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UNICEF Innocenti's complete catalogue of research and reports
Life in Lockdown: Child and adolescent mental health and well-being in the time of COVID-19
SPOTLIGHT

Life in Lockdown: Child and adolescent mental health and well-being in the time of COVID-19

COVID-19 lockdowns have significantly disrupted the daily lives of children and adolescents, with increased time at home, online learning and limited physical social interaction. This report seeks to understand the immediate effects on their mental health. Covering more than 130,000 children and adolescents across 22 countries, the evidence shows increased stress, anxiety and depressive symptoms, as well as increased alcohol and substance use, and  externalizing behavioural problems. Children and adolescents also reported positive coping strategies, resilience, social connectedness through digital media, more family time, and relief from academic stress. Factors such as demographics, relationships and pre-existing conditions are critical. To ensure children and adolescents are supported, the report recommends building the evidence on the longer-term impact of the pandemic on child and adolescent mental health in low- and middle-income countries, including vulnerable populations. To ensure children and adolescents are supported, the report recommends building the evidence on the longer-term impact of the pandemic on child and adolescent mental health in low- and middle-income countries, including vulnerable populations.
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COVID-19: Missing More Than a Classroom. The impact of school closures on children’s nutrition
Blog Blog

COVID-19: Missing More Than a Classroom. The impact of school closures on children’s nutrition

In 2019, 135 million people in 55 countries were in food crises or worse, and 2 billion people did not have regular access to safe, nutritious and sufficient food. COVID-19 has exacerbated these hardships and may result in an additional 121 million people facing acute food insecurity by the end of 2020. Further, since the beginning of the pandemic, an estimated 1.6 billion learners in 199 countries worldwide were affected by school closures, with nearly 370 million children not receiving a school meal in 150 countries. The paper presents the evidence on the potential negative short-term and long-term effects of school meal scheme disruption during Covid-19 globally. It shows how vulnerable the children participating in these schemes are, how coping and mitigation measures are often only short-term solutions, and how prioritizing school re-opening is critical. For instance, it highlights how girls are at greater risk of not being in school or of being taken out of school early, which may lead to poor nutrition and health for themselves and their children. However, well-designed school feeding programmes have been shown to enable catch-up from early growth failure and other negative shocks. As such, once schools re-open, school meal schemes can help address the deprivation that children have experienced during the closures and provide an incentive for parents to send and keep their children, especially girls, in school.
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General Comments of the Committee on the Rights of the Child (including CD with Concluding Observations)
General Comments of the Committee on the Rights of the Child (including CD with Concluding Observations)
Published: 2007 Innocenti Publications
Since its adoption in November 1989, the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) has been ratified by states across all regions and today it is in force in all but two countries. The CRC is the first binding international human rights instrument incorporating in the same text social, cultural, economic, civil and political rights. To monitor progress achieved in the realization of children’s rights, the CRC has established an international expert body, the Committee on the Rights of the Child, which also provides awareness and understanding of the principles and provisions of this treaty. The present publication contains the eight General Comments issued by the Committee, and the CD Rom accompanying this text includes all the Concluding Observations adopted by the Committee in relation to State Parties presented between 1993 and 2006. The CD-Rom also includes the status of ratification of the Convention and its two Optional Protocols, as well as the text of the reservations and/or declarations made by European States and Asian Republics at the moment of signature and ratification of those legal instruments.
Observaciones Generales del Comité de los Derechos del Niño
Observaciones Generales del Comité de los Derechos del Niño
Published: 2006 Innocenti Publications
Desde su adopción en Noviembre de 1989, la Convención ha sido ratificada por Estados a través de todas las regiones y en la actualidad es aplicable en todos los países, a excepción de dos. La CDN es el primer instrumento internacional que crea obligaciones y responsabilidades para los Estados y que incorpora en un mismo texto derechos sociales, culturales, económicos, civiles y políticos. La CDN ha establecido un órgano internacional formado por expertos, el Comité de los Derechos del Niño, que tiene como finalidad vigilar y analizar el progreso que se ha alcanzado en la realización de los derechos de la infancia, así como también sensiblizar y proveer conocimiento sobre los principios y provisiones de la CDN. La presente publicación contiene las siete Observaciones Generales emitidas por el Comité, y en el CD-Rom que acompaña este texto se incluyen todas las Conclusiones Generales adoptadas por el Comité referentes a los informes presentados por los Estados Europeos y Repúblicas Asiáticas entre los años de 1993 y 2005. El CD-Rom, a su vez, incluye el estado de ratificación de la Convención y de sus Protocolos Facultativos, así como también el texto de las reservas y/o declaraciones introducidas por los Estados Europeos y las Repúblicas Asiáticas al momento de firmar y ratificar tales instrumentos internacionales.
General Comments of the Committee on the Rights of the Child, including CD with Concluding Observations in Europe and Central Asia
General Comments of the Committee on the Rights of the Child, including CD with Concluding Observations in Europe and Central Asia
Published: 2006 Innocenti Publications
Since its adoption in November 1989, the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) has been ratified by states across regions and today it is in force in all but two. The CRC is the first binding international human rights instrument incorporating in the same text social, cultural, economic, civil and political rights. The Committee on the Rights of the Child exists to monitor progress achieved in the realization of children’s rights. The present publication contains the seven General Comments issued by the Committee, and the CD Rom accompanying this text includes all the Concluding Observations adopted by the Committee in relation to State Parties reports presented by European Countries and the Asian Republics between 1993 and 2005. The CD-Rom also includes the status of ratification of the Convention and its two Optional Protocols, as well as the text of the reservations and/or declarations made by European States and Asian Republics at the moment of signature and ratification of those legal instruments.
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Learning at a Distance: Children’s remote learning experiences in Italy during the COVID-19 pandemic
Publication Publication

Learning at a Distance: Children’s remote learning experiences in Italy during the COVID-19 pandemic

Italy was the first country in Europe to implement a nationwide lockdown. Children and their families lived in nearly complete isolation for almost two months. Students missed 65 days of school compared to an average of 27 missed days among high-income countries worldwide. This prolonged break is of concern, as even short breaks in schooling can cause significant loss of learning for children and lead to educational inequalities over time. At least 3 million Italian students may not have been reached by remote learning due to a lack of internet connectivity or devices at home. This report explores children’s and parents’ experiences of remote learning during the lockdown in Italy, drawing on data collected from 11 European countries (and coordinated by the European Commission’s Joint Research Center). It explores how children's access and use of digital technologies changed during the pandemic; highlights how existing inequalities might undermine remote learning opportunities, even among those with internet access; and provides insights on how to support children’s remote learning in the future. *** L'Italia e’ stata il primo paese in Europa ad aver applicato la misura del lockdown su tutto il territorio. I bambini e le loro famiglie hanno vissuto in quasi completo isolamento per circa due mesi. Gli studenti hanno perduto 65 giorni di scuola rispetto ad una media di 27 negli altri paesi ad alto reddito del mondo. Questa interruzione prolungata rappresenta motivo di preoccupazione, in quanto persino interruzioni piu’ brevi nella didattica possono causare significative perdite nel livello di istruzione dei ragazzi e portare col tempo a diseguaglianze educative. Almeno 3 milioni di studenti in Italia non sono stati coinvolti nella didattica a distanza a causa d una mancanza di connessione ad internet o di dispositivi adeguati a casa. Questo rapporto analizza l’esperienza della didattica a distanza di ragazzi e genitori in Italia durante il lockdown, sulla base dei dati raccolti in 11 paesi europei (e coordinati dal Centro comune di ricerca della Commissione Europea). Studia il cambiamento nell’accesso e nell’uso delle tecnologie digitali dei bambini e ragazzi durante la pandemia; mette in evidenza come le diseguaglianze esistenti possano diminuire le opportunità offerte dalla didattica a distanza, anche tra coloro che hanno accesso ad internet; e fornisce approfondimenti su come sostenere la didattica a distanza di bambini e ragazzi in futuro.
Time to Teach: Teacher attendance and time on task in Eastern and Southern Africa
Publication Publication

Time to Teach: Teacher attendance and time on task in Eastern and Southern Africa

There is a learning crisis. Fifty-three per cent of children in low- and middle-income countries are in ‘learning poverty’, i.e. they cannot read and understand a simple text by the end of primary school age. In sub- Saharan Africa, the learning poverty rate is 87 per cent overall, and ranges from 40 per cent to as high as 99 per cent in the 21 countries with available data. Teachers attending lessons and spending quality time on task is a critical prerequisite to learning. However, in sub-Saharan Africa, teacher absenteeism ranges from 15 to 45 per cent. Teacher absenteeism and reduced time on task wastes valuable financial resources, short-changes students and is one of the most cumbersome obstacles on the path toward the education Sustainable Development Goal and to the related vision of the new UNICEF education strategy: Every Child Learns. Whilst the stark numbers are available to study, and despite teacher absenteeism being a foremost challenge for education systems in Africa, the evidence base on how policies and practices can influence teacher attendance remains scant. Time to Teach (TTT) is a research initiative that looks at primary school teacher attendance in eight countries and territories in the Eastern and Southern Africa (ESA) region: the Comoros; Kenya; Rwanda, Puntland, State of Somalia; South Sudan; the United Republic of Tanzania, mainland; the United Republic of Tanzania, Zanzibar; and Uganda. Its primary objective is to identify factors affecting the various forms of teacher attendance, which include being at school, being punctual, being in the classroom, and teaching when in the classroom, and use this evidence to inform the design and implementation of teacher policies.

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