short-term and long-term effects of school meal scheme disruption during Covid-19 globally. It shows how vulnerable the children participating in these schemes are, how coping and mitigation measures are often only short-term solutions, and how prioritizing school re-opening is critical. For instance, it highlights how girls are at greater risk of not being in school or of being taken out of school early, which may lead to poor nutrition and health for themselves and their children. However, well-designed school feeding programmes have been shown to enable catch-up from early growth failure and other negative shocks. As such, once schools re-open, school meal schemes can help address the deprivation that children have experienced during the closures and provide an incentive for parents to send and keep their children, especially girls, in school.
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Manual sobre o Protocolo Facultativo relativo à Venda de Crianças, Prostituição Infantil e Pornografia Infantil
Manual sobre o Protocolo Facultativo relativo à Venda de Crianças, Prostituição Infantil e Pornografia Infantil
Published: 2010 Innocenti Publications
O Manual visa promover a compreensão e aplicação eficaz do Protocolo Facultativo à Convenção dos Direitos da Criança, relativo à venda de crianças, prostituição e pornografia infantil. A publicação descreve a génese, o alcance e o conteúdo do Protocolo e apresenta exemplos de medidas tomadas pelos Estados Partes para cumprirem as suas obrigações ao abrigo deste instrumento. Este guia essencial destina-se principalmente às autoridades públicas, às organizações das Nações Unidas, aos defensores dos direitos da criança e a todos quantos trabalhem com e para as crianças, cujas ocupações e actividades podem reforçar a protecção das crianças contra a exploração, tanto a nível nacional como local. O Manual sublinha o potencial único do Protocolo para realçar de maneira decisiva a protecção das crianças contra a exploração e a luta contra a impunidade dos criminosos. Convida todos os Estados a ratificarem o Protocolo e a agirem de maneira a aplicar efectivamente as suas disposições. Publicado pelo IRC da UNICEF com o apoio do Instituto Internacional dos Direitos da Criança em Sion, Suíça, o Manual beneficiou da perícia dos membros do Comité dos Direitos da Criança das Nações Unidas e de outros especialistas de direitos da criança.
Protecting Children from Violence in Sport
Protecting Children from Violence in Sport
Published: 2010 Innocenti Publications
UNICEF has long recognized that there is great value in children’s sport and play, and has been a consistent proponent of these activities in its international development and child protection work. Health, educational achievement and social benefits are just some of the many desirable outcomes associated with organized physical activity. During recent years, however, it has become evident that sport is not always a safe space for children and that the same types of violence and abuse sometimes found in families and communities can also occur in sport and play programmes. The research presented in this publication shows a lack of data collection and knowledge about violence to children in sport, a need to develop the structures and systems for eliminating and preventing this form of violence, and that ethical guidelines and codes of conduct must be established and promoted as part of the prevention system. By addressing these gaps, significant improvements will be realized for the promotion and protection of the rights of children in sport.
Handbuch zum Fakultativprotokoll betreffend den Verkauf von Kindern, die Kinderprostitution und die Kinderpornografie
Handbuch zum Fakultativprotokoll betreffend den Verkauf von Kindern, die Kinderprostitution und die Kinderpornografie
Published: 2010 Innocenti Publications
Das Handbuch dient zum besseren Verständnis und effizienteren Durchsetzung des Fakultativprotokolls zum Übereinkommen der Rechte des Kindes mit Bezug auf den Verkauf von Kindern, der Kinderprostitution und Kinderpornographie. Die Ausgabe beschreibt die Entstehung, den Umfang und Inhalt des Protokolls und liefert Beispiele von Maßnahmen der Staaten zur Erfüllung ihrer Pflichten im Rahmen dieses Instrumentes. Dieses wichtige Handbuch richtet sich in erster Linie an öffentliche Bedienstete, UN-Organisationen, Kinderrechtsanwälte sowie andere, die mit und für Kinder tätig sind und deren Aufgaben und Aktivitäten den Schutz von Kindern vor Ausbeutung auf der nationalen oder lokalen Ebene verbessern. In dem Handbuch wird das einmalige Potenzial des Protokolls, den Schutz von Kindern vor Ausbeutung zu verbessern und die Straflosigkeit von Tätern zu bekämpfen, hervorgehoben. Es ruft alle Staaten zur Ratifizierung des Protokolls und zur effektiven und effizienten Durchsetzung desselben auf. Das von UNICEF IRC mit der Unterstützung des Institut International des Droits de l'Enfant in Sion, Schweiz, herausgegebene Handbuch konnte auch mit dem Wissen der Mitglieder des UN-Ausschusses für die Rechte des Kindes und dem anderer Experten auf diesem Gebiet angereichert werden.
Manuale sul Protocollo opzionale sulla vendita di bambini, la prostituzione dei bambini e la pornografia rappresentante bambini
Manuale sul Protocollo opzionale sulla vendita di bambini, la prostituzione dei bambini e la pornografia rappresentante bambini
Published: 2010 Innocenti Publications
Il Manuale intende promuovere la comprensione e l’efficace applicazione del Protocollo opzionale alla convenzione sui diritti dell’infanzia sulla vendita di bambini, la prostituzione dei bambini e la pornografia rappresentante bambini (OPSC). La pubblicazione illustra la genesi, il campo di applicazione e i contenuti del Protocollo, fornendo esempi delle misure adottate dagli Stati parte per adempiere gli obblighi previsti da questo strumento. Questa guida essenziale si rivolge principalmente ai funzionari pubblici e agli altri operatori che lavorano con e per i bambini, e le cui attività possono contribuire a migliorare la protezione dei bambini dallo sfruttamento, a livello nazionale o locale. Il Manuale, che evidenzia come il Protocollo presenti un potenziale unico per migliorare la protezione dei bambini dallo sfruttamento e opporsi all’impunità dei perpetratori, chiede a tutti gli Stati di ratificare il Protocollo e attivarsi per una efficace applicazione delle sue disposizioni. Pubblicato dal Centro di ricerca Innocenti dell’UNICEF con il sostegno dell’Institut International des Droits de l'Enfant di Sion (Svizzera), il Manuale ha potuto avvalersi dell’esperienza di membri del Comitato sui diritti dell’infanzia dell’ONU e di altri specialisti in materia di diritti dei bambini.
Handbook for the Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography
Handbook for the Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography
Published: 2009 Innocenti Publications
The Handbook aims to promote understanding and effective implementation of the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography. The publication describes the genesis, scope and content of the Protocol, and provides examples of measures taken by States Parties to fulfil their obligations under this instrument. This essential guide is addressed principally to public officials, UN organizations, child rights advocates and others who work with and for children, and whose duties and activities can enhance the protection of children from exploitation, whether on the national or local level. The Handbook highlights the Protocol's unique potential to decisively enhance the protection of children from exploitation and fight the impunity of perpetrators. It calls on all States to ratify the Protocol and act to implement its provisions effectively. Published by UNICEF IRC with support from the Institut International des Droits de l'Enfant in Sion, Switzerland, the Handbook benefitted from the expertise of members of the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child and other child rights specialists.
The Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography and the Jurisprudence of the Committee on the Rights of the Child
The Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography and the Jurisprudence of the Committee on the Rights of the Child

AUTHOR(S)
Ugo Cedrangolo

Published: 2009 Innocenti Working Papers
This paper highlights the main issues covered in the text of the Optional Protocol. These include: definition and criminalization of the offence; jurisdiction, extradition and further matters of criminal procedure; prevention; protection of victims and their rehabilitation; and the importance of international cooperation in the fight against sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography. The paper then more closely examines the Concluding Observations of the Committee on States Parties’ reports. Comparing the content of the Protocol with the observations of the Committee enables the identification of gaps between what is required and what has been done. At the same time, such a comparison allows for a discussion of some successful attempts at compliance. The paper concludes that the Committee’s jurisprudence has indeed provided useful guidance to the complex issues of the Protocol and helped in filling some of the gaps it contains. Concurrently, however, it is found that many challenges remain with respect to the implementation of the Protocol’s provisions at national level.
Children's and Adolescents' Participation and Protection from Sexual Abuse and Exploitation
Children's and Adolescents' Participation and Protection from Sexual Abuse and Exploitation
Published: 2009 Innocenti Working Papers
This paper presents an overview of government commitments to strengthen participation by children and adolescents to protect them from sexual abuse and exploitation. It also considers concrete recommendations for strengthening young people’s involvement in their own protection, based on their recommendations about what is needed to realize the Stockholm Declaration and Agenda for Action. Other useful inputs include case studies that offer new perspectives on children’s and adolescents’ participation to combat sexual exploitation and abuse. The paper provides recommendations for further research, policy development and programming intended to support advocacy and practice developments with and by children and adolescents. The paper calls for governments, UN agencies and NGOs to promote children’s civil rights and recognize their agency and the diversity of childhood experiences. It highlights the importance of strengthening child protection systems, developing and strengthening child-led groups and networks, and creating processes and mechanisms for children to access information, express their views, participate in practice and policy matters concerning them and gain feedback.
UN Human Rights Standards and Mechanisms to Combat Violence Against Children: A contribution to the UN Secretary General's Study on Violence Against Children
UN Human Rights Standards and Mechanisms to Combat Violence Against Children: A contribution to the UN Secretary General's Study on Violence Against Children
Published: 2005 Innocenti Publications
The purpose of this publication is to recall the human rights framework set out in international instruments adopted by the United Nations with relevance to the right of children to freedom from violence. It also reviews how treaty bodies established by human rights conventions to monitor progress in their implementation, as well as other UN human rights mechanisms, have addressed the protection of children from violence.
Violenza domestica contro le donne e le bambine
Violenza domestica contro le donne e le bambine
Published: 2000 Innocenti Digest
Questo numero di Innocenti Digest affronta il tema della violenza domestica, una delle forme globalmente più diffuse di violenza contro le donne e le ragazze, che però rimane relativamente nascosta e ignorata. Il problema della violenza domestica chiama in causa una varietà di ambiti: la sanità, la giustizia, l'economia, l'istruzione, lo sviluppo e, soprattutto, i diritti dell'uomo. Il Digest esamina le dimensioni e la diffusione del problema, e le ripercussioni che esso ha sui diritti delle donne e dei minori. Sottolinea l'esigenza di fornire risposte politiche coordinate e integrate: con una più efficace applicazione della legislazione esistente e con un impegno più diretto e visibile nella lotta contro questa violenza da parte dei governi. Lo studio contiene inoltre informazioni sulle ONG regionali e internazionali attive su questo tema, oltre che indicazioni bibliografiche utili per approfondire l'argomento.
Domestic Violence against Women and Girls
Domestic Violence against Women and Girls

AUTHOR(S)
Sushma Kapoor

Published: 2000 Innocenti Digest
This Digest focuses on domestic violence as one of the most prevalent yet relatively hidden and ignored forms of violence against women and girls globally. Domestic violence is a health, legal, economic, educational, developmental and, above all, a human rights issue. The Digest looks at the magnitude and universality of domestic violence, and its impact on the rights of women and children. It emphasizes the need for coordinated and integrated policy responses; implementing existing leglisation; and ensuring greater accountability from governments in order to eliminate this violence. Information on regional and international NGOs working in this area, and suggestions for further reading are also provided.
La violencia doméstica contra mujeres y niñas
La violencia doméstica contra mujeres y niñas
Published: 2000 Innocenti Digest
Este número del Innocenti Digest afronta el tema de la violencia doméstica, una de las formas de violencia contra mujeres y niñas más difundidas a nivel mundial, aunque suele permanecer relativamente oculta e ignorada. La violencia doméstica es un problema que afecta numerosos campos: la sanidad, la justicia, la economia, la educación, el desarollo y, sobre todo, los derechos humanos. El Digest examina las dimensiones y el carácter universal de la violencia doméstica, como asimismo la repercusión que tiene en los derechos de mujeres y niños.
Violence domestique a l'égard des femmes et des filles
Violence domestique a l'égard des femmes et des filles
Published: 2000 Innocenti Digest
Ce digest souligne la violence domestique comme une des formes les plus répandues, même si elle est relativement occultée et méconnue, de la violence à l'égard des femmes et des filles au niveau mondial. La violence domestique est un problème qui concerne la santé, le droit, l'économie, l'éducation, le développement et, avant tout, les droits humains. Le digest examine l'ampleur et l'universalité du problème de la violence domestique, et son impact sur les droits des femmes et des enfants. Il met l'accent sur la nécessité de réponses politiques coordonnées et intégrées, par une majeure collaboration entre les parties intéressées, par l'établissement de mécanismes de surveillance et d'évaluation des programmes et des politiques, par l'application de la législation en vigueur, et par l'obligation pour les gouvernements d'assumer davantage leurs responsabilités, afin d'éliminer cette violence. Le digest fournit également des informations sur les ONG régionales et internationales oeuvrant dans ce domaine, ainsi que des suggestions de lecture.
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Learning at a Distance: Children’s remote learning experiences in Italy during the COVID-19 pandemic
Publication Publication

Learning at a Distance: Children’s remote learning experiences in Italy during the COVID-19 pandemic

Italy was the first country in Europe to implement a nationwide lockdown. Children and their families lived in nearly complete isolation for almost two months. Students missed 65 days of school compared to an average of 27 missed days among high-income countries worldwide. This prolonged break is of concern, as even short breaks in schooling can cause significant loss of learning for children and lead to educational inequalities over time. At least 3 million Italian students may not have been reached by remote learning due to a lack of internet connectivity or devices at home. This report explores children’s and parents’ experiences of remote learning during the lockdown in Italy, drawing on data collected from 11 European countries (and coordinated by the European Commission’s Joint Research Center). It explores how children's access and use of digital technologies changed during the pandemic; highlights how existing inequalities might undermine remote learning opportunities, even among those with internet access; and provides insights on how to support children’s remote learning in the future. *** L'Italia e’ stata il primo paese in Europa ad aver applicato la misura del lockdown su tutto il territorio. I bambini e le loro famiglie hanno vissuto in quasi completo isolamento per circa due mesi. Gli studenti hanno perduto 65 giorni di scuola rispetto ad una media di 27 negli altri paesi ad alto reddito del mondo. Questa interruzione prolungata rappresenta motivo di preoccupazione, in quanto persino interruzioni piu’ brevi nella didattica possono causare significative perdite nel livello di istruzione dei ragazzi e portare col tempo a diseguaglianze educative. Almeno 3 milioni di studenti in Italia non sono stati coinvolti nella didattica a distanza a causa d una mancanza di connessione ad internet o di dispositivi adeguati a casa. Questo rapporto analizza l’esperienza della didattica a distanza di ragazzi e genitori in Italia durante il lockdown, sulla base dei dati raccolti in 11 paesi europei (e coordinati dal Centro comune di ricerca della Commissione Europea). Studia il cambiamento nell’accesso e nell’uso delle tecnologie digitali dei bambini e ragazzi durante la pandemia; mette in evidenza come le diseguaglianze esistenti possano diminuire le opportunità offerte dalla didattica a distanza, anche tra coloro che hanno accesso ad internet; e fornisce approfondimenti su come sostenere la didattica a distanza di bambini e ragazzi in futuro.
Time to Teach: Teacher attendance and time on task in Eastern and Southern Africa
Publication Publication

Time to Teach: Teacher attendance and time on task in Eastern and Southern Africa

There is a learning crisis. Fifty-three per cent of children in low- and middle-income countries are in ‘learning poverty’, i.e. they cannot read and understand a simple text by the end of primary school age. In sub- Saharan Africa, the learning poverty rate is 87 per cent overall, and ranges from 40 per cent to as high as 99 per cent in the 21 countries with available data. Teachers attending lessons and spending quality time on task is a critical prerequisite to learning. However, in sub-Saharan Africa, teacher absenteeism ranges from 15 to 45 per cent. Teacher absenteeism and reduced time on task wastes valuable financial resources, short-changes students and is one of the most cumbersome obstacles on the path toward the education Sustainable Development Goal and to the related vision of the new UNICEF education strategy: Every Child Learns. Whilst the stark numbers are available to study, and despite teacher absenteeism being a foremost challenge for education systems in Africa, the evidence base on how policies and practices can influence teacher attendance remains scant. Time to Teach (TTT) is a research initiative that looks at primary school teacher attendance in eight countries and territories in the Eastern and Southern Africa (ESA) region: the Comoros; Kenya; Rwanda, Puntland, State of Somalia; South Sudan; the United Republic of Tanzania, mainland; the United Republic of Tanzania, Zanzibar; and Uganda. Its primary objective is to identify factors affecting the various forms of teacher attendance, which include being at school, being punctual, being in the classroom, and teaching when in the classroom, and use this evidence to inform the design and implementation of teacher policies.

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