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Increasing Women’s Representation in School Leadership: A promising path towards improving learning
SPOTLIGHT

Increasing Women’s Representation in School Leadership: A promising path towards improving learning

Emerging evidence shows a positive association between women school leaders and student performance. Some studies suggest women school leaders are more likely than their male counterparts to adopt effective management practices that may contribute to improved outcomes. However, women remain largely underrepresented in school leadership positions, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. This brief presents emerging insights on the association between women school leaders and education outcomes and draws attention to women’s underrepresentation in school leadership roles. It highlights the need for further research on gender and school leadership to identify policies and practices that can be implemented to increase women’s representation and scale high-quality management practices adopted by women leaders to more schools to improve education outcomes for all children.
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Annual Report 2021
Publication

Annual Report 2021

The UNICEF Innocenti Annual Report 2021 highlights the key results achieved in research and evidence to inform policymaking and programming.
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Manual sobre o Protocolo Facultativo relativo à Venda de Crianças, Prostituição Infantil e Pornografia Infantil
Manual sobre o Protocolo Facultativo relativo à Venda de Crianças, Prostituição Infantil e Pornografia Infantil
Published: 2010 Innocenti Publications
O Manual visa promover a compreensão e aplicação eficaz do Protocolo Facultativo à Convenção dos Direitos da Criança, relativo à venda de crianças, prostituição e pornografia infantil. A publicação descreve a génese, o alcance e o conteúdo do Protocolo e apresenta exemplos de medidas tomadas pelos Estados Partes para cumprirem as suas obrigações ao abrigo deste instrumento. Este guia essencial destina-se principalmente às autoridades públicas, às organizações das Nações Unidas, aos defensores dos direitos da criança e a todos quantos trabalhem com e para as crianças, cujas ocupações e actividades podem reforçar a protecção das crianças contra a exploração, tanto a nível nacional como local. O Manual sublinha o potencial único do Protocolo para realçar de maneira decisiva a protecção das crianças contra a exploração e a luta contra a impunidade dos criminosos. Convida todos os Estados a ratificarem o Protocolo e a agirem de maneira a aplicar efectivamente as suas disposições. Publicado pelo IRC da UNICEF com o apoio do Instituto Internacional dos Direitos da Criança em Sion, Suíça, o Manual beneficiou da perícia dos membros do Comité dos Direitos da Criança das Nações Unidas e de outros especialistas de direitos da criança.
Protecting Children from Violence in Sport
Protecting Children from Violence in Sport

AUTHOR(S)
Celia Brackenridge; Kari Fasting; Sandra Kirby; Trisha Leahy

Published: 2010 Innocenti Publications
UNICEF has long recognized that there is great value in children’s sport and play, and has been a consistent proponent of these activities in its international development and child protection work. Health, educational achievement and social benefits are just some of the many desirable outcomes associated with organized physical activity. During recent years, however, it has become evident that sport is not always a safe space for children and that the same types of violence and abuse sometimes found in families and communities can also occur in sport and play programmes. The research presented in this publication shows a lack of data collection and knowledge about violence to children in sport, a need to develop the structures and systems for eliminating and preventing this form of violence, and that ethical guidelines and codes of conduct must be established and promoted as part of the prevention system. By addressing these gaps, significant improvements will be realized for the promotion and protection of the rights of children in sport.
Handbuch zum Fakultativprotokoll betreffend den Verkauf von Kindern, die Kinderprostitution und die Kinderpornografie
Handbuch zum Fakultativprotokoll betreffend den Verkauf von Kindern, die Kinderprostitution und die Kinderpornografie
Published: 2010 Innocenti Publications
Das Handbuch dient zum besseren Verständnis und effizienteren Durchsetzung des Fakultativprotokolls zum Übereinkommen der Rechte des Kindes mit Bezug auf den Verkauf von Kindern, der Kinderprostitution und Kinderpornographie. Die Ausgabe beschreibt die Entstehung, den Umfang und Inhalt des Protokolls und liefert Beispiele von Maßnahmen der Staaten zur Erfüllung ihrer Pflichten im Rahmen dieses Instrumentes. Dieses wichtige Handbuch richtet sich in erster Linie an öffentliche Bedienstete, UN-Organisationen, Kinderrechtsanwälte sowie andere, die mit und für Kinder tätig sind und deren Aufgaben und Aktivitäten den Schutz von Kindern vor Ausbeutung auf der nationalen oder lokalen Ebene verbessern. In dem Handbuch wird das einmalige Potenzial des Protokolls, den Schutz von Kindern vor Ausbeutung zu verbessern und die Straflosigkeit von Tätern zu bekämpfen, hervorgehoben. Es ruft alle Staaten zur Ratifizierung des Protokolls und zur effektiven und effizienten Durchsetzung desselben auf. Das von UNICEF IRC mit der Unterstützung des Institut International des Droits de l'Enfant in Sion, Schweiz, herausgegebene Handbuch konnte auch mit dem Wissen der Mitglieder des UN-Ausschusses für die Rechte des Kindes und dem anderer Experten auf diesem Gebiet angereichert werden.
Manuale sul Protocollo opzionale sulla vendita di bambini, la prostituzione dei bambini e la pornografia rappresentante bambini
Manuale sul Protocollo opzionale sulla vendita di bambini, la prostituzione dei bambini e la pornografia rappresentante bambini
Published: 2010 Innocenti Publications
Il Manuale intende promuovere la comprensione e l’efficace applicazione del Protocollo opzionale alla convenzione sui diritti dell’infanzia sulla vendita di bambini, la prostituzione dei bambini e la pornografia rappresentante bambini (OPSC). La pubblicazione illustra la genesi, il campo di applicazione e i contenuti del Protocollo, fornendo esempi delle misure adottate dagli Stati parte per adempiere gli obblighi previsti da questo strumento. Questa guida essenziale si rivolge principalmente ai funzionari pubblici e agli altri operatori che lavorano con e per i bambini, e le cui attività possono contribuire a migliorare la protezione dei bambini dallo sfruttamento, a livello nazionale o locale. Il Manuale, che evidenzia come il Protocollo presenti un potenziale unico per migliorare la protezione dei bambini dallo sfruttamento e opporsi all’impunità dei perpetratori, chiede a tutti gli Stati di ratificare il Protocollo e attivarsi per una efficace applicazione delle sue disposizioni. Pubblicato dal Centro di ricerca Innocenti dell’UNICEF con il sostegno dell’Institut International des Droits de l'Enfant di Sion (Svizzera), il Manuale ha potuto avvalersi dell’esperienza di membri del Comitato sui diritti dell’infanzia dell’ONU e di altri specialisti in materia di diritti dei bambini.
Handbook for the Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography
Handbook for the Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography
Published: 2009 Innocenti Publications
The Handbook aims to promote understanding and effective implementation of the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography. The publication describes the genesis, scope and content of the Protocol, and provides examples of measures taken by States Parties to fulfil their obligations under this instrument. This essential guide is addressed principally to public officials, UN organizations, child rights advocates and others who work with and for children, and whose duties and activities can enhance the protection of children from exploitation, whether on the national or local level. The Handbook highlights the Protocol's unique potential to decisively enhance the protection of children from exploitation and fight the impunity of perpetrators. It calls on all States to ratify the Protocol and act to implement its provisions effectively. Published by UNICEF IRC with support from the Institut International des Droits de l'Enfant in Sion, Switzerland, the Handbook benefitted from the expertise of members of the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child and other child rights specialists.
The Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography and the Jurisprudence of the Committee on the Rights of the Child
The Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography and the Jurisprudence of the Committee on the Rights of the Child

AUTHOR(S)
Ugo Cedrangolo

Published: 2009 Innocenti Working Papers
This paper highlights the main issues covered in the text of the Optional Protocol. These include: definition and criminalization of the offence; jurisdiction, extradition and further matters of criminal procedure; prevention; protection of victims and their rehabilitation; and the importance of international cooperation in the fight against sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography. The paper then more closely examines the Concluding Observations of the Committee on States Parties’ reports. Comparing the content of the Protocol with the observations of the Committee enables the identification of gaps between what is required and what has been done. At the same time, such a comparison allows for a discussion of some successful attempts at compliance. The paper concludes that the Committee’s jurisprudence has indeed provided useful guidance to the complex issues of the Protocol and helped in filling some of the gaps it contains. Concurrently, however, it is found that many challenges remain with respect to the implementation of the Protocol’s provisions at national level.
Children's and Adolescents' Participation and Protection from Sexual Abuse and Exploitation
Children's and Adolescents' Participation and Protection from Sexual Abuse and Exploitation

AUTHOR(S)
Clare Feinstein; Clare O'Kane

Published: 2009 Innocenti Working Papers
This paper presents an overview of government commitments to strengthen participation by children and adolescents to protect them from sexual abuse and exploitation. It also considers concrete recommendations for strengthening young people’s involvement in their own protection, based on their recommendations about what is needed to realize the Stockholm Declaration and Agenda for Action. Other useful inputs include case studies that offer new perspectives on children’s and adolescents’ participation to combat sexual exploitation and abuse. The paper provides recommendations for further research, policy development and programming intended to support advocacy and practice developments with and by children and adolescents. The paper calls for governments, UN agencies and NGOs to promote children’s civil rights and recognize their agency and the diversity of childhood experiences. It highlights the importance of strengthening child protection systems, developing and strengthening child-led groups and networks, and creating processes and mechanisms for children to access information, express their views, participate in practice and policy matters concerning them and gain feedback.
UN Human Rights Standards and Mechanisms to Combat Violence Against Children: A contribution to the UN Secretary General's Study on Violence Against Children
UN Human Rights Standards and Mechanisms to Combat Violence Against Children: A contribution to the UN Secretary General's Study on Violence Against Children
Published: 2005 Innocenti Publications
The purpose of this publication is to recall the human rights framework set out in international instruments adopted by the United Nations with relevance to the right of children to freedom from violence. It also reviews how treaty bodies established by human rights conventions to monitor progress in their implementation, as well as other UN human rights mechanisms, have addressed the protection of children from violence.
Violenza domestica contro le donne e le bambine
Violenza domestica contro le donne e le bambine
Published: 2000 Innocenti Digest
Questo numero di Innocenti Digest affronta il tema della violenza domestica, una delle forme globalmente più diffuse di violenza contro le donne e le ragazze, che però rimane relativamente nascosta e ignorata. Il problema della violenza domestica chiama in causa una varietà di ambiti: la sanità, la giustizia, l'economia, l'istruzione, lo sviluppo e, soprattutto, i diritti dell'uomo. Il Digest esamina le dimensioni e la diffusione del problema, e le ripercussioni che esso ha sui diritti delle donne e dei minori. Sottolinea l'esigenza di fornire risposte politiche coordinate e integrate: con una più efficace applicazione della legislazione esistente e con un impegno più diretto e visibile nella lotta contro questa violenza da parte dei governi. Lo studio contiene inoltre informazioni sulle ONG regionali e internazionali attive su questo tema, oltre che indicazioni bibliografiche utili per approfondire l'argomento.
Domestic Violence against Women and Girls
Domestic Violence against Women and Girls

AUTHOR(S)
Sushma Kapoor

Published: 2000 Innocenti Digest
This Digest focuses on domestic violence as one of the most prevalent yet relatively hidden and ignored forms of violence against women and girls globally. Domestic violence is a health, legal, economic, educational, developmental and, above all, a human rights issue. The Digest looks at the magnitude and universality of domestic violence, and its impact on the rights of women and children. It emphasizes the need for coordinated and integrated policy responses; implementing existing leglisation; and ensuring greater accountability from governments in order to eliminate this violence. Information on regional and international NGOs working in this area, and suggestions for further reading are also provided.
La violencia doméstica contra mujeres y niñas
La violencia doméstica contra mujeres y niñas
Published: 2000 Innocenti Digest
Este número del Innocenti Digest afronta el tema de la violencia doméstica, una de las formas de violencia contra mujeres y niñas más difundidas a nivel mundial, aunque suele permanecer relativamente oculta e ignorada. La violencia doméstica es un problema que afecta numerosos campos: la sanidad, la justicia, la economia, la educación, el desarollo y, sobre todo, los derechos humanos. El Digest examina las dimensiones y el carácter universal de la violencia doméstica, como asimismo la repercusión que tiene en los derechos de mujeres y niños.
Violence domestique a l'égard des femmes et des filles
Violence domestique a l'égard des femmes et des filles
Published: 2000 Innocenti Digest
Ce digest souligne la violence domestique comme une des formes les plus répandues, même si elle est relativement occultée et méconnue, de la violence à l'égard des femmes et des filles au niveau mondial. La violence domestique est un problème qui concerne la santé, le droit, l'économie, l'éducation, le développement et, avant tout, les droits humains. Le digest examine l'ampleur et l'universalité du problème de la violence domestique, et son impact sur les droits des femmes et des enfants. Il met l'accent sur la nécessité de réponses politiques coordonnées et intégrées, par une majeure collaboration entre les parties intéressées, par l'établissement de mécanismes de surveillance et d'évaluation des programmes et des politiques, par l'application de la législation en vigueur, et par l'obligation pour les gouvernements d'assumer davantage leurs responsabilités, afin d'éliminer cette violence. Le digest fournit également des informations sur les ONG régionales et internationales oeuvrant dans ce domaine, ainsi que des suggestions de lecture.
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JOURNAL ARTICLES BLOGS
Responsible Innovation in Technology for Children: Digital technology, play and child well-being
Publication

Responsible Innovation in Technology for Children: Digital technology, play and child well-being

Digital experiences can have significant negative impact on children, exposing them to risks or failing to nurture them adequately. Nevertheless, digital experiences also potentially yield enormous benefits for children, enabling them to learn, to create, to develop friendships, and to build worlds. While global efforts to deepen our understanding of the prevalence and impact of digital risks of harm are burgeoning – a development that is both welcome and necessary – less attention has been paid to understanding and optimizing the benefits that digital technology can provide in supporting children’s rights and their well-being. Benefits here refer not only to the absence of harm, but also to creating additional positive value. How should we recognize the opportunities and benefits of digital technology for children’s well-being? What is the relationship between the design of digital experiences – in particular, play-centred design – and the well-being of children? What guidance and measures can we use to strengthen the design of digital environments to promote positive outcomes for children? And how can we make sure that children’s insights and needs form the foundation of our work in this space? These questions matter for all those who design and promote digital experiences, to keep children safe and happy, and enable positive development and learning. These questions are particularly relevant as the world shifts its attention to emerging digital technologies and experiences, from artificial intelligence (AI) to the metaverse, and seeks to understand their impact on people and society. To begin to tackle these questions, UNICEF and the LEGO Group initiated the Responsible Innovation in Technology for Children (RITEC) project in partnership with the Young and Resilient Research Centre at Western Sydney University; the CREATE Lab at New York University; the Graduate Center, City University of New York; the University of Sheffield; the Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for the Digital Child; and the Joan Ganz Cooney Center. The research is funded by the LEGO Foundation. The partnership is an international, multi-stakeholder and cross-sectoral collaboration between organizations that believe the design and development of digital technology should support the rights and well-being of children as a primary objective – and that children should have a prominent voice in making this a reality. This project’s primary objective is to develop, with children from around the world, a framework that maps how the design of children’s digital experiences affects their well-being, and to provide guidance as to how informed design choices can promote positive well-being outcomes.
Resources to Support Marginalized Caregivers of Children with Disabilities: Guidelines for Implementation
Publication

Resources to Support Marginalized Caregivers of Children with Disabilities: Guidelines for Implementation

Support from caregivers is critical for children’s learning both at home and at school. However, the COVID-19 pandemic and disruption of education systems globally created additional expectations for parents to support their children’s learning at home. This particularly affected the most marginalized children as the crises exacerbated already existing inequalities in education. This document introduces the approach and purpose of a set of resources to support the marginalized caregivers of children with disabilities with inclusive education. It presents lessons learned from proof-of-concept pilots in Armenia and Uzbekistan, followed by step-by-step guidelines on how to adopt and adapt the resources for education ministries and others who want to implement them in their education system.
Reopening with Resilience: Lessons from Remote Learning during COVID-19: Europe and Central Asia
Publication

Reopening with Resilience: Lessons from Remote Learning during COVID-19: Europe and Central Asia

When schools started closing their doors due to COVID-19, countries in Europe and Central Asia quickly provided alternative learning solutions for children to continue learning. More than 90 per cent of countries offered digital solutions to ensure that education activities could continue. However, lack of access to digital devices and a reliable internet connection excluded a significant amount of already marginalized children and threatened to widen the existing learning disparities. This report builds on existing evidence highlighting key lessons learned during the pandemic to promote learning for all during school closure and provides actionable policy recommendations on how to bridge the digital divide and build resilient education systems in Europe and Central Asia.

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