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UNICEF Innocenti's complete catalogue of research and reports
Increasing Women’s Representation in School Leadership: A promising path towards improving learning
SPOTLIGHT

Increasing Women’s Representation in School Leadership: A promising path towards improving learning

Emerging evidence shows a positive association between women school leaders and student performance. Some studies suggest women school leaders are more likely than their male counterparts to adopt effective management practices that may contribute to improved outcomes. However, women remain largely underrepresented in school leadership positions, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. This brief presents emerging insights on the association between women school leaders and education outcomes and draws attention to women’s underrepresentation in school leadership roles. It highlights the need for further research on gender and school leadership to identify policies and practices that can be implemented to increase women’s representation and scale high-quality management practices adopted by women leaders to more schools to improve education outcomes for all children.
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Annual Report 2021
Publication

Annual Report 2021

The UNICEF Innocenti Annual Report 2021 highlights the key results achieved in research and evidence to inform policymaking and programming.
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Promoting the Rights of Children with Disabilities (Russian version)
Promoting the Rights of Children with Disabilities (Russian version)
Published: 2008 Innocenti Digest
This Innocenti Digest examines the situation of approximately 200 million children with disabilities around the world and identifies ways to support the realization of their rights. Children with disabilities constantly face barriers to the enjoyment of their rights and inclusion in society. But the tide is changing, as many countries have begun to reform their laws and structures in the past two decades to promote the participation of children with disabilities as full members of society. The Digest promotes such participation, and discusses all aspects of their development, including access to education, health services and rehabilitation, social and legal assistance, play and cultural activities, vocational and life-skills training. It focuses on the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities which, building on the provisions of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, opens a new era in securing the rights of children with disabilities.
Promoting the Rights of Children with Disabilities
Promoting the Rights of Children with Disabilities
Published: 2007 Innocenti Digest
This Innocenti Digest on 'Promoting the Rights of Children with Disabilities' examines the situation of approximately 200 million children with disabilities around the world and identifies ways to support the realization of their rights. Children with disabilities constantly face barriers to the enjoyment of their rights and inclusion in society. But the tide is changing, as many countries have begun to reform their laws and structures in the past two decades to promote the participation of children with disabilities as full members of society. The Digest promotes such participation, and discusses all aspects of their development, including access to education, health services and rehabilitation, social and legal assistance, play and cultural activities, vocational and life-skills training. It focuses on the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities which, building on the provisions of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, opens a new era in securing the rights of children with disabilities.
TransMONEE 2007 Features: Data and analysis on the lives of children in CEE/CIS and Baltic States
TransMONEE 2007 Features: Data and analysis on the lives of children in CEE/CIS and Baltic States
Published: 2007 Innocenti Publications
Despite recent economic growth, many children in the CEE/CIS Region remain vulnerable. Thousands of children continue to die before their first birthday, and increasing numbers of children are in formal care. Many young people lack employment opportunities and are at risk of marginalization. The tools to monitor these trends are often lacking, not standardized, or not routinely deployed. TRANSMONEE Features, along with the TRANSMONEE database, focuses on different aspects of children's lives, draws attention to mechanisms for monitoring trends and uses data to illuminate neglected issues. TRANSMONEE 2007 Features: Data and analysis on the lives of children in CEE/CIS and Baltic States looks closely at child survival; the forces behind the recent demographic changes occurring across the region, the challenges facing young people in their transition from school to work, and the issue of children growing up without parental care. Included with the print publication is a CD containing the MONEEInfo version of the TRANSMONEE database.
Материалы базы данных TransMONEE 2007 года: данные и анализ,касающиеся жизни детей в страна ЦВЕ/СНГ и государствах Балтии
Материалы базы данных TransMONEE 2007 года: данные и анализ,касающиеся жизни детей в страна ЦВЕ/СНГ и государствах Балтии
Published: 2007 Innocenti Publications
Несмотря на отмечаемый в последнее время экономический рост, многие дети в странах ЦВЕ/СНГ и государствах Балтии остаются уязвимыми. По-прежнему тысячи детей умирают в течение первого года жизни. Все больше детей находятся под официальной опекой. В публикации “Материалы базы данных TransMONEE 2007 года” более пристальное внимание уделяется проблеме выживаниядетей и тому, смогут ли страны ЦВЕ/СНГ достичь цели в бласти развития Декларации тысячелетия по сокращению на две трети смертности среди детей в возрасте до 5 лет; факторам, которые в последнее время привели к изменениям в уровне рождаемости, имеющим место в регионе; а также проблемам, с которыми сталкиваются молодые люди при трудоустройстве по окончании школы. Кроме того, в ней вновь ассматривается вопрос о детях, лишенных родительского попечения, в рамках проведения анализа, почему число детей, находящихся под официальной опекой, продолжает величиваться, несмотря на общее улучшение экономического положения.
Protégeons les enfants touchés par le VIH et le SIDA
Protégeons les enfants touchés par le VIH et le SIDA
Published: 2006 Innocenti Insights
Le rapport étudie les options de protection des enfants dans les communautés touchées par la pandémie du SIDA. Partant du principe que le lien parent-enfant est la pierre angulaire du développement de l’enfant et que la famille est l’élément fondamental de la société, le rapport considère tout d’abord les moyens de garder aussi longtemps que possible les parents en vie et la famille unie. Il examine ensuite les solutions alternatives de protection au-delà de la famille la plus proche. Les arrangements vont de la prise en charge par la famille élargie, à travers différentes formes d’accueil dans la communauté, à l’adoption et au placement en établissement. Le rapport met en lumière les façons dont les acteurs extérieurs à la proche communauté peuvent soutenir et améliorer la capacité des ménages et des communautés à prendre soin des enfants livrés à eux-mêmes.
Caring for Children Affected by HIV and AIDS
Caring for Children Affected by HIV and AIDS
Published: 2006 Innocenti Insights
This IRC Insight highlights the urgent need to support families and communities to care for children orphaned by HIV/AIDS. The report looks at how the epidemic undermines children's health and schooling, and reinforces marginalization and deprivation. It explores the options for the care of children in communities affected by the AIDS epidemic. Beginning with the premise that the parent-child bond is the basic building block of child development and the family the basic unit of society, the report looks at ways to keep the family together for as long as possible. It then goes on to explore alternative care arrangements beyond the immediate family. Settings range from care by the extended family, to different forms of fostering in the community, through adoption and placement in residential institutions, which should be used as a last resort.
Protegiendo a la infancia afectada por el VIH y el SIDA
Protegiendo a la infancia afectada por el VIH y el SIDA
Published: 2006 Innocenti Insights
Investiga las posibilidades del cuidado de niños y niñas en comunidades afectadas por la pandemia del SIDA. Partiendo de la premisa de que el vínculo entre padre/madre e hijo/a es el componente más importante para el pleno desarrollo del niño y que la familia es la unidad básica de la sociedad, el informe estudia en primer lugar las posibilidades existentes para mantener a los padres vivos y a la familia junta el mayor tiempo posible. A continuación examina los cuidados alternativos más allá de la familia más próxima. Estos cuidados van desde los cuidados por la familia extensa o en diferentes formas de familias de acogida, hasta la adopción o ingreso en residencias. El informe hace hincapié en las maneras en que actores no pertenecientes a la comunidad más próxima pueden ayudar a sostener y mejorar la capacidad de los hogares y las comunidades en el cuidado de los niños y niñas que se quedan solos.
Prendersi cura dei bambini colpiti da HIV ed AIDS
Prendersi cura dei bambini colpiti da HIV ed AIDS
Published: 2006 Innocenti Insights
Il presente Insight vuole far progredire il dibattito sull’incidenza dell’HIV e dell’AIDS sui bambini in tre modi particolari: (i) focalizzando l’attenzione sulla situazione dei bambini resi orfani dall’AIDS e sui limiti delle attuali risposte per la realizzazione dei loro diritti; (ii) riesaminando le opzioni per l’accoglienza di tali bambini, evidenziando le esperienze efficaci e le lezioni apprese da approcci locali e familiari; (iii) identificando modi in cui gli attori locali, nazionali ed internazionali possano effettivamente rispondere alle proprie responsabilità di tutelare i diritti umani dei bambini, con particolare attenzione ai bambini resi orfani dall’AIDS.
La evolución de las facultades des niño
La evolución de las facultades des niño

AUTHOR(S)
Gerison Lansdown

Published: 2005 Innocenti Insights
La Convención de los Derechos del Niño introduce por primera vez en un tratado de derecho internacional, el concepto de ‘capacidades evolutivas’ del niño(a). Este principio ha sido descrito como un nuevo principio de interpretación en derecho internacional, reconociendo que, a medida que los niños(as) adquieren mayores capacidades, hay menos necesidad de protección y mayor capacidad para adquirir responsabilidad por las decisiones que afectarán su vida. La Convención permite reconocer que los niños(as) que crecen en diferentes espacios y culturas, y que se enfrentan a diversas experiencias de vida, adquirirán estas capacidades a diferentes edades. Es necesario tomar acción a través del derecho, las políticas y la práctica para que sea reconocidas la contribución que la infancia brinda así como sus capacidades. El propósito de este estudio es abrir la discusión y promover el debate para adquirir un mejor entendimiento de la protección que debe darse a la niñez, de acuerdo con sus ‘capacidades evolutivas’, y asimismo proveer oportunidades de participación en el pleno cumplimiento de sus derechos.
Les capacités évolutives de l'enfant
Les capacités évolutives de l'enfant

AUTHOR(S)
Gerison Lansdown

Published: 2005 Innocenti Insights
Pour la première fois dans un traité internacional relatif aux droits humains, la Convention relative aux droits de l’enfant introduit le concept des ‘capacités évolutives’ de l’enfant. Ce principe revêt de profondes implications pour les droits humains de l’enfant. Il établit que l’acquisition de compétences majeures de la part des enfants s’accompagne d’une moindre nécessité de les diriger et d’une plus grande nécessité de leur confier la responsabilité des décisions qui concernent leur existence. La Convention reconnaît que les enfants acquièrent des compétences à des âges différents en fonction des environnements, des cultures et des expériences de vie, et que l’acquisition de ces compétences varie selon les circonstances. Elle tient également compte du fait que les capacités des enfants diffèrent selon la nature des droits à exercer.Cette étude a pour objectif d’ouvrir la discussion et de favoriser le débat afin de mieux discerner les moyens de promouvoir les changements culturels nécessaires pour que les enfants soient adéquatement protégés conformément à leurs capacités évolutives, et qu’ils soient respectés en tant que citoyens, en tant que personnes et en tant que titulaires de droits.
The Evolving Capacities of the Child
The Evolving Capacities of the Child

AUTHOR(S)
Gerison Lansdown

Published: 2005 Innocenti Insights
The Convention on the Rights of the Child introduces for the first time in an international human rights treaty, the concept of the ‘evolving capacities’ of the child. This principle has been described as a new principle of interpretation in international law, recognising that, as children acquire enhanced competencies, there is a diminishing need for protection and a greater capacity to take responsibility for decisions affecting their lives. The Convention allows for the recognition that children in different environments and cultures, and faced with diverse life experiences, will acquire competencies at different ages. Action is needed in law, policy and practice so that the contributions children make and the capacities they hold are acknowledged. The purpose of the study is to open the discussion and promote debate to achieve a better understanding of how children can be protected, in accordance with their evolving capacities, and also provided with opportunities to participate in the fulfillment of their rights.
Home-Based Community Day Care and Children's Rights: The Colombian case
Home-Based Community Day Care and Children's Rights: The Colombian case

AUTHOR(S)
Carlos Castillo Cardona; Nelson Ortiz Pinilla; Alejandra Gonzales Rossetti

Over recent years demographic trends in Columbia (such as the increased participation of women in the workforce) have led to an increased demand for a viable day care system for 3-6 year olds. This has largely been met by an innovative programme set up by the Colombian Family Welfare Institute. The idea at the basis of their initiative is simple yet effective: mothers are given the training and support to enable them to offer day care within their homes to the children of other families from their own communities. This paper describes in detail the design and implementation of this programme. It is hoped international organisations and other countries will draw inspiration from this Colombian success story.
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JOURNAL ARTICLES BLOGS
Responsible Innovation in Technology for Children: Digital technology, play and child well-being
Publication

Responsible Innovation in Technology for Children: Digital technology, play and child well-being

Digital experiences can have significant negative impact on children, exposing them to risks or failing to nurture them adequately. Nevertheless, digital experiences also potentially yield enormous benefits for children, enabling them to learn, to create, to develop friendships, and to build worlds. While global efforts to deepen our understanding of the prevalence and impact of digital risks of harm are burgeoning – a development that is both welcome and necessary – less attention has been paid to understanding and optimizing the benefits that digital technology can provide in supporting children’s rights and their well-being. Benefits here refer not only to the absence of harm, but also to creating additional positive value. How should we recognize the opportunities and benefits of digital technology for children’s well-being? What is the relationship between the design of digital experiences – in particular, play-centred design – and the well-being of children? What guidance and measures can we use to strengthen the design of digital environments to promote positive outcomes for children? And how can we make sure that children’s insights and needs form the foundation of our work in this space? These questions matter for all those who design and promote digital experiences, to keep children safe and happy, and enable positive development and learning. These questions are particularly relevant as the world shifts its attention to emerging digital technologies and experiences, from artificial intelligence (AI) to the metaverse, and seeks to understand their impact on people and society. To begin to tackle these questions, UNICEF and the LEGO Group initiated the Responsible Innovation in Technology for Children (RITEC) project in partnership with the Young and Resilient Research Centre at Western Sydney University; the CREATE Lab at New York University; the Graduate Center, City University of New York; the University of Sheffield; the Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for the Digital Child; and the Joan Ganz Cooney Center. The research is funded by the LEGO Foundation. The partnership is an international, multi-stakeholder and cross-sectoral collaboration between organizations that believe the design and development of digital technology should support the rights and well-being of children as a primary objective – and that children should have a prominent voice in making this a reality. This project’s primary objective is to develop, with children from around the world, a framework that maps how the design of children’s digital experiences affects their well-being, and to provide guidance as to how informed design choices can promote positive well-being outcomes.
Resources to Support Marginalized Caregivers of Children with Disabilities: Guidelines for Implementation
Publication

Resources to Support Marginalized Caregivers of Children with Disabilities: Guidelines for Implementation

Support from caregivers is critical for children’s learning both at home and at school. However, the COVID-19 pandemic and disruption of education systems globally created additional expectations for parents to support their children’s learning at home. This particularly affected the most marginalized children as the crises exacerbated already existing inequalities in education. This document introduces the approach and purpose of a set of resources to support the marginalized caregivers of children with disabilities with inclusive education. It presents lessons learned from proof-of-concept pilots in Armenia and Uzbekistan, followed by step-by-step guidelines on how to adopt and adapt the resources for education ministries and others who want to implement them in their education system.
Reopening with Resilience: Lessons from Remote Learning during COVID-19: Europe and Central Asia
Publication

Reopening with Resilience: Lessons from Remote Learning during COVID-19: Europe and Central Asia

When schools started closing their doors due to COVID-19, countries in Europe and Central Asia quickly provided alternative learning solutions for children to continue learning. More than 90 per cent of countries offered digital solutions to ensure that education activities could continue. However, lack of access to digital devices and a reliable internet connection excluded a significant amount of already marginalized children and threatened to widen the existing learning disparities. This report builds on existing evidence highlighting key lessons learned during the pandemic to promote learning for all during school closure and provides actionable policy recommendations on how to bridge the digital divide and build resilient education systems in Europe and Central Asia.

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