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UNICEF Innocenti's complete catalogue of research and reports
Reimagining Migration Responses: Learning from children and young people who move in the Horn of Africa
SPOTLIGHT

Reimagining Migration Responses: Learning from children and young people who move in the Horn of Africa

The number of international migrants under 18 is rising, accelerated by complex and fast-evolving economic, demographic, security and environmental drivers. Based on interviews carried out with 1,290 migrant children and young people in Ethiopia, Somalia and Sudan, this report helps address the evidence gap on children and young people migrating in the Horn of Africa by providing a better understanding of their protective environments; their access to services and resources; and their perceptions of safety, well-being and trust in authorities and other providers. It concludes by offering policy and programme recommendations to rethink child protection approaches for migrants in the region.
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COVID-19: Missing More Than a Classroom. The impact of school closures on children’s nutrition
Blog Blog

COVID-19: Missing More Than a Classroom. The impact of school closures on children’s nutrition

In 2019, 135 million people in 55 countries were in food crises or worse, and 2 billion people did not have regular access to safe, nutritious and sufficient food. COVID-19 has exacerbated these hardships and may result in an additional 121 million people facing acute food insecurity by the end of 2020. Further, since the beginning of the pandemic, an estimated 1.6 billion learners in 199 countries worldwide were affected by school closures, with nearly 370 million children not receiving a school meal in 150 countries. The paper presents the evidence on the potential negative short-term and long-term effects of school meal scheme disruption during Covid-19 globally. It shows how vulnerable the children participating in these schemes are, how coping and mitigation measures are often only short-term solutions, and how prioritizing school re-opening is critical. For instance, it highlights how girls are at greater risk of not being in school or of being taken out of school early, which may lead to poor nutrition and health for themselves and their children. However, well-designed school feeding programmes have been shown to enable catch-up from early growth failure and other negative shocks. As such, once schools re-open, school meal schemes can help address the deprivation that children have experienced during the closures and provide an incentive for parents to send and keep their children, especially girls, in school.
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The Child Care Transition: A league table of early childhood education and care in economically advanced countries
The Child Care Transition: A league table of early childhood education and care in economically advanced countries

AUTHOR(S)
Peter Adamson

Published: 2008 Innocenti Report Card
A great change is coming over childhood in the world's richest countries. Today's rising generation is the first in which a majority are spending a large part of early childhood in some form of out-of-home child care. At the same time, neuroscientific research is demonstrating that loving, stable, secure, and stimulating relationships with caregivers in the earliest months and years of life are critical for every aspect of a child’s development. Taken together, these two developments confront public and policymakers in OECD countries with urgent questions. Whether the child care transition will represent an advance or a setback for today's children and tomorrow's world will depend on the response.
La transition en cours dans la garde et l’éducation de l’enfant. Tableau de classement des services de garde et d’éducation des jeunes enfants dans les pays économiquement avancés
La transition en cours dans la garde et l’éducation de l’enfant. Tableau de classement des services de garde et d’éducation des jeunes enfants dans les pays économiquement avancés

AUTHOR(S)
Peter Adamson

Published: 2008 Innocenti Report Card
La génération montante d’aujourd’hui est la première dont la majorité passe une grande partie de la petite enfance dans un type de structure de garde extérieure au foyer. Parallèlement, la recherche neuroscientifique démontre l’importance capitale, pour tous les aspects du développement de l’enfant, de l’établissement de rapports aimants, stables, sécurisants et stimulants avec les personnes qui s’occupent d’enfants au cours des premiers mois et années. Considérés ensemble, ces deux éléments obligent l’opinion publique et les décideurs politiques de l’OCDE à faire face à des questions pressantes. C’est en fonction de leurs réponses que la transition en cours dans la garde et l’éducation de l’enfant se traduira, pour les enfants d’aujourd’hui et ceux de demain, par une avancée ou un revers.
Come cambia la cura dell’infanzia. Un quadro comparativo dei servizi educativi e della cura per la prima infanzia nei paesi economicamente avanzati
Come cambia la cura dell’infanzia. Un quadro comparativo dei servizi educativi e della cura per la prima infanzia nei paesi economicamente avanzati

AUTHOR(S)
Peter Adamson

Published: 2008 Innocenti Report Card
Un grande cambiamento è in corso per l’infanzia nei paesi più ricchi del mondo. La maggioranza della generazione adesso in fase di crescita è la prima a trascorrere gran parte della prima infanzia in strutture che se ne prendono cura fuori della propria casa. Allo stesso tempo, la ricerca sulle neuroscienze dimostra che un rapporto amorevole, stabile, sicuro e stimolante con le persone che si prendono cura del bambino nei primi mesi e anni di vita è fondamentale per ogni aspetto del suo sviluppo. Questi due fattori pongono domande urgenti alla opinione pubblica e ai responsabili delle politiche dei paesi OCSE. Se il cambiamento nella cura dei bambini rappresenterà un progresso o un’involuzione per i bambini di oggi e il mondo di domani dipenderà dalla risposta a tali domande.
A transição dos cuidados na primeira infância. Uma tabela classificativa dos serviços de educação e cuidados na primeira infância nos países economicamente desenvolvidos
A transição dos cuidados na primeira infância. Uma tabela classificativa dos serviços de educação e cuidados na primeira infância nos países economicamente desenvolvidos

AUTHOR(S)
Peter Adamson

Published: 2008 Innocenti Report Card
A geração actualmente em formação é a primeira em que uma maioria passa grande parte da primeira infância em alguma estrutura de cuidados for a de casa. Ao mesmo tempo, as investigações da neurociência estão a demonstrar que as relações afectuosas, estáveis, seguras e estimulantes com as pessoas que cuidam da criança nos primeiros meses e anos de vida são cruciais para todos os aspectos do seu desenvolvimento. Considerados em conjunto, estes dois desenvolvimentos confrontam o público e os autores das políticas dos países da OCDE com questões urgentes. Saber se a transição para os cuidados for a de casa irá representar um avanço ou um recuo – para as crianças de hoje em dia e para o mundo de amanhã – dependerá das respostas a essas questões.
El cuidado infantil en los países industrializados: transición y cambio. Una tabla clasificatoria de la educación y los cuidados durante la primera infancia en los países económicamente avanzados
El cuidado infantil en los países industrializados: transición y cambio. Una tabla clasificatoria de la educación y los cuidados durante la primera infancia en los países económicamente avanzados

AUTHOR(S)
Peter Adamson

Published: 2008 Innocenti Report Card
Se está gestando un gran cambio en la infancia en los países más ricos del mundo. La generación de hoy en día es la primera en la que la mayoría recibe durante gran parte de la primera infancia algún tipo de cuidado infantil fuera del hogar. Al mismo tiempo, las investigaciones neurocientíficas están demostrando que las relaciones afectuosas, estables, seguras y estimulantes con los cuidadores durante los primeros meses y años de vida son esenciales para todos los aspectos del desarrollo del niño. Conjuntamente, estos dos avances plantean cuestiones urgentes al público y a los políticos en los países de la OCDE. Dependiendo de la respuesta que se les dé, la transición en el cuidado infantil representará un avance o un revés para los niños de hoy en día y el mundo de mañana.
Benchmarks for Early Childhood Services in OECD Countries
Benchmarks for Early Childhood Services in OECD Countries

AUTHOR(S)
John Bennett

Published: 2008 Innocenti Working Papers
The Innocenti Report Card 8 presents ten benchmarks for early childhood services. It represents a bold first step towards the ultimate goal of improving the lives of young children by enabling international comparisons to be made in the early childhood field, thereby encouraging countries to learn from each other’s experiences. The current paper provides some critical reflections on the challenges involved in establishing the principle of standard-setting in the early childhood field and suggests factors that should command our attention as the principle - as is hoped - becomes established and the process of standard-setting matures.
Overcoming Disparities and Expanding Access to Early Childhood Services in Germany: Policy consideration and funding options
Overcoming Disparities and Expanding Access to Early Childhood Services in Germany: Policy consideration and funding options
Published: 2008 Innocenti Working Papers
In comparison to the Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) systems of many other advanced economies the German system can be characterised as relative uniform, when looking at programmes and providers. But in other ways, there are considerable variations. There are considerate regional differences in governance, funding, and attendance rates, in particular with respect to certain socio-economic groups. This paper describes and evaluates these differences, mainly from an economic perspective and also taking child well-being into account.
Die öffentlich geförderte Bildungs- und Betreuungsinfrastruktur in Deutschland: Eine ökonomische Analyse regionaler und nutzergruppenspezifischer Unterschiede
Die öffentlich geförderte Bildungs- und Betreuungsinfrastruktur in Deutschland: Eine ökonomische Analyse regionaler und nutzergruppenspezifischer Unterschiede
Published: 2008 Innocenti Working Papers
Betreuung und Bildung in der frühen Kindheit war lange Zeit im Westen Deutschlands ein Thema, das wenig Aufmerksamkeit fand. Weithin herrschte die Vorstellung, dass Kleinkinder zu Hause versorgt werden sollten. Aufgrund von Warnungen, die von Kinderärzten und Bindungsforschern kamen, wurden junge Kinder nur in dringenden Fällen in Krippen oder von Tagesmüttern betreut. Eltern, die solche Einrichtungen in Anspruch nahmen, hatten oft ein schlechtes Gewissen.
De transitie naar kinderopvang en onderwijs: Een boordtabel over kinderopvang en onderwijs voor kinderen jonger dan 6 jaar in rijke landen
De transitie naar kinderopvang en onderwijs: Een boordtabel over kinderopvang en onderwijs voor kinderen jonger dan 6 jaar in rijke landen

AUTHOR(S)
Peter Adamson

Published: 2008 Innocenti Report Card
De generatie die nu opgroeit, is de eerste waarvan een meerderheid een groot deel van haar vroegste kindertijd doorbrengt in een of andere vorm van kinderopvang buitenshuis. Tegelijkertijd toont neurowetenschappelijk onderzoek aan dat liefdevolle, stabiele, veilige en stimulerende relaties met verzorgers tijdens de eerste levensmaanden en jaren cruciaal zijn voor alle aspecten in de ontwikkeling van een kind. De combinatie van deze twee ontwikkelingen confronteert de samenleving en de beleidsmakers in de OESO-landen met een aantal dringende vragen. Wordt deze overgang naar kinderopvang en onderwijs een vooruitgang dan wel een achteruitgang voor de kinderen van vandaag en voor de wereld van morgen? Veel zal afhangen van hoe op deze vragen zal worden ingespeeld
Child Trafficking in Europe: A broad vision to put children first (summary)
Child Trafficking in Europe: A broad vision to put children first (summary)
Published: 2007 Innocenti Publications
Within and across borders in Europe, children are trafficked into a variety of exploitative situations, violating their human rights and threatening their survival and development. This report assesses the legal, policy and implementation frameworks in place to address child trafficking in the region. Covering more than 50 countries/entities, the report investigates the complexity of the trafficking phenomenon, and maps trafficking patterns and targeted legal and policy responses. Child trafficking is addressed in the framework of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, with a focus on prevention, protection and empowerment.
Child Trafficking in Europe: A broad vision to put children first
Child Trafficking in Europe: A broad vision to put children first
Published: 2007 Innocenti Insights
Within and across borders in Europe, children are trafficked into a variety of exploitative situations, violating their human rights and threatening their survival and development. This report assesses the legal, policy and implementation frameworks in place to address child trafficking in the region. Covering more than 50 countries/entities, the report investigates the complexity of the trafficking phenomenon, and maps trafficking patterns and targeted legal and policy responses. Child trafficking is addressed in the framework of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, with a focus on prevention, protection and empowerment.
La traite des êtres humaines en Afrique, en particulier des femmes et des enfants
La traite des êtres humaines en Afrique, en particulier des femmes et des enfants

AUTHOR(S)
Andrea Rossi

Published: 2004 Innocenti Insights
La traite des êtres humaines affecte presque toutes les nations d'Afrique pour lesquelles nous disposons de données, que ce soit les pays d'origine ou celles qui servent de destination. Le rapport étudie les informations recueillies dans 53 pays africains et procède à une analyse des schémas et des racines profondes de la traite, ainsi que des pratiques et mesures efficaces prises au niveau national et régional. On a pu observer les phénomènes suivants: la traite est facilitée par l'effondrement du milieu protecteur de l'enfant suite à un conflit armé, des difficultés économiques ou des pratiques discriminatoires. Les attitudes and pratiques traditionelles, le mariage précoce et le fait que les naissances ne soient pas enregistrées rendent estrêmement difficile l'identification des victimes.
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JOURNAL ARTICLES BLOGS
Learning at a Distance: Children’s remote learning experiences in Italy during the COVID-19 pandemic
Publication Publication

Learning at a Distance: Children’s remote learning experiences in Italy during the COVID-19 pandemic

Italy was the first country in Europe to implement a nationwide lockdown. Children and their families lived in nearly complete isolation for almost two months. Students missed 65 days of school compared to an average of 27 missed days among high-income countries worldwide. This prolonged break is of concern, as even short breaks in schooling can cause significant loss of learning for children and lead to educational inequalities over time. At least 3 million Italian students may not have been reached by remote learning due to a lack of internet connectivity or devices at home. This report explores children’s and parents’ experiences of remote learning during the lockdown in Italy, drawing on data collected from 11 European countries (and coordinated by the European Commission’s Joint Research Center). It explores how children's access and use of digital technologies changed during the pandemic; highlights how existing inequalities might undermine remote learning opportunities, even among those with internet access; and provides insights on how to support children’s remote learning in the future. *** L'Italia e’ stata il primo paese in Europa ad aver applicato la misura del lockdown su tutto il territorio. I bambini e le loro famiglie hanno vissuto in quasi completo isolamento per circa due mesi. Gli studenti hanno perduto 65 giorni di scuola rispetto ad una media di 27 negli altri paesi ad alto reddito del mondo. Questa interruzione prolungata rappresenta motivo di preoccupazione, in quanto persino interruzioni piu’ brevi nella didattica possono causare significative perdite nel livello di istruzione dei ragazzi e portare col tempo a diseguaglianze educative. Almeno 3 milioni di studenti in Italia non sono stati coinvolti nella didattica a distanza a causa d una mancanza di connessione ad internet o di dispositivi adeguati a casa. Questo rapporto analizza l’esperienza della didattica a distanza di ragazzi e genitori in Italia durante il lockdown, sulla base dei dati raccolti in 11 paesi europei (e coordinati dal Centro comune di ricerca della Commissione Europea). Studia il cambiamento nell’accesso e nell’uso delle tecnologie digitali dei bambini e ragazzi durante la pandemia; mette in evidenza come le diseguaglianze esistenti possano diminuire le opportunità offerte dalla didattica a distanza, anche tra coloro che hanno accesso ad internet; e fornisce approfondimenti su come sostenere la didattica a distanza di bambini e ragazzi in futuro.
Time to Teach: Teacher attendance and time on task in Eastern and Southern Africa
Publication Publication

Time to Teach: Teacher attendance and time on task in Eastern and Southern Africa

There is a learning crisis. Fifty-three per cent of children in low- and middle-income countries are in ‘learning poverty’, i.e. they cannot read and understand a simple text by the end of primary school age. In sub- Saharan Africa, the learning poverty rate is 87 per cent overall, and ranges from 40 per cent to as high as 99 per cent in the 21 countries with available data. Teachers attending lessons and spending quality time on task is a critical prerequisite to learning. However, in sub-Saharan Africa, teacher absenteeism ranges from 15 to 45 per cent. Teacher absenteeism and reduced time on task wastes valuable financial resources, short-changes students and is one of the most cumbersome obstacles on the path toward the education Sustainable Development Goal and to the related vision of the new UNICEF education strategy: Every Child Learns. Whilst the stark numbers are available to study, and despite teacher absenteeism being a foremost challenge for education systems in Africa, the evidence base on how policies and practices can influence teacher attendance remains scant. Time to Teach (TTT) is a research initiative that looks at primary school teacher attendance in eight countries and territories in the Eastern and Southern Africa (ESA) region: the Comoros; Kenya; Rwanda, Puntland, State of Somalia; South Sudan; the United Republic of Tanzania, mainland; the United Republic of Tanzania, Zanzibar; and Uganda. Its primary objective is to identify factors affecting the various forms of teacher attendance, which include being at school, being punctual, being in the classroom, and teaching when in the classroom, and use this evidence to inform the design and implementation of teacher policies.

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