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Reimagining Migration Responses: Learning from children and young people who move in the Horn of Africa
SPOTLIGHT

Reimagining Migration Responses: Learning from children and young people who move in the Horn of Africa

The number of international migrants under 18 is rising, accelerated by complex and fast-evolving economic, demographic, security and environmental drivers. Based on interviews carried out with 1,290 migrant children and young people in Ethiopia, Somalia and Sudan, this report helps address the evidence gap on children and young people migrating in the Horn of Africa by providing a better understanding of their protective environments; their access to services and resources; and their perceptions of safety, well-being and trust in authorities and other providers. It concludes by offering policy and programme recommendations to rethink child protection approaches for migrants in the region.
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COVID-19: Missing More Than a Classroom. The impact of school closures on children’s nutrition
Blog Blog

COVID-19: Missing More Than a Classroom. The impact of school closures on children’s nutrition

In 2019, 135 million people in 55 countries were in food crises or worse, and 2 billion people did not have regular access to safe, nutritious and sufficient food. COVID-19 has exacerbated these hardships and may result in an additional 121 million people facing acute food insecurity by the end of 2020. Further, since the beginning of the pandemic, an estimated 1.6 billion learners in 199 countries worldwide were affected by school closures, with nearly 370 million children not receiving a school meal in 150 countries. The paper presents the evidence on the potential negative short-term and long-term effects of school meal scheme disruption during Covid-19 globally. It shows how vulnerable the children participating in these schemes are, how coping and mitigation measures are often only short-term solutions, and how prioritizing school re-opening is critical. For instance, it highlights how girls are at greater risk of not being in school or of being taken out of school early, which may lead to poor nutrition and health for themselves and their children. However, well-designed school feeding programmes have been shown to enable catch-up from early growth failure and other negative shocks. As such, once schools re-open, school meal schemes can help address the deprivation that children have experienced during the closures and provide an incentive for parents to send and keep their children, especially girls, in school.
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The Sale and Sexual Exploitation of Children: Digital Technology
The Sale and Sexual Exploitation of Children: Digital Technology
Published: 2020 Miscellanea

As access to Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) increases, so too do the risks posed to children. Popular ICTs, like mobile phones and the internet, can enable and facilitate sexual crimes against children, including the production and dissemination of child sexual abuse materials and the facilitation of child prostitution.

The scale of the problem is difficult to ascertain with precision. However, in 2018 alone, 18.4 million referrals of child sexual abuse material were made by US technology companies to the National Centre for Missing and Exploited Children.

When addressing the issue, children’s own experiences and perspectives need to be considered. For the most part, the use of ICTs can generate positive benefits for children. Addressing the root causes of children’s vulnerability therefore requires a rights-based and holistic approach. Priorities include more and better evidence on the role of ICTs in facilitating or enabling the sale and sexual exploitation of children; clear terminology; new and improved legislation to help end the sale and sexual exploitation of children; and a multi-sectoral collaborative response.

The Sale and Sexual Exploitation of Children: Migration
The Sale and Sexual Exploitation of Children: Migration
Published: 2020 Miscellanea

36.1 million children were international migrants in 2018 alone, often forced to move for a range of reasons, with or without families. Children who are migrating, especially if unaccompanied, face increased risk of being subjected to violence, including sexual violence, exploitation, and human trafficking. Their vulnerability is exacerbated by limited access to safe migration pathways, services, and justice. When they reach a destination country, they may encounter other difficulties, such as discrimination and limited access to basic services, making them extremely vulnerable to sale and sexual exploitation.

Migrant children face harsh realities that are characterized by multiple intersecting and overlapping issues. Even though they may show resilience and agency in dealing with difficult circumstances, the emotional, mental, and physical toll of uncertain and often arduous journeys may undermine their ability to protect themselves, making them even more vulnerable to violence, abuse, and exploitation.

Children left behind when families, especially one or both parents, migrate also face additional (and often hidden) vulnerabilities, and need to be included in research, policies and actions.

While various Conventions, Protocols, and Compacts offer some protection to migrant children, more needs to be done, including: an integrated approach to complex vulnerabilities; improved access to information and education for children; risk mitigation through awareness campaigns and prevention mechanisms; adequate access to resources; and expanding national child protection measures to include children on the move and those left behind in the context of migration and displacement.

The Sale and Sexual Exploitation of Children: Sport and Sporting Events
The Sale and Sexual Exploitation of Children: Sport and Sporting Events
Published: 2020 Miscellanea

Sport has a powerful effect on children’s well-being and can promote greater physical health, emotional and mental balance, and help children develop important skills. But sport can also expose children to grievous harm and violence.

At the extreme end is the sale of athletes, especially in major sports like football. Child athletes can easily fall victim to human trafficking, sometimes for the purposes of economic or sexual exploitation.

Everyday participation in sport can also expose children to violence and harm. Instructors and coaches typically enjoy substantial impunity due to their authoritative role and the great pressure exerted on children to perform, often with the support of parents who are unaware of the exposure to harm.

The interconnectedness of sport and the sale and sexual exploitation of children is a relatively unexplored issue that deeply affects their life experiences. While Conventions and Optional Protocols provide guidance, not enough research is available to inform actions, and laws are not fully equipped to regulate what is often a lucrative business.

بيع الأطفال واستغلالهم جنسياً في سياق التكنولوجيا الرقمية
بيع الأطفال واستغلالهم جنسياً في سياق التكنولوجيا الرقمية
Published: 2020 Miscellanea

مع زيادة عدد الأشخاص الذين يستخدمون تكنولوجيا المعلومات والاتصالات في جميع أنحاء العالم، يترتب على ذلك آثار تتعلق ببيع الأطفال واستغلالهم جنسياً. فتكنولوجيا المعلومات والاتصالات الشائعة، مثل الهواتف النقالة وشبكة الإنترنت، أصبحت عوامل تمكينية و/أو مُيسِّرة لارتكاب الجرائم الجنسية ضد الأطفال، بما في ذلك إنتاج ونشر مواد تتضمّن اعتداءات جنسية على الأطفال؛ وتسهيل بغاء الأطفال، والاستغلال الجنسي، ونقل الأعضاء، والتبني غير القانوني؛ وبيع الأطفال لأغراض العمل القَسْري؛ واستمالة الأطفال لأغراض جنسية.

بيع الأطفال واستغلالهم جنسياً في سياق الرياضة والأحداث الرياضية
بيع الأطفال واستغلالهم جنسياً في سياق الرياضة والأحداث الرياضية
Published: 2020 Miscellanea

تُؤثر الرياضة تأثيراً قوياً على رفاه الأطفال، ويمكنها أن تعزز صحتهم البدنية وتوازنهم العاطفي والعقلي، وأن تساعدهم في اكتساب مهارات مهمة في ما يتعلق بالمشاركة وبناء الفريق والتعاون. بيد أن الرياضة قد تعرض الأطفال في الوقت نفسه لضرر وعنف بالغين.

بيع الأطفال واستغلالهم جنسياً في سياق الهجرة
بيع الأطفال واستغلالهم جنسياً في سياق الهجرة
Published: 2020 Miscellanea

يتعرض الأطفال المنخرطون في حركات الهجرة ، سواء داخل الدول أو فيما بينها ، لخطر متزايد من التعرض للعنف أوالخضوع  له. الأطفال المهاجرون واللاجئون معرضون للخطرخاصة  إذا كانوا غير مصحوبين بذويهم أو منفصلين عن أسرهم وقد يتعرضون للعنف الجنسي والاستغلال ، فضلاً عن العمل القسري والاتجار بالبشر٠

La vente et l’exploitation sexuelle d’enfants dans le contexte des technologies numériques
La vente et l’exploitation sexuelle d’enfants dans le contexte des technologies numériques
Published: 2020 Miscellanea
Le nombre de personnes ayant accès aux technologies de l’information et de la communication augmente partout dans le monde, et ce phénomène a des répercussions sur la vente et l’exploitation sexuelle des enfants. Les TIC largement répandues, à l’instar des téléphones portables et d’Internet, rendent possibles et facilitent la perpétration de délits sexuels contre les enfants, tels que la production et la diffusion de matériel pédopornographique, l’organisation de la prostitution d’enfants, l’exploitation sexuelle, le transfert d’organes et les adoptions illégales, la vente d’enfants à des fins de travail forcé et la sollicitation en ligne d’enfants à des fins sexuelles.
La vente et l’exploitation sexuelle d’enfants dans le contexte du sport et des événements sportifs
La vente et l’exploitation sexuelle d’enfants dans le contexte du sport et des événements sportifs
Published: 2020 Miscellanea
Le sport a un effet puissant sur le bien-être des enfants : il favorise une meilleure santé physique, un bon équilibre affectif et mental, et il aide les enfants à acquérir des compétences importantes concernant la participation, l’esprit d’équipe et la collaboration. Cependant, le sport peut également exposer les enfants à de graves préjudices et à la violence, tant dans le cadre d’une pratique quotidienne qu’au niveau de « méga-événements » sportifs.
La vente et l'exploitation sexuelle d’enfants dans le contexte de migrations
La vente et l'exploitation sexuelle d’enfants dans le contexte de migrations
Published: 2020 Miscellanea
Les enfants qui participent à des mouvements migratoires, tant à l’intérieur de leur pays qu’audelà de leurs frontières nationales, courent un risque accru de subir des actes de violence. Les enfants migrants et réfugiés sont particulièrement vulnérables s’ils ne sont pas accompagnés ou s’ils sont séparés de leur famille et peuvent être victimes de violences et d’exploitation sexuelles, ainsi que du travail forcé et de la traite des êtres humains.
La tratta e lo sfruttamento sessuale dei bambini nell’ambito della tecnologia digitale
La tratta e lo sfruttamento sessuale dei bambini nell’ambito della tecnologia digitale
Published: 2020 Miscellanea
Il progressivo aumento in tutto il mondo dell’accesso alle tecnologie dell'informazione e della comunicazione (TIC) ha implicazioni nell’ambito della tratta e dello sfruttamento sessuale dei bambini. Le TIC più popolari, come i telefoni cellulari e internet, sono diventate strumenti e/o ausili per svariati crimini ai danni dei minori, quali la produzione e la diffusione di materiale pedopornografico , il favoreggiamento della prostituzione minorile , lo sfruttamento sessuale, il traffico di organi, le adozioni illegali, la tratta di bambini per il lavoro forzato, e l'adescamento a fini sessuali.
La tratta e lo sfruttamento sessuale dei bambini nell’ambito delle attività e degli eventi sportivi
La tratta e lo sfruttamento sessuale dei bambini nell’ambito delle attività e degli eventi sportivi
Published: 2020 Miscellanea
Lo sport ha un potente effetto sul benessere infantile: può contribuire a una maggiore salute fisica, all'equilibrio emotivo e mentale, e a sviluppare importanti competenze legate alla partecipazione, al team building e alla collaborazione. Tuttavia, sia nella sua pratica quotidiana che nell'organizzazione di grandi eventi, i cosiddetti mega sporting events (MSE), lo sport può esporre i bambini a gravi pericoli e violenze.
La tratta e lo sfruttamento sessuale dei bambini nell’ambito della migrazione
La tratta e lo sfruttamento sessuale dei bambini nell’ambito della migrazione
Published: 2020 Miscellanea
I minori coinvolti in movimenti migratori sia interni che internazionali corrono un rischio maggiore di essere esposti o sottoposti a violenza. I minori migranti e rifugiati non accompagnati o separati dalla famiglia sono particolarmente vulnerabili e possono essere vittime di violenza sessuale, sfruttamento, lavoro forzato e traffico di esseri umani.
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Learning at a Distance: Children’s remote learning experiences in Italy during the COVID-19 pandemic
Publication Publication

Learning at a Distance: Children’s remote learning experiences in Italy during the COVID-19 pandemic

Italy was the first country in Europe to implement a nationwide lockdown. Children and their families lived in nearly complete isolation for almost two months. Students missed 65 days of school compared to an average of 27 missed days among high-income countries worldwide. This prolonged break is of concern, as even short breaks in schooling can cause significant loss of learning for children and lead to educational inequalities over time. At least 3 million Italian students may not have been reached by remote learning due to a lack of internet connectivity or devices at home. This report explores children’s and parents’ experiences of remote learning during the lockdown in Italy, drawing on data collected from 11 European countries (and coordinated by the European Commission’s Joint Research Center). It explores how children's access and use of digital technologies changed during the pandemic; highlights how existing inequalities might undermine remote learning opportunities, even among those with internet access; and provides insights on how to support children’s remote learning in the future. *** L'Italia e’ stata il primo paese in Europa ad aver applicato la misura del lockdown su tutto il territorio. I bambini e le loro famiglie hanno vissuto in quasi completo isolamento per circa due mesi. Gli studenti hanno perduto 65 giorni di scuola rispetto ad una media di 27 negli altri paesi ad alto reddito del mondo. Questa interruzione prolungata rappresenta motivo di preoccupazione, in quanto persino interruzioni piu’ brevi nella didattica possono causare significative perdite nel livello di istruzione dei ragazzi e portare col tempo a diseguaglianze educative. Almeno 3 milioni di studenti in Italia non sono stati coinvolti nella didattica a distanza a causa d una mancanza di connessione ad internet o di dispositivi adeguati a casa. Questo rapporto analizza l’esperienza della didattica a distanza di ragazzi e genitori in Italia durante il lockdown, sulla base dei dati raccolti in 11 paesi europei (e coordinati dal Centro comune di ricerca della Commissione Europea). Studia il cambiamento nell’accesso e nell’uso delle tecnologie digitali dei bambini e ragazzi durante la pandemia; mette in evidenza come le diseguaglianze esistenti possano diminuire le opportunità offerte dalla didattica a distanza, anche tra coloro che hanno accesso ad internet; e fornisce approfondimenti su come sostenere la didattica a distanza di bambini e ragazzi in futuro.
Time to Teach: Teacher attendance and time on task in Eastern and Southern Africa
Publication Publication

Time to Teach: Teacher attendance and time on task in Eastern and Southern Africa

There is a learning crisis. Fifty-three per cent of children in low- and middle-income countries are in ‘learning poverty’, i.e. they cannot read and understand a simple text by the end of primary school age. In sub- Saharan Africa, the learning poverty rate is 87 per cent overall, and ranges from 40 per cent to as high as 99 per cent in the 21 countries with available data. Teachers attending lessons and spending quality time on task is a critical prerequisite to learning. However, in sub-Saharan Africa, teacher absenteeism ranges from 15 to 45 per cent. Teacher absenteeism and reduced time on task wastes valuable financial resources, short-changes students and is one of the most cumbersome obstacles on the path toward the education Sustainable Development Goal and to the related vision of the new UNICEF education strategy: Every Child Learns. Whilst the stark numbers are available to study, and despite teacher absenteeism being a foremost challenge for education systems in Africa, the evidence base on how policies and practices can influence teacher attendance remains scant. Time to Teach (TTT) is a research initiative that looks at primary school teacher attendance in eight countries and territories in the Eastern and Southern Africa (ESA) region: the Comoros; Kenya; Rwanda, Puntland, State of Somalia; South Sudan; the United Republic of Tanzania, mainland; the United Republic of Tanzania, Zanzibar; and Uganda. Its primary objective is to identify factors affecting the various forms of teacher attendance, which include being at school, being punctual, being in the classroom, and teaching when in the classroom, and use this evidence to inform the design and implementation of teacher policies.

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